The Courts and Judicial Branch<br />
Question?<br />What is the Supreme Court?<br />
Article III of the Constitution<br />Specifically creates only the Supreme Court<br />Gives Congress the power to create l...
Different courts<br />Supreme Court<br />Lower federal courts <br />State courts<br />State and Federal courts create a du...
Define: Jurisdiction<br /><ul><li>The right to interpret and apply the law; a courts range of authority. </li></li></ul><l...
Define: Exclusive Jurisdiction<br />The authority of the federal courts alone to hear and rule in certain cases<br />Defin...
Define: Dual Sovereignty<br />5th Amendment of the Constitution<br />Prohibits double jeopardy<br />Same action violates b...
Define: Judicial review<br />The power of the courts to establish the constitutionality of national, state, or local acts ...
Constitutional Courts<br />The District Court <br />The Courts of Appeal <br />The Courts of International Trade<br />
The District Courts<br />94 district courts<br />Each district court has 2 to 28 judges<br />All courts of original jurisd...
Courts of Appeals <br />13 Courts of appeal <br />12 judicial circuits <br />Never original jurisdiction <br />3 judges on...
The Court of international trade<br />Civil cases regarding tariffs and trade<br />Based in New York City<br />Cases are a...
Supreme Court<br />The Federal Court System<br />12 Courts of Appeals<br />Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit<br />C...
Legislative Courts<br />Have a narrow scope<br />Fewer cases <br />Article I, Section 8<br />The Court of Military Appeal ...
Federal Judges: Selection Criteria<br />The President nominates each federal judge and the senate approves them <br />1251...
Selection Process<br />The Presidents choice <br />Congress<br />Agencies within the Executive Departments <br />Sitting j...
The Supreme Court<br />
The Supreme Court<br />9 Supreme Court Justices <br />Judiciary Act of 1789<br />Originally there were 6<br />Duties<br />...
Chief Justice<br />Highest-ranking justice in the “land”<br />Presides over sessions and conferences<br />If he/she agrees...
The Supreme Court at Work<br />Choosing The Case <br />Hearing the Case<br />Deciding the Case<br />Implementing Decisions...
Choosing the Case<br />7,738 Case Submitted in the 2008-2009 term <br />First Monday in October<br />The justices sort thr...
Three Important Factors<br />Whether the legal question has bee decided differently by two lower-courts.<br />If a lower-c...
Choosing the Case (continued)<br />After reading through all of the cases they vote one by one out loud<br />Starting with...
Hearing the Cases<br />Public hearings<br />Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday<br />Listen to lawyers present each side of 2 t...
Deciding the Cases<br />Justices meet privately after the public hearing<br />The chief justice presides<br />Stating the ...
Deciding the Cases (Continued)<br />Define Dissenting Opinion: <br />A Supreme Court opinion by one or more justices in th...
Implementing Decisions<br />United States v. Virginia (1996)<br />Citadel<br />Brown v. Topeka (1954)<br />
Policy-Making Power of the Supreme Court<br />
Precedents<br />stare decisis<br />“Let the decision stand”<br />Previous rulings on similar cases <br />Can be overturned...
Judicial Activism vs. Judicial Restraint<br />Define Judicial Activism:<br />The belief that the Supreme Court justices sh...
Checks on Judicial Power<br />Limited Powers of enforcement <br />Congress<br />Confirms all presidential nominees to fede...
The End<br />For today…<br />
American Government: A Complete Coursebook - Chapter 13
American Government: A Complete Coursebook - Chapter 13
American Government: A Complete Coursebook - Chapter 13
American Government: A Complete Coursebook - Chapter 13
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American Government: A Complete Coursebook - Chapter 13

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American Government: A Complete Coursebook - Chapter 13

  1. 1. The Courts and Judicial Branch<br />
  2. 2. Question?<br />What is the Supreme Court?<br />
  3. 3. Article III of the Constitution<br />Specifically creates only the Supreme Court<br />Gives Congress the power to create lower federal courts or “inferior courts”<br />Provides guidelines of the terms of office and compensation of federal judges.<br />Justices serve for the rest of their life or as long as they practice “good behavior.”<br />
  4. 4. Different courts<br />Supreme Court<br />Lower federal courts <br />State courts<br />State and Federal courts create a dual court system. <br />
  5. 5. Define: Jurisdiction<br /><ul><li>The right to interpret and apply the law; a courts range of authority. </li></li></ul><li>According to Article III, Section 2<br />Federal courts jurisdiction allows them to try cases involving:<br />Ambassadors or other representative of foreign governments<br />Maritime law (the law of the sea)<br />Bankruptcy cases<br />Two or more state governments <br />Citizens of different states <br />A state and a citizen of a different or foreign country<br />Citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states <br />U.S. laws and treaties, or the interpretation of the Constitution<br />
  6. 6. Define: Exclusive Jurisdiction<br />The authority of the federal courts alone to hear and rule in certain cases<br />Define: Concurrent Jurisdiction<br /><ul><li>The authority to hear cases shared by federal and state courts</li></li></ul><li>Which Court?<br />Federal criminal law is broken but not a state one?<br />Federal court<br />A dispute between two state governments? <br />The Supreme Court<br />Cases involving the interpretation of an act of Congress?<br />Federal court<br />Disputes involving citizens of different states?<br />Either state or federal court<br />Crime that breaks both state and federal law?<br />Either state or federal court<br />
  7. 7. Define: Dual Sovereignty<br />5th Amendment of the Constitution<br />Prohibits double jeopardy<br />Same action violates both state and federal law<br />Define: Original Jurisdiction<br /><ul><li>The court’s authority to hear and decide a case for the first time. </li></ul>Define: Appellate Jurisdiction <br /><ul><li>The court’s authority to hear cases on appeal. </li></li></ul><li>Types of Law<br />Both federal and state courts deal with civil law, criminal law, and constitutional law. <br />Define: Civil Law<br />The type of law dealing with the rights and relationships of private citizens. <br />Define: Criminal Law<br />The type of law dealing with crimes and providing for their punishment.<br />Define: Constitutional Law<br />The type of law relating to the interpretation of the Constitution. <br />
  8. 8. Define: Judicial review<br />The power of the courts to establish the constitutionality of national, state, or local acts of government. <br />Define: Strict Constructionist<br /><ul><li>The view that judges ought to base their decisions on a narrow interpretation of the language of the Constitution</li></ul>Define: Loose Constructionist<br /><ul><li>The view that judges have considerable freedom in interpreting the constitution </li></li></ul><li>How did we get it?<br />John Marshall served from 1801 to 1835<br />The debate!<br />Thomas Jefferson – Strict <br />Alexander Hamilton – Loose <br />Marbury v. Madison (1803)<br />Marshall sided with the Loose Constitutional law<br />Marshall: “An act of the legislature repugnant to the Constitution is void” and “it is emphatically the province of the judicial department to say what the law is”<br />
  9. 9. Constitutional Courts<br />The District Court <br />The Courts of Appeal <br />The Courts of International Trade<br />
  10. 10. The District Courts<br />94 district courts<br />Each district court has 2 to 28 judges<br />All courts of original jurisdiction <br />No Appeals<br />Except: they may take appeals from state courts if constitutional questions are involved <br />Hear both criminal and civil cases <br />
  11. 11. Courts of Appeals <br />13 Courts of appeal <br />12 judicial circuits <br />Never original jurisdiction <br />3 judges on most case<br />More on big cases <br />Majority vote <br />1 Court of appeals for the Federal Circuit <br />Hears cases from the legislative courts <br />And some cases from district courts <br />Cases can then be taken to the Supreme Court<br />
  12. 12. The Court of international trade<br />Civil cases regarding tariffs and trade<br />Based in New York City<br />Cases are also heard in other major port cities<br />
  13. 13. Supreme Court<br />The Federal Court System<br />12 Courts of Appeals<br />Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit<br />Court of Military Appeals<br />Tax Court<br />Court of International Trade<br />Court of Military Review<br />Federal Regulatory Agencies<br />Claims Court<br />94 District Courts<br />Court of Veterans Appeals<br />
  14. 14. Legislative Courts<br />Have a narrow scope<br />Fewer cases <br />Article I, Section 8<br />The Court of Military Appeal <br />The United States Claim Court<br />The Courts of the District of Columbia<br />The Territorial Courts<br />The Courts of Veterans Appeals<br />The United States Tax Court<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Federal Judges: Selection Criteria<br />The President nominates each federal judge and the senate approves them <br />1251 federal judges<br />Experience and Background <br />Party Affiliation <br />Political Ideology<br />Race and Gender<br />Senatorial Courtesy<br />
  17. 17. Selection Process<br />The Presidents choice <br />Congress<br />Agencies within the Executive Departments <br />Sitting judges and justices<br />Prospective nominees<br />The American Bar Association <br />Senate Confirmation<br />Selection Gridlock<br />
  18. 18. The Supreme Court<br />
  19. 19. The Supreme Court<br />9 Supreme Court Justices <br />Judiciary Act of 1789<br />Originally there were 6<br />Duties<br />Deciding which cases to hear<br />Deciding the case itself <br />Dealing with request for special legal actions <br />Other additional duties (such as serving on special commissions)<br />
  20. 20. Chief Justice<br />Highest-ranking justice in the “land”<br />Presides over sessions and conferences<br />If he/she agrees with the majority decision, he/she usually writes the majority opinion<br />Supervises the general admission of the federal court system<br />
  21. 21.
  22. 22. The Supreme Court at Work<br />Choosing The Case <br />Hearing the Case<br />Deciding the Case<br />Implementing Decisions<br />
  23. 23. Choosing the Case<br />7,738 Case Submitted in the 2008-2009 term <br />First Monday in October<br />The justices sort through the petitions <br />The Supreme Court does not have to hear any appeals that they do not want to consider. <br />About 90% come from the writ of certiorari<br />Case that the lower courts “mishandled”<br />They never explain why the pic the case they do<br />
  24. 24. Three Important Factors<br />Whether the legal question has bee decided differently by two lower-courts.<br />If a lower-court decision conflicts with an existing Supreme Court ruling.<br />If the issue could have significance beyond the two parties in the case. <br />
  25. 25. Choosing the Case (continued)<br />After reading through all of the cases they vote one by one out loud<br />Starting with the chief justice and moving down in seniority<br />If a minimum of 4 justices vote to accept it then they will hear that case<br />The most junior justice takes notes on the decisions. <br />
  26. 26. Hearing the Cases<br />Public hearings<br />Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday<br />Listen to lawyers present each side of 2 to 3 cases a day<br />Some cases are decided without an oral argument<br />Start in October and end in June<br />Cases do not carry over to the next session <br />Before case is heard in the open court:<br />Justices receive briefs from lawyers on both sides who present legal augments, historical material and related previous court decisions <br />Justices often receive amicus curiae briefs from individuals, interest groups, or government agencies<br />
  27. 27. Deciding the Cases<br />Justices meet privately after the public hearing<br />The chief justice presides<br />Stating the facts of the case<br />Making suggestions for deciding the case<br />Each justice give his/her views and conclusions<br />About 1/3 of the decisions are unanimous <br />The rest are split<br />Define: Majority Opinion:<br />The view of the Supreme Court justices who agree with a particular ruling<br />
  28. 28. Deciding the Cases (Continued)<br />Define Dissenting Opinion: <br />A Supreme Court opinion by one or more justices in the minority who oppose the ruling<br />Define Concurring Opinion:<br />A Supreme Court opinion by one or more justices who agree with the majority’s conclusion but wish to offer differing reasons. <br />All decisions must be made by June<br />
  29. 29. Implementing Decisions<br />United States v. Virginia (1996)<br />Citadel<br />Brown v. Topeka (1954)<br />
  30. 30. Policy-Making Power of the Supreme Court<br />
  31. 31. Precedents<br />stare decisis<br />“Let the decision stand”<br />Previous rulings on similar cases <br />Can be overturned<br />
  32. 32. Judicial Activism vs. Judicial Restraint<br />Define Judicial Activism:<br />The belief that the Supreme Court justices should actively make policy and sometimes redefine the Constitution.<br />Define Judicial Restraint:<br />The belief that Supreme Court justices should not actively try to shape social political issues or redefine the Constitution. <br />
  33. 33. Checks on Judicial Power<br />Limited Powers of enforcement <br />Congress<br />Confirms all presidential nominees to federal judgeships<br />Impeach judges and justices<br />Alter the organization of the federal courts systems (other than the Supreme court.<br />Ament the constitution <br />The President<br />Public Opinion<br />
  34. 34. The End<br />For today…<br />

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