Organelles from cells

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  • 1. Organelles from Cells Group 3
  • 2. PROKARYOTIC ORGANELLES
  • 3. Plasma (cell) Membrane
    • Encloses cytoplasm of cell
    • Basically controls what can go and out of the cell (ex. Functions like a bouncer at a club).
    • Uses active and passive transport
  • 4. Nucleoid Region
    • Area where DNA is located
    • Has nuclear material without actually having a nuclear membrane
    • Prokaryotic genome is a circular double-stranded DNA
  • 5. Ribosomes
    • Assembles proteins with information from DNA
  • 6. Cell Wall
    • Rigid outer layer that surrounds the cell membrane
    • It protects the cell and maintains its shape
  • 7. Flagella
    • Longer projections that help with locomotion of the cell
  • 8. Chloroplast
    • A plastid that contains chlorophyll
    • Chlorophyll is what makes the leaves and plants green
  • 9. Pili and Fimbriae
    • Numerous short projections that help with the attachment of support
  • 10. Capsule and Cytoplasm
    • The capsule is the sticky outer layer over the cell wall; it keeps the cell together
    • The cytoplasm is just the cytosol including all the organelles except the nucleus
  • 11. EUKARYOTIC ORGANELLES
  • 12. Mitochondria
    • Its primary function is to generate energy in the form of ATP
    • It also stores calcium for cell signaling activities; generates heat; mediates cell growth and death
  • 13. Nucleus, Nucleolus and Nuclear Envelope
    • The nucleus is the cell’s genetic control center-> consists of a double membrane, nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, chromatin, nucleolus, and nucleoplasm
  • 14. Chromatin
    • It’s a stainable substance of the cell nucleus consisting of DNA, RNA, and various proteins that form chromosomes during cell division
  • 15. Endoplasmic Reticulum-> Rough & Smooth
    • Single continuous membrane with nuclear envelope -> serves as a highway for the cell
    • Rough ER: covered with ribosomes, major site of protein synthesis
    • Smooth ER: lacks ribosomes; it transports, synthesizes lypids, detoxifies, and stores calcium ions
  • 16. Golgi Apparatus
    • Handles export and import of material for the cell
    • It stores, packages, sorts and modifies proteins before they are exported
    • Considered the UPS of the cell
  • 17. Centrioles
    • Cellular structure that is composed of nine triplet microtubles and forms the asters during mitosis
    • Divides in a perpendicular from during mitosis
  • 18. Microtubles
    • They are conveyer belts inside the cells
    • They move vesicles, granules, organelles like mitochondria, and chromosomes through a special attachment of proteins
  • 19. Vacuoles
    • Very large in size
    • Work with lysosomes for digestion
    • Stores food and water as well as wastes and excess water
  • 20. Microfilaments
    • It gives shape to the cell and are involved in the constriction of cytoplasm during divisions in animal cells
  • 21. Peroxisome
    • Breakdown lipids
    • Detoxifies alcohols and hydrogen peroxide
  • 22. Lysosome
    • Contain digestive enzymes
    • Breakdown cell’s food and wastes