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Endocrine and Digestive disorders
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Endocrine and Digestive disorders

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  • 1. Group 2 Report: Digestive and Endocrine Disorders***Digestive Disorder: GERD • Acid reflux occurs when the sphincter muscle at the lower end of your esophagus relaxes at the wrong time, allowing stomach acid to back up into your esophagus. This can cause heartburn and other signs and symptoms. Frequent or constant reflux can lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). • Symptoms: 1. Hoarseness. If acid reflux gets past the upper esophageal sphincter, it can enter the throat (pharynx) and even the voice box (larynx), causing hoarseness. 2. Laryngitis 3. Nausea 4. Sore throat 5. Chronic dry cough, especially at night. GERD is a common cause of unexplained coughing. It is not clear how cough is caused or aggravated by GERD. 6. Asthma. Some of these nerves that are stimulated by the Refluxed acid stimulate the nerves to the lungs, which then can cause the smaller breathing tubes to narrow, resulting in an Attack of asthma. 7. Feeling as if there is a lump in your throat 8. Bad breath 9. Chest pain/discomfort 10. Heartburn
  • 2. • Medication Surgery for GERD may involve a procedure to reinforce the lower esophageal sphincter calledNissen fundoplication. In this procedure, the surgeon wraps the top of the stomach around the loweresophagus. This reinforces the lower esophageal sphincter, making it less likely that acid will back up in theesophagus.***Digestive Disorder: IBS • Irritable Bowel Syndrome • Terms used to describe diverticula in your large bowel: Diverticulosis- Many people have diverticula without having any symptoms. They may only be found when you have a scan or tests for another problem. Having diverticula without a symptom is called diverticulosis. Diverticular disease- If diverticula cause symptoms, this is known as diverticular disease. Diverticulitis- If diverticula become inflamed and cause an illness, the condition is known as Diverticulitis. • Diverticular disease happens when small areas of the lining of your bowel weaken and form bulges or pouches, over the course of many years. These are known as diverticula. Most diverticula are found in the lower part of your large bowel, although some people get them in other parts of their bowel. Most diverticula occur in the sigmoid colon, the curved part of the large intestine closest to the rectum, they tend to become more numerous as we age. • Diverticulosis is the presence of many diverticula along the intestinal wall. It occurs more commonly in countries such as the U.S. where the diet is generally low in fiber. The cause of diverticular disease is unknown, but several factors may contribute to changes in the wall of the colon. These include aging, the movement of waste through the colon, changes in intestinal pressure, a low fiber diet, and physical abnormalities.
  • 3. • Symptoms: 1. Abdominal pain, especially after a meal on the lower left side of the abdomen 2. Either painless rectal bleeding or passing of blood in stool 3. Fever 4. Nausea 5. Vomiting 6. Irregular bowel movements, including constipation or diarrhea 7. Gas 8. Bloating• MedicationFor mild symptoms, your health care provider may recommend a clear liquid diet and prescribe antibiotics.Eating a high-fiber diet may help following an attack. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to fightinfection, antispasmodics to relieve cramping, and analgesics to relieve pain.If you have repeated episodes of diverticulitis, respond poorly to medical therapy, or have othercomplications, your health care provider may recommend removing part of the colon. If you have severecomplications, or if your condition worsens within 1 - 2 days of attack, you may need surgery right away.***Endocrine Disorder: Cushing’s Syndrome• Cushing’s syndrome consists of the physical and mental changes that result from having too much cortisol in the blood for a long period of time. Cortisol is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, located above the kidneys
  • 4. • Two Types:*Exogenous- caused by factors outside the body. This is found inpatients taking cortisol-like medications such as prednisone. Thesemedications are used to treat inflammatory disorders such as asthma andrheumatoid arthritis, or to suppress the immune system after an organtransplant. This type of Cushing’s is temporary and goes away after thepatient has finished taking the cortisol-like medications.*Endogenous- the adrenal glands produce too much cortisol. It usuallycomes on slowly and can be difficult to diagnose. This type of Cushing’sis most often caused by hormone-secreting tumors of the adrenal glandsor the pituitary, a gland located at the base of the brain. In the adrenal glands, the tumor (usually non-cancerous)produces too much cortisol. In the pituitary, the tumor produces too much ACTH—the hormone that tells theadrenal glands to make cortisol. When the tumors form in the pituitary, the condition is often called Cushing’sdisease. • Symptoms:1. Weight gain, especially in the upper body2. Rounded face and extra fat on the upper back and above the collarbones3. High blood sugar (diabetes)4. High blood pressure (hypertension)5. Thin bones (osteoporosis)6. Muscle loss and weakness7. Thin, fragile skin that bruises easily8. Purple-red stretch marks (usually over the abdomen and under the arms)9. Depression and difficulties thinking clearly10. Too much facial hair in women11. Irregular or absent menstrual periods and infertility12. Reduced sex drive13. Poor height growth and obesity in children
  • 5. • MedicationFor endogenous Cushing’s syndrome, the initial approach is almost always surgery to remove the tumorresponsible for high cortisol levels. Although surgery is usually successful, some patients may also needmedications that lower cortisol or radiation therapy to destroy remaining tumor cells. Some patients must haveboth adrenal glands removed to control Cushing’s syndrome. Group 2:  Verastigue  Versoza  Zafra  Cabildo  Serrano  Narag • References:  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/medical/IM03999  http://www.google.com/search? hl=en&safe=off&gbv=2&biw=1366&bih=677&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=nissen+fundoplication&oq=nissen+fundoplication&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&gs_sm=3&gs_u pl=871017l8780  http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/diverticular-disease-000051.htm#ixzz3qH1bFeMx
  • 6.  http://www.hormone.org/Pituitary/upload/cushings-syndrome-billingual-032309.pdf