Volume 4 Something ToSettle The Nerves!! (An in depth look into the nervous system through recipes!) Marisa, Courtney, Nathan, Lindsey, Victoria, & Braxten
In this section: • Endocrine System • Hormones• Organs and Glands of the Endocrine System • Tables
Recipe: Endocrine System(25 & 26) Ingredients: 1. How do the nervous and endocrine systems work together? 2. What is the method in which the endocrine system undergoes its functions? DIRECTIONS: 1. The endocrine system is responsible for releasing and regulating hormones; the nervous system sends signals to release hormones and chemical messengers known as neurotransmitters. The master gland is known as the pituitary gland which is known to make these hormones and control other endocrine glands; it is located at the base of the brain. (maintain stability of internal environment.) 2. The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones and chemicals that regulate the body. Hormones are chemical messengers that transfer information from one set of cells to another. The major glands in this system are the hypothalamus: located beneath the thalamus – regulates satiety, metabolism and body temperature. Next is the pituitary gland – “the master gland” located at the base of the brain; it produces hormones and controls other glands in the endocrine system. Its mainly known to secrete growth hormones – located in the neck. It regulates the body’s metabolism and helps with bone growth and development, blood pressure, heart rate and digestion. Adrenal gland – located at the top of each kidney. It regulates metabolism, immune system and help cope with stress. Pineal body – located at the middle of the brain – secretes a hormone called melatonin which helps aid in sleep. Reproductive glands – sex hormones development of female and male growth and reproductive functions.
Recipe: Hormones Ingredients:1. Classify by functions2. Classify by structure3. Describe Steroid Hormones4. Describe Nonsteriod Hormones5. How do Hormones work? 1. Describe Lock and Key 2. What happens when Hormones combine?
DIRECTIONS:1. Hormone- Hormone molecules can be classified in various useful ways. When classified bygeneral function, hormones can be identified as tropic hormones, which are hormones that targetother endocrine glands and stimulate their growth and secretion. Sex hormones (hormones thattarget reproductive tissues), anabolic hormones (hormones that stimulate anabolism in theirtarget cells), and many other functional names. In the endocrine system, secreting cells sendhormone molecules by way of bloodstream to signal specific target cells throughout the body.3. All of many hormones secreted by endocrine tissues can be classified simply as steroid or non-steroid. Steroid hormone molecules are manufactured by endocrine cells from cholesterol, andimportant type of lipid in the human body. 2. (24)
DIRECTIONS:4. Nonsteroid hormones (water soluble) do not enter the cell but bind to plasmamembrane receptors, generating a chemical signal (second messenger) inside thetarget cell. Five different second messenger chemicals, including cyclic AMP have beenidentified. Second messengers activate other intracellular chemicals to produce thetarget cell response.5. Hormones produce a variety of responses throughout the body and may be groupedaccording to their actions, although there is overlap between the groups.5.1 The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete chemical messages wecall hormones. These signals are passed through the blood to arrive at a target organ,which has cells possessing the appropriate receptor, they will not connect unless theyhave the correct receptor, kind of like a lock and key. (22)5. 2 First there are the metabolic hormones which control the digestion of food, itsstorage and use. Second are the hormones which regulate the composition of theblood, and hence of all the body fluids. Next are the stress hormones, primarilyadrenaline and noradrenaline, which are under the control the autonomic nervoussystem. The final major group includes those hormones that control other endocrinesystems, and therefore interact with the other groups. (23)
(1) Recipe: Organs and Glands of the Endocrine System Ingredients: 1. Prostaglandins 7. Pancreatic Islet 2. Pituitary Gland 8. Gonads 3. Pineal Gland 9. Placenta 4. Thyroid Gland 10. Thymus 5. Parathyroid gland 11. Gastric and intestinal mucosa 6. Adrenal Gland 12. Heart DIRECTIONS: 1. Group of naturally occurring lipid-based substances that act in a hormone like way to affect many body functions, including vasodilation, uterine smooth muscle contraction, and the inflammatory response. Hormones: 16 different prostaglandins falling into 9 structural classes – prostaglandins A-I. 2. Neuroendocrine gland located near base of the brain that has numerous and important regulatory functions; also called the hypophysis. Consists of two separate glands (adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis.)
(1)DIRECTIONS:3. Endocrine gland located in the diencephalon and thought to be involved withregulating the body’s biological clock; produces melatonin.4. Hormone that accelerates catabolism of glucose. Hormones: Triiodothyronine,Tertaiodothyronine, and Calcitonin.5. Endocrine gland located in the neck on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland;secretes parathyroid hormone. Hormones: Parathyroid Hormone.6. Endocrine gland that rests on the top of each kidney; made up of cortex andmedulla regions. Hormones: Aldosterone, Cortisol, Adrenal Androgens, AdrenalEstrogens, Epinephrine, and Norepinephrine.7. Endocrine portion of the pancreas; made up of alpha and beta cells; among others;source of insulin and glucagon. Hormones: Glucagon, Insulin, Somatostatin,Pancreatic Polypeptide.8. Sex glands in which reproductive cells are formed; ovaries in women, testes in men.9. Structure that anchors the developing fetus to the uterus and provides a “bridge”for the exchange of nutrients and waste products between the mother anddeveloping baby.
(1) DIRECTIONS: 10. Endocrine gland located in the mediastinum; vital part of the body’s Immune system. Hormones: Thymosin and Thymopoietin. 11. The mucosa lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like the pancreas, contains cells that produce both endocrine and exocrine secretions. Hormones: Gastrin, Secretin, Cholecystokinin-pancreozymin (CCK), and others, have important regulatory roles in coordinating the secretory and motor activities involved in the digestive process. 12. Organ of circulatory system that pumps the blood; composed of cardiac muscle tissues, a specific area in its wall contains some hormone- producing cells. The cells produce a hormone called atrail natriuretic hormone.
ChartsHormone Source Target Principal ActionGrowth Hormone- Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulatesreleasing hormone (somatotrophs) secretion of growth(GRH) hormoneGrowth Hormone- Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Inhibits secretion ofinhibiting hormone (Somatotrophs) growth hormone(GIH)Corticotrophin- Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates releasereleasing hormone of(CRH) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)Thyrotrophin- Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates thereleasing hormone release of thyroid(TRH) stimulating hormone (TSH)Gonadotropin- Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulates thereleasing hormone release of(GNRH) gonadotropins (FSH and LH)Prolactin- releasing Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Stimulateshormone (PRH) secretion of prolactinProlactin- inhibiting Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Inhibits secretion ofhormone (PIH) prolactinGrowth hormone Adenohypophysis General Promotes growth(GH) (somatotropin (somatotrophs) by stimulating(STH)) protein anabolism and fat mobilizationProlactin (PRL) Adenohypophysis Mammary glands Promotes milk(lactogenic (lactotrophs) secretionhormone)Thyroid stimulating Adenohypophysis Thyroid gland Stimulateshormone (TSH) development and secretion in the thyroid glandAdrenocorticotropic Adenohypophysis Adrenal cortex Promoteshormone (ACTH) development and secretion in the adrenal cortexFollicle- stimulating Adenohypophysis Gonads (Primary Female: promoteshormone (FSH) sex organs) development of ovarian follicle; stimulates estrogen Males: promotes
Luteinizing Adenohypophysis Gonads Female: triggers hormone (LH) ovulation; promotes development of corpus luteumCharts Continued.... Male: stimulates production of testosterone Antidiuretic Neurohypophysis Kidney Promotes water hormone (ADH) retention by kidney tubules Oxytocin (OT) Neurohypophysis Uterus and Stimulates uterus mammary glands contractions; stimulates ejection of milk into mammary ducts Triidothyroninie Thyroid gland General Increase rate of (T3) (follicular cells) metabolism Tetraiodothyronine Thyroid gland General Increase rate of (T4) of thyroxine (follicular cells) metabolism (usually converted to T3 first) Calcitonin (CT) Thyroid gland Bone tissue Increase calcium (parafollicular storage in bone, cells) lowering blood Ca++ levels Parathyroid Parathyroid glands Bone tissue and Increase calcium hormone (PTH) kidney removal from storage in bone and produces the active form o vitamin D in the kidneys, increasing absorption of calcium by intestines and increasing blood Ca++ levels
Charts Continued....Aldosterone Adrenal cortex Kidney Stimulates kidney tubuals to conserve sodium, which, in turn, triggers the release of ADH and the resulting conservation of water by the kidneyCortisol Adrenal cortex General Influences(hydrocortisone) metabolism of food molecules; in large amounts, it has an anti-inflammatory effectAdrenal androgens Adrenal cortex Sex organs, other Exact role effectors uncertain, but may support sexual functionsAdrenal estrogens Adrenal cortex Sex organs Thought to be physiologically insignificantEpinephrine Adrenal medulla Sympathetic Enhances and effectors prolongs the effects of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous systemNorepinephrine Adrenal medulla Sympathetic Enhances and effectors prolongs the effects of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous systemGlucagon Pancreatic General Promotes isles(alpha cells or movement of A cells) glucose from storage and into the blood
Charts Continued....Insulin Pancreatic islets General Promotes (beta cells or B movement of cells) glucose out of the blood and into cellsSomatostin Pancreatic isleta Pancreatic cells Can have general (delat cells or D and other effectors effects in the body, cells) but primary role seems to be regulation of secretion of other pancreatic hormonesPancreatic Pancreatic Intestinal cells and Exact functionpolypeptide polypeptide (PP) other effectors uncertain, but or F cells seems to influence absorption in the digestive tract