The Experience of Gay,
Lesbian, Bisexual and
Theoretical Models of GLBT students.
Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Identity Development
By: Evans, N. J.
Multicultural Issues in Student Affairs EDU 704
By: Chris jones
Dr. Nancy J Evans: Professor in Higher Education at Iowa
* Doctorate – Missouri – Columbia Univ. (Counseling
* Disciplines – LGBT Issues, Student Theory, Social
According to Brown (1995) – Initial Studies focused on
“Cause” to find a “Cure” for Homosexuality.
Essentialist – Argument was that Homosexuality has
always been here throughout man’s history.
Constructionist – Argue that Homosexuality is socially
constructed and changes over time.
Cass’s Theory Model (HID) 1979 – The most used and the
D’Augelli Theory Model (HID) 1994 – Suggest that (HID)
is a process until adulthood.
Cass’s Model of
* Stage 1: Confusion – Individuals become aware
and starts to have thoughts and feelings.
* Stage 2: Comparison – The acceptance stage for
an individual that they might be gay.
* Stage 3: Tolerance – Individuals acknowledged
they are gay and seek help from others.
Cass’s Identity Stages
* Stage 4: Identity Acceptance – Connect with other
people like themselves. Depending on there comfort
level, an individual may choose to go public or stay in
* Stage 5: Identity Pride – Individuals focus on (GLB)
Issues. Often Minimize contact with heterosexuals.
* Stage 6: Identity Synthesis – Homosexuals and
Heterosexuals worlds join together and focus on
personal qualities and not sexual identity.
* (6) – Interactive Processes
1. Exiting Heterosexuals – Recognizing one’s feelings
2. Developing a Personal (GLB) Identity Status
3. Developing a Social Identity – Networking with others
4. Becoming an (GLB) Offspring – Disclosing /
Confirming to others i.e. (parents)
5. Developing (GLB) Intimacy – Often experienced in
6. Entering a (GLB) Community – Taking Action within
Theorist view Bisexualism: A stage between
heterosexual and being gay (Fox 1995)
(3) Stages of Bisexualism – Confusion, Finding, Labeling
Bisexuals – Not accepted by gays or heterosexuals
Bisexuals – Struggle with being gay or straight.
Bisexual – Women have an easier time with their sexual
orientation than men.
* Not many attempts have been made to validate
Cass’s Model – accepted because she has presented
instruments to prove her work.
* Further Research must be done in the area of
psychological and socialization differences between gay
men and women.
Transgender issues are starting to be discussed.