GENERIC END USE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPTIONS IN ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS                                      D PAWAN KUMAR
   Rescheduling loads/Staggering.   Storage of products/in process    material/process utilities like refrigeration   S...
   The generic areas for motor energy efficiency    improvement include:-       Ensuring rated voltage, frequency at inp...
   Generic energy efficiency improvement opportunities in refrigeration    plants include:-       Better upkeep and main...
   The generic opportunities for pumping system energy efficiency improvement    include:-      Operation of the pump at...
   The generic opportunities for energy efficiency improvement in    fans and fan systems include:-       Operation of f...
   Generic energy efficiency opportunities in    air compressors and system include;-       Use of compressed air at opt...
   The generic energy audit and efficiency    improvement opportunities in industrial lighting    include:       Choice ...
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Generic end use energy efficiency options in electrical systems.

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Generic end use energy efficiency options in electrical systems.

  1. 1. GENERIC END USE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPTIONS IN ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS D PAWAN KUMAR
  2. 2.  Rescheduling loads/Staggering. Storage of products/in process material/process utilities like refrigeration Shedding of non essential loads Operation of captive /cogen power generation Reactive power compensation Adoption of MD control automation.
  3. 3.  The generic areas for motor energy efficiency improvement include:-  Ensuring rated voltage, frequency at input terminals.  Avoidance of oversized motors and part load inefficiencies  Optimum cable sizing and power factor improvement .  Choice of solid state low loss starters and motor controllers  Choice of state-of-the-art efficient variable speed system s such as V/F controls  Good maintenance practices  Avoidance of idle operations, interlocking adoption  Avoidance of spurious bearings, consumables  Ensuring efficiency and quality assurance in case of rewinding  Harmonics filtration for THD control.  Adoption of efficient gear couplings, belt drives
  4. 4.  Generic energy efficiency improvement opportunities in refrigeration plants include:-  Better upkeep and maintenance of all heat transfer surfaces, i.e., evaporator, condenser and cooling tower  Avoidance of leakages/replenishment of refrigerant  Thermal insulation upkeep/up gradation  Avoidance of part load operations in compressor, chilled water pumps and cooling water pumps  Maximizing operating evaporator temperature (compressor suction pressure) while satisfying process temperature requirements  Minimizing condenser temperature (compressor discharge pressure) by improved heat rejection in condenser circuit  Ensuring adequacy of chilled water, condenser water flows  Avoidance of idle operations  Avoidance of idle flows of chilled water through non-operational chillers  Adopting two stage or three stage absorption systems for steam economy Adoption of eco-friendly VAR systems and non CFC, VCR systems in place of CFC based VCR systems existing (VAR - Vapor Absorption Refrigeration; VCR - Vapor Compressors Refrigeration)
  5. 5.  The generic opportunities for pumping system energy efficiency improvement include:-  Operation of the pump at a duty point close to the best efficiency point in terms of head and flow. In other words, choice of right pump for given duty.  Minimum restrictions in suction path and providing maximum possible suction head for pump.  Minimum restrictions in discharge path, especially throttling controls.  Good maintenance practices to avoid recirculation effects and proper condition of impellers (wear-out, pitting, etc).  Ensuring good dynamic balancing of shaft and fit condition of bearings  Ensuring correct voltage supply.  Operating at minimum possible discharge pressure, with respect to end use requirements.  Rationalizing the pipe size for optimum pressure drops  Minimizing losses in bends/valves  Good housekeeping practices  Replacement option by high efficiency pumps  Need based option of variable speed drives for efficient capacity control
  6. 6.  The generic opportunities for energy efficiency improvement in fans and fan systems include:-  Operation of fan at close to best efficiency duty point.  Minimum restrictions in suction path (no dampers)  Minimum restrictions in discharge path (no dampers)  Operation at rational head and flow, vis-à-vis process requirements.  Ensuring correct voltage and frequency at supply  Good maintenance practices  Good housekeeping practices  Minimizing in leak air / gas  Minimizing out leak air / gas  Rationalizing duct size for minimizing pressure drops  Minimizing sharp bends  Replacement options by higher efficiency fans  Need based option of variable speed drives if capacity control is required for end use  Minimizing slippage losses in belts
  7. 7.  Generic energy efficiency opportunities in air compressors and system include;-  Use of compressed air at optimum pressure, minimization of line pressure drops  Avoiding unload operations  Good practices in maintenance and housekeeping  Leakage avoidance.  Replacement by high efficiency compressors  Suction air cooling  Improving heat transfer in inter and after coolers  Replacing pneumatic tools by electric tools to save on conversion efficiency  Adopting energy efficient drying systems, air ambiators, filters, nozzles.
  8. 8.  The generic energy audit and efficiency improvement opportunities in industrial lighting include:  Choice of most energy efficient lighting devices  Right positioning of the lighting devices  Use of lights only when needed  Use of energy efficient starters  Application of appropriate controllers  Good housekeeping / maintenance practices (cleanliness of surfaces)  Ensuring correct voltage and frequency of input supply

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