Topic 5.1 communities and ecosystems assessment statements
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Topic 5.1 communities and ecosystems assessment statements

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Topic 5.1 communities and ecosystems assessment statements

Topic 5.1 communities and ecosystems assessment statements

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  • 1. I-Shou International School IB Biology 5.1 Communities & Ecosystems Assessment Statements 5.1.1 Define species, habitat, population, community, ecosystem and ecology. Species Habitat Population Community Ecosystem Ecology 5.1.2 Distinguish between autotroph and heterotroph. Knowing the meaning of word parts & roots can help you to learn new vocabulary effectively. State the meaning of these word parts that are commonly found in many biology words. HeteroHomo-troph Auto-vore -philia / philic -phobia / phobic HydroLearn and practice many other useful biology word parts at: http://tinyurl.com/biowordparts Define the following terms: Autotroph Heterotroph Distinguish between autotroph and heterotroph. (Distinguish means to give the differences between two or more items) 1
  • 2. I-Shou International School IB Biology 5.1.3 Distinguish between consumers, detritivores and saprotrophs. Define the following types of organisms, state the food source of each, whether digestion takes place internally or externally, and give a named example of each. Consumers Detritivores Saprotrophs Definition Food Source Internal / external digestion Named example 5.1.4 Describe what is meant by a food chain, giving three examples, each with at least three linkages (four organisms). Define food chain: State what an arrow between two organisms means in a food chain. Complete the food chains with real-world examples between each linkage. 1) Marine food chain 2) Grassland food chain 3) Desert food chain 4) Tropical Rain Forest food chain 2
  • 3. I-Shou International School IB Biology 5.1.5 Describe what is meant by a food web. Define food web: Compare a food chain and a food web. (Compare means to give an account of the similarities and differences between two things, referring to both of them throughout). Food Chain  Food Web        State two advantages of using food webs over using food chains. 1) 2) Complete the food web below appropriately. 3
  • 4. I-Shou International School IB Biology 5.1.6 Define trophic level. Define trophic level: State why it is difficult to categorize organisms exactly at a certain trophic level. 5.1.7 Deduce the trophic level of organisms in a food chain and a food web. (Deduce means to reach a conclusion from the information given.) Look at the food chains you created on page 2 above. For each, state the primary producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, and tertiary consumer. Primary producer / Trophic level 1 Primary consumer / Trophic level 2 Secondary consumer / Trophic level 3 Tertiary consumer / Trophic level 4 Marine Grassland Desert Tropical Rain Forest What trend do you notice? Deduce the trophic level of each of the organisms in the food web you completed on p. 3. Primary Producers / Trophic Level 1 Primary Consumers / Trophic Level 2 Secondary Consumers / Trophic Level 3 Tertiary Consumers / Trophic Level 4 5.1.8 Construct a food web containing up to 10 organisms, using appropriate information. Draw and label a food web containing 10 organisms. Visit http://www.vtaide.com/png/foodchains.htm for extra practice. 4
  • 5. I-Shou International School IB Biology 5.1.9 State that light is the initial energy source for almost all communities. Light is the initial energy source for almost all communities. State in words the reactants and products for photosynthesis. State how energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next. Is energy transfer between trophic levels 100% efficient? A photoautotroph is an organism that gets its food by converting light energy into a form that it can use for its metabolic processes. Define chemoautotroph: 5.1.10 Explain the energy flow in a food chain. State the source of energy for a food chain. List four uses of energy by organisms. State the name of the term in which organisms control the release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP. Calculate values for 1, 2, & 3 below. 5
  • 6. I-Shou International School IB Biology 5.1.11 State that energy transformations are never 100% efficient. State the approximate percentage of energy that gets passed from one trophic level to the next. Where does the rest of the energy go? In a grassland ecosystem, the net production (energy from produced in photosynthesis – energy 2 used in cell respiration) is calculated at 100,000 kJ/m /yr. How much energy will be available to: Trophic level 2: Trophic level 3: 5.1.12 Explain reasons for the shape of pyramids of energy. What is a pyramid of energy? State which trophic level is at the base, and which is at the top of a pyramid of energy. Complete the following pyramid of energy by calculation the amount of energy available to each tropic level. Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers 2 Primary Producers 50,000 kJ/m /yr Explain reasons for the shape of pyramids of energy. 5.1.13 Explain that energy enters and leaves ecosystems, but nutrients must be recycled. Distinguish between flow and cycle. Flow Cycle 6
  • 7. I-Shou International School IB Biology List three nutrients that are recycled in ecosystems. 1. 2. 3. Explain why energy flows, but nutrients must be recycled in ecosystems. 5.1.14 State that saprotrophic bacteria and fungi (decomposers) recycle nutrients. State four of the important elements that living things are composed of. State where saprotrophs do their digestion. Where do saprotrophs get their nutrients? After digestion, saprotrophs ingest the nutrients they have digested. What happens to those nutrients? State two main types of saprotrophs. 1) 2) Outline how saprotrophs recycle nutrients to the rest of the ecosystem. 7