Mass Media and Society Chapter 9: Television

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Mass Media and Society Chapter 9: Television

  1. 1. Mass Media and Society Chapter 9: Television Feb. 19, 2014
  2. 2. Chapter 9: Television • • • • Origins of television Television and culture Issues and trends Influence of new technologies
  3. 3. Origins of TV • 1939: NBC first broadcasts regularly • 1950s: First Golden Age of Television • 1945: 10,000 sets; 1950: 6 million; 1960: 60 million
  4. 4. Rise of cable TV • By 1962, 800 systems with 850,000 subscribers • Pay service HBO founded in 1972 • Deregulation provided by 1984 cable act allows expansion; 53 million households by end of ’80s
  5. 5. Digital and HD • U.S. switches from analog to digital fully in 2009 • High-Definition Television popularized; by 2010, nearly half of U.S. audience watch in HD • HD viewers watch 3% more prime time (7-11 p.m.)
  6. 6. Television and culture • Domestic comedy in 1950s: “Leave it to Beaver” etc. depict generic idealized families • Leave out minorities; don’t address social issues; focus on middle-class whites exclusively
  7. 7. 1960s and 1970s • 1960s: TV news brings reality home (Cronkite) • Sitcoms popularized (“Bewitched,” “Beverly Hillbillies”) • 1970s: Sketch comedy (“SNL”); programming diversifies somewhat
  8. 8. TV in the 1980s • Some call early ’80s Second Golden Age (scripted dramas like “Hill Street Blues”) • CNN, ESPN, MTV “Cosby Show,” “Family Ties” • BET launches in 1980 • Content more violent and more sex-related
  9. 9. 1990s and 2000s • More specialized cable channels • Programming migrates online (Netflix, Hulu, YouTube) • Conversation increasingly dominated by those outlets, HBO, ESPN, MTV
  10. 10. Netflix disrupts • Netflix pays to license content from networks: streaming and rentals • Subscriptions: 31 million in U.S. (HBO: 28 million) • Getting into original programming • Interconnected with networks, cable
  11. 11. Hulu and YouTube • Hulu: streaming site created by NBC, Fox, ABC; 5 million subscribers • YouTube: owned by Google • YouTube is busiest “TV platform”: 6 billion hours of video a month watched by 1 billion unique visitors
  12. 12. TV and culture • TV news comes to forefront during crisis (9/11) • Partisan news networks influential • Social issues (“Ellen”) • Reality television
  13. 13. Industry trends • Corporate sponsorship • Networks rise and fall • Fox rises to rival big 3 in early 1990s (ABC, NBC, CBS) • Big four share of market falls from 43% in 1994 to 27% in 2009
  14. 14. Industry trends • Cable continues to eat into network market share • Narrowcasting: Channels focus on specific audiences (sports, news, fashion, hobbies) • Cable pushes the envelope on explicit content; so do networks
  15. 15. New technology • Satellite TV: DirecTV vs. Dish Network; both compete with cable • DVRs popularized • Internet: Streaming content competes with TV • VOD (video on demand) becomes more common • Interactive TV
  16. 16. Revenue sources • Networks: advertising, licensing content • Netflix and HBO/Showtime: subscriptions (HBO/Showtime license content) • Cable companies: subscriptions to cable TV, broadband Internet
  17. 17. Revenue sources • Cable networks: Advertising, carriage fees (charging cable companies to broadcast network content) • YouTube: Advertising • Hulu: Subscriptions, advertising, licensing content
  18. 18. Revenue and trends • Local TV affiliates: local advertising, charging cable operators • Ownership trend in cable is toward consolidation • Cable companies offer single “pipe” for TV, Internet, phone
  19. 19. Third Golden Age • Complex, years-long dramas (“Sopranos,” “The Wire,” “Mad Men,” “Breaking Bad”) • Starting mid-1990s • Anti-hero protagonists • Culturally influential • Freedom of cable/pay TV
  20. 20. Major threats to TV • Advertising declining: DVR users skip ads; viewers use ad-free services more • Viewers streaming more video, using devices such as game consoles; giving up cable subscriptions

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