Generic end use energy efficiency options in electrical systems.
GENERIC END USE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPTIONS IN ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS D PAWAN KUMAR
Rescheduling loads/Staggering. Storage of products/in process material/process utilities like refrigeration Shedding of non essential loads Operation of captive /cogen power generation Reactive power compensation Adoption of MD control automation.
The generic areas for motor energy efficiency improvement include:- Ensuring rated voltage, frequency at input terminals. Avoidance of oversized motors and part load inefficiencies Optimum cable sizing and power factor improvement . Choice of solid state low loss starters and motor controllers Choice of state-of-the-art efficient variable speed system s such as V/F controls Good maintenance practices Avoidance of idle operations, interlocking adoption Avoidance of spurious bearings, consumables Ensuring efficiency and quality assurance in case of rewinding Harmonics filtration for THD control. Adoption of efficient gear couplings, belt drives
Generic energy efficiency improvement opportunities in refrigeration plants include:- Better upkeep and maintenance of all heat transfer surfaces, i.e., evaporator, condenser and cooling tower Avoidance of leakages/replenishment of refrigerant Thermal insulation upkeep/up gradation Avoidance of part load operations in compressor, chilled water pumps and cooling water pumps Maximizing operating evaporator temperature (compressor suction pressure) while satisfying process temperature requirements Minimizing condenser temperature (compressor discharge pressure) by improved heat rejection in condenser circuit Ensuring adequacy of chilled water, condenser water flows Avoidance of idle operations Avoidance of idle flows of chilled water through non-operational chillers Adopting two stage or three stage absorption systems for steam economy Adoption of eco-friendly VAR systems and non CFC, VCR systems in place of CFC based VCR systems existing (VAR - Vapor Absorption Refrigeration; VCR - Vapor Compressors Refrigeration)
The generic opportunities for pumping system energy efficiency improvement include:- Operation of the pump at a duty point close to the best efficiency point in terms of head and flow. In other words, choice of right pump for given duty. Minimum restrictions in suction path and providing maximum possible suction head for pump. Minimum restrictions in discharge path, especially throttling controls. Good maintenance practices to avoid recirculation effects and proper condition of impellers (wear-out, pitting, etc). Ensuring good dynamic balancing of shaft and fit condition of bearings Ensuring correct voltage supply. Operating at minimum possible discharge pressure, with respect to end use requirements. Rationalizing the pipe size for optimum pressure drops Minimizing losses in bends/valves Good housekeeping practices Replacement option by high efficiency pumps Need based option of variable speed drives for efficient capacity control
The generic opportunities for energy efficiency improvement in fans and fan systems include:- Operation of fan at close to best efficiency duty point. Minimum restrictions in suction path (no dampers) Minimum restrictions in discharge path (no dampers) Operation at rational head and flow, vis-à-vis process requirements. Ensuring correct voltage and frequency at supply Good maintenance practices Good housekeeping practices Minimizing in leak air / gas Minimizing out leak air / gas Rationalizing duct size for minimizing pressure drops Minimizing sharp bends Replacement options by higher efficiency fans Need based option of variable speed drives if capacity control is required for end use Minimizing slippage losses in belts
Generic energy efficiency opportunities in air compressors and system include;- Use of compressed air at optimum pressure, minimization of line pressure drops Avoiding unload operations Good practices in maintenance and housekeeping Leakage avoidance. Replacement by high efficiency compressors Suction air cooling Improving heat transfer in inter and after coolers Replacing pneumatic tools by electric tools to save on conversion efficiency Adopting energy efficient drying systems, air ambiators, filters, nozzles.
The generic energy audit and efficiency improvement opportunities in industrial lighting include: Choice of most energy efficient lighting devices Right positioning of the lighting devices Use of lights only when needed Use of energy efficient starters Application of appropriate controllers Good housekeeping / maintenance practices (cleanliness of surfaces) Ensuring correct voltage and frequency of input supply