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    1. 1. How to practice grammar & How to deal with grammar errors Course: Special Topics in Grammar and Writing Teaching  Instructor: Dr. Chin- Ling Lee Presenters: Lynn& Sadia Date: October 29, 2008
    2. 2. Outline I. <ul><li>Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Lesson 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Lesson 2 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Practice <ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Restructuring </li></ul>
    4. 4. Accuracy <ul><li>Attention to form: Learners focus on correct form rather than content. </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity: Learners need to be familiar with the language that they are trying to get right </li></ul>
    5. 5. Accuracy <ul><li>Thinking time: Learners need sufficient time to think and reflect. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback: Learners need unambiguous messages as to how accurate they are – this takes the form of correction. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Fluency <ul><li>Attention to meaning: The practice should encourage learners to focus on the content rather than correct form </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity: Learners should be producing and interpreting language under real-time constraints, and with a measure of unpredictability. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Fluency <ul><li>Communicative purpose: The practice should be a built-in need to interact. </li></ul><ul><li>Chunking: The practice should be in the form of short memorable chunks. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Fluency <ul><li>Repetition: The practice should be have an element of repetition for learners. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Restructuring <ul><li>Problematising: To deal with a problem often seems to restructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Push: The practice should push learners to perform the competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding: The practice should try to balance the new with the familiar. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Practicing how much/ how many? Using a sequence of oral drills. ( elementary) Step 1 <ul><li>Instruction1: The teacher says the sentence two or three times. </li></ul><ul><li>S : How much milk have we got? </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction2: The class repeats it. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction3: An individual student repeat it. The teacher correct the pronunciation. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Practicing how much/ how many? Using a sequence of oral drills. ( elementary) Step 2 <ul><li>Instruction1: The teacher supplies the prompt such as rice. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction2: The teacher indicates to a students to respond. </li></ul><ul><li>S: How much rice have we got? </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction3: The teacher supplies more prompt such as meat, juice, sugar. The student have to answer. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Practicing how much/ how many? Using a sequence of oral drills. ( elementary) Step 3 <ul><li>Instruction1: The teacher repeats Step 2 but this time uses pictures rather than word prompts. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Practicing how much/ how many? Using a sequence of oral drills. ( elementary) Step 4 <ul><li>Instruction1: The teacher repeats Step1. </li></ul><ul><li>S: How many bananas have we got? </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction2:The teacher supplies prompts that are countable nouns such as eggs, onions etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction3: Initially the prompts are words and then pictures. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Practicing how much/ how many? Using a sequence of oral drills. ( elementary) Step 5 <ul><li>Instruction1: The teacher supplies prompts that are a mixture of countable and uncountable nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: egg </li></ul><ul><li>Student1: How many eggs have we got? </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: meat </li></ul><ul><li>Student 2: How much meat have we got? </li></ul>
    15. 15. Practicing how much/ how many? Using a sequence of oral drills. ( elementary) Step 6 <ul><li>Instruction1: The teacher distributes pictures to the students, who in pairs test </li></ul><ul><li>each other. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Sample Lesson 1 Discussion <ul><li>Step1: An imitation drill </li></ul><ul><li>Step2: A simple substitution drill </li></ul><ul><li>Step3: Visual prompts </li></ul><ul><li>Step4: Repeats the process a contrasting sentence pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Step5: Variable substitution drill </li></ul><ul><li>Step6: A measure of control </li></ul>
    17. 17. Sample Lesson 1 Evaluation <ul><li>Drilling is e asy to do, once students are used to it and the teacher has mastered a few basic techniques such as giving a clear indication as to when an individual response, as opposed to a class one, is required. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Sample Lesson 1 Evaluation <ul><li>Learners who come from educational backgrounds where rote learning and repetition are common practice will feel comfortable with drilling </li></ul>
    19. 19. Practicing can using an information gap activity ( Elementary) Step1 <ul><li>Direction1: The teacher explains the situation: You are street musicians. You dance, you sing, and you play an instrument. Your partner has left to join a circus. So you are looking for a new partner – someone who can do the same things as you. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Practicing can using an information gap activity ( Elementary) Step2 <ul><li>Direction1: The teacher draws the following grid on the board. </li></ul>Play Sing Dance
    21. 21. Practicing can using an information gap activity ( Elementary) Step2 <ul><li>Direction1:The teacher ask students to choose from chart one instrument, one singing- type and one dance. </li></ul>Play Sing Dance the violin Opera The tango the saxophone The blues The cha- cha The guitar Folk The waltz
    22. 22. Practicing can using an information gap activity ( Elementary) Step 3 <ul><li>Direction1: The teacher writes the formula on the board: Can you? </li></ul><ul><li>Example1: Can you play the saxophone? </li></ul><ul><li>Example2: Can you sing the blues? </li></ul><ul><li>Example3: Can you dance the cha-cha? </li></ul><ul><li>Direction4: The students are told to find their partner. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Sample Lesson 2 Discussion <ul><li>Step1: An imaginary situation </li></ul><ul><li>Step2: Selecting the vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Step3: Providing the scaffolding. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Sample Lesson 2 Evaluation <ul><li>It is debatable the extent to which information gap activities like the one above replicate real-life communication. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Sample Lesson 2 Evaluation <ul><li>The teacher may be in the usefulness of information gap activities, many students remain skeptical and are often mystified. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Outline II. <ul><li>What are errors? </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes to error and correction </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to errors </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Lesson 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Lesson 2 </li></ul>
    27. 27. Writing errors <ul><li>Lexical errors: </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong word for the meaning </li></ul><ul><li>i. e: My brother was stopping in the word instead of standing. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong form of the word </li></ul><ul><li>i. e: Lower instead of lawyer, thinks instead of things. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Writing errors <ul><li>Grammar errors: Mistakes in verb, tense and sentence structure </li></ul><ul><li>Verb: The phone rangs </li></ul><ul><li>Tense: He telled to her </li></ul><ul><li>Structure: is Saturday afternoon </li></ul>rang told It
    29. 29. Writing errors <ul><li>Discourse errors: Related to the way sentence are organized and linked in order to make whole texts. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e .: The student extract above at last suggests that what follows is the solution to a problem: eventually would have been better in the this context. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Pronunciation errors <ul><li>Systematic error: Systematic error is the error that is constant in a series of repetitions of the same experiment or observation. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Pronunciation errors <ul><li>Positive transfer: To help learners acquire specific information more easily, and help learners function effectively in situations for which they have no previously acquired information. It enables learners to solve problems they have never seen before. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Pronunciation errors <ul><li>Negative transfer: </li></ul><ul><li>Learners result in errors. </li></ul><ul><li>i.e .: He’s lower.(He’s lawyer) </li></ul>
    33. 33. Attitudes to error and correction <ul><li>Negative feedback : It indicates No, you can’t say that when a learner makes an error. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive feedback: When learners are told when they are right. If the only messages learners get are positive. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on form: It includes giving learners clear messages about their errors. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Responding to errors <ul><li>The type of error: Does it have a major effect on communication? Is it one that the learner could probably self-repair? </li></ul>
    35. 35. Responding to errors <ul><li>The type of activity: Is the focus of the activity more on form or on meaning? If the latter, it is probably best to correct without interfering too much with the flow of communication. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Responding to errors <ul><li>The type of learner: Will the learner be discouraged or humiliated by correction? Alternatively, will the learner feel short-changed if there is no correction? </li></ul>
    37. 37. Using learners’ errors to review cohesive devices (intermediate ) Step1 <ul><li>Direction 1: The teacher hands out a worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>which consists of a number of sentences she has </li></ul><ul><li>collected from their previous written work. </li></ul><ul><li>Direction 2: She asks the students first of all to </li></ul><ul><li>attempt to correct them, working in pairs, and then </li></ul><ul><li>to identify one feature they all have in common. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Worksheet 1 I have no girlfriend in spite handsome boy. 2 I eat chocolate every day in spite I have to do diet. 3 I came to Australia nevertheless a lot of interesting places is in Japan. 4 I will stay at home this weekend nevertheless my boyfriend will spend his time on the beach.
    39. 39. Using learners’ errors to review cohesive devices (intermediate) Step2 <ul><li>Direction 1: The teacher monitors the pair work, helping learners sort out some of the problems. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Using learners’ errors to review cohesive devices (intermediate) Step3 <ul><li>The teacher then distributes a handout which she asks learners to study before returning to the sentence correction task . </li></ul>
    41. 41. Handout Contrast When contrasting two surprising facts, the most common way is to use but: The film was long but I didn’t get bored. Some other ways of expressing contrast are: Linking ideas in ONE sentence: 1 in spite of +NOUN In spite of the film’s length I didn’t get bored.
    42. 42. Worksheet 2 in spite of the fact that + CLAUSE In spite of the fact that the film was long, I didn’t get bored. Linking TWO sentences: 1 nevertheless + sentence The film was long. Nevertheless, I didn’t get bored.
    43. 43. Using learners’ errors to review cohesive devices (intermediate) Step4 <ul><li>Direction 1: Eliciting corrected versions of </li></ul><ul><li>the sentences in open class. </li></ul><ul><li>Direction 2: Writing these on the board, and </li></ul><ul><li>drawing attention to the linking devices by </li></ul><ul><li>underlining them, and asking individuals to </li></ul><ul><li>explain their use. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Worksheet 1 I am a handsome boy. Nevertheless, I don’t have a girlfriend. 2 In spite of the fact that I am on a diet, I eat chocolate every day. 3 There are a lot of interesting places in Japan. Nevertheless, I came to Australia. 4 I’m going to stay at home this weekend in spite of the fact that my boyfriend is going to spend it at the beach.
    45. 45. Using learners’ errors to review cohesive devices (intermediate) Step5 <ul><li>Direction 1: The teacher then hands out an </li></ul><ul><li>exercise which requires the students to </li></ul><ul><li>make the correct choice of linking device. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Worksheet in spite of the fact that Complete these sentences using in spite of, in spite of the fact that, or nevertheless. 1 We went to the beach, in spite of the fact that it was a rather cold day. 2 It was a rather cold day. Nevertheless , we went to the beach. 3 In spite of the cold, we went to the beach.
    47. 47. Sample Lesson 1 Discussion <ul><li>Step 1: Handing out a worksheet of anonymous errors. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: The intention is to tidy up the errors before homing in on the targeted language area. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: By preparing an explanatory handout the teacher maintains the learner-centered focus. </li></ul>
    48. 48. Sample Lesson 1 Discussion <ul><li>Step 4: Does the teacher assume her traditional role at the board, in order to knit together any loose ends. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 5: Handing back to the students again at the testing stage. </li></ul>
    49. 49. Sample Lesson 1 Evaluation <ul><li>There is always the danger that ,by emphasizing the negative, a focus on the errors they have made may serve to discourage learners. </li></ul>
    50. 50. Teaching grammar through reformulation (Elementary) <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Reformulation is the process by which the </li></ul><ul><li>teacher takes the meanings and the learners </li></ul><ul><li>are attempting to express in English and </li></ul><ul><li>‘ translates’ these into an acceptable form. </li></ul>
    51. 51. Teaching grammar through reformulation step 1 <ul><li>Direction 1: The teacher introduces the </li></ul><ul><li>theme by placing a newspaper picture of a </li></ul><ul><li>disaster. </li></ul><ul><li>Direction 2: Indicating with a look or </li></ul><ul><li>gesture without giving explicit prompts. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Teaching grammar through reformulation step 1 <ul><li>Direction 3: Students should say anything </li></ul><ul><li>they want associated with the topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Direction 4: He encourages the production </li></ul><ul><li>of isolated words, phrases and sentences. </li></ul>
    53. 53. Teaching grammar through reformulation step 2 <ul><li>Direction 1: Students are starting to run out of </li></ul><ul><li>ideas, or when they start departing too widely </li></ul><ul><li>from the topic, the teacher stops the activity and </li></ul><ul><li>draws a line down the centre of the board. </li></ul>
    54. 54. Teaching grammar through reformulation step 2 <ul><li>Direction 2 He hands one student the chalk and asks this student to act as the class scribe. Her job is, working with the whole class, to collate the ideas that the students have produced about the topic, and to write them up on to the board. </li></ul>
    55. 55. Teaching grammar through reformulation step 3 <ul><li>Direction 1: The teacher returns and reads the students’ text aloud, without commentary, but asking any questions where the meaning is unclear. </li></ul><ul><li>Direction 2: Reformulating this text on to the other half of the board. </li></ul>
    56. 56. Teaching grammar through reformulation step 3 <ul><li>Direction 3: He explains the rationale underlying each change, but always insisting that this is the way I would say it, and constantly checking with the class as to what their intended meaning had been. </li></ul><ul><li>Direction 4: Students then copy the reformulated text. </li></ul>
    57. 57. Teaching grammar through reformulation step 4 <ul><li>Direction 1: Working individually, write their own texts about a similar topic – for example, hurricanes, volcanoes or floods. </li></ul><ul><li>Direction 2: They compare these in pairs, suggesting changes and improvements, before submitting their texts to the teacher for correction. </li></ul>
    58. 58. Sample Lesson 2 Discussion <ul><li>Step 1: To allow the learners some say in the content and direction of the lesson and, apart from the selection of the topic, not to impose on it a prefabricated structure of his own. </li></ul>
    59. 59. Sample Lesson 2 Discussion <ul><li>Step 2: To renounce any active role in the construction of the text – physically absenting himself is a clear signal that students are on their own. </li></ul>
    60. 60. Sample Lesson 2 Discussion <ul><li>Collaborative exercise </li></ul><ul><li>The class as a whole is responsible for the text, </li></ul><ul><li>rather than one or two of the more forthcoming </li></ul><ul><li>individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: The students are involved in the text </li></ul><ul><li>reformulation process. </li></ul>
    61. 61. Sample Lesson 2 Discussion <ul><li>Step 4: An alternative stage might be to erase or cover up the reformulated text and ask learners to work in groups to reconstruct it from memory, using their original text as a prompt. </li></ul>
    62. 62. Sample Lesson 2 Conclusion <ul><li>A lot of errors are developmental </li></ul><ul><li>Not all errors are grammar errors, and not all grammar errors are simply tense mistakes. </li></ul>
    63. 63. Sample Lesson 2 Conclusion <ul><li>Not all errors matter equally: nor do they all respond to the same kind of treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers can provide other options include positive feedback, clarification requests, and reformulation. </li></ul>
    64. 64. Sample Lesson 2 Conclusion <ul><li>Providing only negative feedback may be ultimately demotivating. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners’ errors offer a rich source of material for language focus and consciousness-raising. </li></ul>
    65. 65. <ul><li>Thank you for your attention! </li></ul>