The Experience of Gay,
Lesbian, Bisexual and
Transgender Students
Theoretical Models of GLBT students.
Gay, Lesbian, and B...
Theorist
Dr. Nancy J Evans: Professor in Higher Education at Iowa
State University.
* Doctorate – Missouri – Columbia Univ...
Historical Overview
According to Brown (1995) – Initial Studies focused on
“Cause” to find a “Cure” for Homosexuality.
Ess...
Cass’s Model of
Homosexuality
Identity Formation
* Stage 1: Confusion – Individuals become aware
and starts to have though...
Cass’s Identity Stages
Continued
* Stage 4: Identity Acceptance – Connect with other
people like themselves. Depending on ...
D’Augelli’s Identity
Development Process
* (6) – Interactive Processes
1. Exiting Heterosexuals – Recognizing one’s feelin...
D’Augelli’s Process
Continued
5. Developing (GLB) Intimacy – Often experienced in
college.
6. Entering a (GLB) Community –...
Bisexual Identity
Development
Theorist view Bisexualism: A stage between
heterosexual and being gay (Fox 1995)
(3) Stages ...
Future Direction
* Not many attempts have been made to validate
theories.
Cass’s Model – accepted because she has presente...
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GLB Identity Development

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GLB Identity Development

  1. 1. The Experience of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Students Theoretical Models of GLBT students. Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Identity Development By: Evans, N. J. Multicultural Issues in Student Affairs EDU 704 By: Chris jones
  2. 2. Theorist Dr. Nancy J Evans: Professor in Higher Education at Iowa State University. * Doctorate – Missouri – Columbia Univ. (Counseling Psychology) * Disciplines – LGBT Issues, Student Theory, Social Justice
  3. 3. Historical Overview According to Brown (1995) – Initial Studies focused on “Cause” to find a “Cure” for Homosexuality. Essentialist – Argument was that Homosexuality has always been here throughout man’s history. Constructionist – Argue that Homosexuality is socially constructed and changes over time. Cass’s Theory Model (HID) 1979 – The most used and the most complex. D’Augelli Theory Model (HID) 1994 – Suggest that (HID) is a process until adulthood.
  4. 4. Cass’s Model of Homosexuality Identity Formation * Stage 1: Confusion – Individuals become aware and starts to have thoughts and feelings. * Stage 2: Comparison – The acceptance stage for an individual that they might be gay. * Stage 3: Tolerance – Individuals acknowledged they are gay and seek help from others.
  5. 5. Cass’s Identity Stages Continued * Stage 4: Identity Acceptance – Connect with other people like themselves. Depending on there comfort level, an individual may choose to go public or stay in seclusion. * Stage 5: Identity Pride – Individuals focus on (GLB) Issues. Often Minimize contact with heterosexuals. * Stage 6: Identity Synthesis – Homosexuals and Heterosexuals worlds join together and focus on personal qualities and not sexual identity.
  6. 6. D’Augelli’s Identity Development Process * (6) – Interactive Processes 1. Exiting Heterosexuals – Recognizing one’s feelings 2. Developing a Personal (GLB) Identity Status 3. Developing a Social Identity – Networking with others 4. Becoming an (GLB) Offspring – Disclosing / Confirming to others i.e. (parents)
  7. 7. D’Augelli’s Process Continued 5. Developing (GLB) Intimacy – Often experienced in college. 6. Entering a (GLB) Community – Taking Action within society.
  8. 8. Bisexual Identity Development Theorist view Bisexualism: A stage between heterosexual and being gay (Fox 1995) (3) Stages of Bisexualism – Confusion, Finding, Labeling Bisexuals – Not accepted by gays or heterosexuals Bisexuals – Struggle with being gay or straight. Bisexual – Women have an easier time with their sexual orientation than men.
  9. 9. Future Direction * Not many attempts have been made to validate theories. Cass’s Model – accepted because she has presented instruments to prove her work. * Further Research must be done in the area of psychological and socialization differences between gay men and women. Transgender issues are starting to be discussed.

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