When we learn a language, there are four skills that we need for complete communication. When we learn our native language, we usually learn to listen first, then to speak, then to read, and finally to write.
Put the words in the box into the gaps in the text while listening to the article.
Keep warm to avoid colds: scientists
For many years people have said that ________ a cold because of cold weather is an old ________ tale. Now scientists have found that keeping warm ________ can help stop colds. Researchers from the Common Cold Center at Britain’s Cardiff University have discovered that cold weather is a ________ cause of catching a cold. The center is the only laboratory in the world that researches and ________ new medicines for influenza and colds. The researchers recommend wearing a hat and keeping your feet ________ to avoid colds. They also suggest you ________ keep your nose warm when ________ in cold weather.
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Dr. Ronald Eccles, team ________ at the Cold Center, said we are more ________ to become ill in cold weather. He said the cold makes the ________ vessels in the nose narrower, which reduces our ________ to fight viruses inside the nose. Dr. Eccles studied 180 people in his study. Half of his volunteers put their feet in ________ of freezing cold water for 20 minutes, while the others ________ their feet dry. Dr. Eccles found that 29 percent of those who kept their feet in the icy water caught colds ________ five days, compared with nine percent for those who kept their socks on. Dr. Eccles advised children “to ________ up well in winter”.
Listen to the article and cross out the incorrect words in bold.
Eating fish is good for the brain
Eating fish every week may keep our brain more active during our older / bolder years. This is the conclusion of research conducted / constructed by the Rush University Medical Center in Chicago. The study found that older people who eat / catch fish regularly have quicker and better memories. Over / Under a lifetime of eating fish, people could be three to four years mentally younger in age. Lead researcher Martha Clare Morris said: “We found that people who ate one fish meal / bone a week had a 10 percent slower annual decline in thinking.…People who rarely eat fish have a…faster decline in their thinking ability over time / clock .”
Morris’s team collected information on the diets and memory gain / loss of 6,158 people aged 65 and older. She concluded: “Eating / Catching fish may help to slow people’s decline in thinking ability as they old / age .” She thinks several fatty / slim acids contained in fish may help the brain’s development. Eating fish has previously been associated with a lower risk / brisk of developing Alzheimer’s disease or having a stroke. Oily fish, like salmon and tuna, are a luxury / rich source of the acids. The report on the benefits of consuming fish appears in the October 10 online issue of the Archives of Neurology .