Digestive and Endocrine Disorders ReportPresentation Transcript
Digestive and Endocrine Disorders
GERD GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease
Digestive Disorder: GERD Acid reflux occurs when the sphincter muscle at the lower end of your esophagus relaxes at the wrong time, allowing stomach acid to back up into your esophagus. This can cause heartburn and other signs and symptoms. Frequent or constant reflux can lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
GERD Symptoms 1. Hoarseness. If acid reflux gets past the upper esophageal sphincter, it can enter the throat (pharynx) and even the voice box (larynx), causing hoarseness. 2. Laryngitis 3. Nausea 4.Sore throat 5. Chronic dry cough, especially at night. GERD is a common cause of unexplained coughing. It is not clear how cough is caused or aggravated by GERD.
6. Asthma. Some of these nerves that are stimulated by the refluxed acid stimulates the nerves to the lungs, which then can cause the smaller breathing tubes to narrow, resulting in an attack of asthma. 7. Feeling as if there is a lump in your throat 8. Bad breath 9. Chest pain/discomfort 10. Heartburn
GERD Medications Surgery for GERD may involve a procedure to reinforce the lower esophageal sphincter called Nissen fundoplication . In this procedure, the surgeon wraps the top of the stomach around the lower esophagus. This reinforces the lower esophageal sphincter, making it less likely that acid will back up in the esophagus.
IBS Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Terms used to describe diverticula in your large bowel:
Diverticulosis . Many people have diverticula without having any symptoms. They may only be found when you have a scan or tests for another problem. Having diverticula without symptoms is called diverticulosis.
Diverticular disease . If diverticula cause symptoms, this is known as diverticular disease.
Diverticulitis . If diverticula become inflamed and cause an illness, the condition is known as diverticulitis.
Diverticular disease happens when small areas of the lining of your bowel weaken and form bulges or pouches, over the course of many years. These are known as diverticula. Most diverticula are found in the lower part of your large bowel, although some people get them in other parts of their bowel.
Most diverticula occur in the sigmoid colon , the curved part of the large intestine closest to the rectum, and they tend to become more numerous as we age.
Digestive Disorder: IBS
Diverticulosis is the presence of many diverticula along the intestinal wall. It occurs more commonly in countries such as the U.S. where the diet is generally low in fiber. The cause of diverticular disease is unknown, but several factors may contribute to changes in the wall of the colon. These include aging, the movement of waste through the colon, changes in intestinal pressure, a low fiber diet, and physical abnormalities.
IBS Symptoms 1. Abdominal pain, especially after a meal on the lower left side of the abdomen 2. Either painless rectal bleeding or passing of blood in stool 3. Fever 4. Nausea 5. Vomiting 6. Irregular bowel movements, including constipation or diarrhea 7. Gas 8. Bloating
IBS Medications For mild symptoms, your health care provider may recommend a clear liquid diet and prescribe antibiotics. Eating a high-fiber diet may help following an attack. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to fight infection, antispasmodics to relieve cramping, and analgesics to relieve pain. If you have repeated episodes of diverticulitis, respond poorly to medical therapy, or have other complications, your health care provider may recommend removing part of the colon. If you have severe complications, or if your condition worsens within 1 - 2 days of attack, you may need surgery right away.
Endocrine Disorder: Cushing’s Syndrome Cushing’s syndrome consists of the physical and mental changes that result from having too much cortisol in the blood for a long period of time. Cortisol is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, located above the kidneys
Two Types: Exogenous - caused by factors outside the body. This is found in patients taking cortisol-like medications such as prednisone. These medications are used to treat inflammatory disorders such as asthma and rheumatoid arthritis, or to suppress the immune system after an organ transplant. This type of Cushing’s is temporary and goes away after the patient has finished taking the cortisol-like medications.
Endogenous - the adrenal glands produce too much cortisol. It usually comes on slowly and can be difficult to diagnose. This type of Cushing’s is most often caused by hormone-secreting tumors of the adrenal glands or the pituitary, a gland located at the base of the brain. In the adrenal glands, the tumor (usually non-cancerous) produces too much cortisol. In the pituitary, the tumor produces too much ACTH—the hormone that tells the adrenal glands to make cortisol. When the tumors form in the pituitary, the condition is often called Cushing’s disease.
Symptoms 1. Weight gain, especially in the upper body 2. Rounded face and extra fat on the upper back and above the collarbones 3. High blood sugar (diabetes) 4. High blood pressure (hypertension) 5. Thin bones (osteoporosis) 6. Muscle loss and weakness 7. Thin, fragile skin that bruises easily
8. Purple-red stretch marks (usually over the abdomen and under the arms) 9. Depression and difficulties thinking clearly 10. Too much facial hair in women 11. Irregular or absent menstrual periods and infertility 12. Reduced sex drive 13. Poor height growth and obesity in children
Medications For endogenous Cushing’s syndrome, the initial approach is almost always surgery to remove the tumor responsible for high cortisol levels. Although surgery is usually successful, some patients may also need medications that lower cortisol or radiation therapy to destroy remaining tumor cells. Some patients must have both adrenal glands removed to control Cushing’s syndrome.