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Czars Overthrown



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  • 1. 3Czarist Rule is Verastigue TeruelOverthrown Constantino Angeles Ayado
  • 2. Czars plural of czar (Noun) 1. An emperor of Russia before 1917: "Czar Nicholas II". 2. A South Slav ruler in former times, esp. one reigning over Serbia in the 14th century.Czarists plural of czarist (Noun) 1. (czarist) of or relating to or characteristic of a czarSoviets plural of soviet (Noun)1. the people and especially the political and military leaders of the Union of Soviet Republic
  • 3. Czars of Russia had sought to maketheir country into a unified nation butbecause of the lack of autocratic control,there were a lot of demands for reform. Behind its splendid courts is a divided and badly ruled country.
  • 4. Western Europe had been transformed byindustrialization, urbanization and the spread ofdemocratic government. European Imperialist nationshad gained control of large areas of the world.Tensions were mounting on Europe itself, as the majorEuropean countries built up their armies and naviesand formed defensive alliances.
  • 5. Nicholas II became czar, having the samegoal as his ancestors: to make Russia strongand Respected in the world.Unfortunately, Nicholas II wasn’t able to leadeffectively because he didn’t understand theforces at work in Russia and the world:He was blind to the significance of the changes thatwere taking place.
  • 6. Sergei Witte, the czar’s ablest minister urgedthat a program on industrialization be planned.Unlike the czar, he realized that the Russianeconomy has to be modernized. He warnedNicholas II:“economic weakness may lead to political andcultural backwardness as well.”
  • 7. "We must give the countrysuch industrial perfection ashas been reached by theUnited States ofAmerica, which firmlybases its prosperity on twopillars-agriculture andindustry” --Sergei Witte
  • 8. Under Witte’s advice:o Taxes increasedo Foreign capital was brought ino Completion of Trans-Siberian roads and other railwayso Foreign experts were hiredo Many Russians studied abroad
  • 9. The steps helped in the growth of heavy industry, particularly iron and steel.For a while, the economy of Russia had boomed.
  • 10. Rapid industrialization led to the resentment and disunity ofthe people of Russia: o Instead of agriculture being the mainstay of Russian economy o All the workers worked in factories o Workers were powerless to make changes o Upper-classes were unhappy to the presence of foreign investors o Ideas from the West caused people to question Russia’s traditions
  • 11. In the reign of Alexander II, radical socialreformers had tried to focus on the situationof the peasants. The peasants did nottrusted agitators and intellectuals from thecities, and they did not join the movementfor reform.Later revolutionists adopted the view ofhistory set forth by Karl Marx. They believedthat industrialization and the growth of anindustrial working class in Russia made asocialist victory inevitable. These revolutionists ended up being in exile or prison.
  • 12. The Marxists found a leader inVladimir Ilyich Ulyanov betterknown as Lenin. Lenin together with hiswife, Krupskaya went toprison and was exiled to Siberia. He believed that force is needed to end czarist rule.
  • 13. The Marxists split into two groups: Bolsheviks – went with Lenin in a bloody point- of-view.Mensheviks – hoped thatrevolutionary goals could beachieved by less violent actions.
  • 14. Russia had a humiliating defeat in awar with Japan. A series of uprisings involving different kinds of people broke out. All of them have different complaints.The palace guards reacted and fired at them whichcaused further unrest.
  • 15. The strikers were led by the soviets (representative council of workers inSt. Petersburg. The czar agreed to the formation of Russia’s first Parliament: the imperial Duma. He promised that it would represent all elements of the population and guarantee their civil liberties.
  • 16. The Duma’s power was limited but it somewhatmanaged to improve its participation in thegovernment.Peter Stolypin who succeeded Witte as chiefminister aims to make the peasants firmsupporters of the czar to grant more lands topeasants and give greater freedom to successfulpeasant farmers called Kulaks.
  • 17. These reforms had not improved thepeople’s outlook on the czarist regime. Little progress in strengthening the czarist regime has taken place when Russia was caught in the World War I.
  • 18. Nicholas II had to go to war so he lefthis wife, Alexandra to run thegovernment. Alexandra had noexperience in ruling. Meanwhile, the war had caused the soldiers to have little respect to their officers.
  • 19. A strike of women textile workers becamecity-wide which erupted into riot. Thesoldiers who had been ordered to shot therioter shot their officers instead. The city-wide riot was known as the March Revolution. A week after the rioting, the czar gave up his thrown in favour of a Provincial Government which was set up by the Duma.
  • 20. Nicholas II had to go to war so he lefthis wife, Alexandra to run thegovernment. Alexandra had noexperience in ruling. Meanwhile, the war had caused the soldiers to have little respect to their officers.
  • 21. The provincial government called Provisionalrepresented the educated Russians who was ledby Alexander Kelensky. They wanted to protectthe rights of individuals and to establish aWestern-style parliamentary government. Opposing them is the Petrograd Soviet represented by soldiers and workers which. excluded all members of upper-classes. They favoured social reforms to aid workers and peasants.
  • 22. People didn’t favour either of the two aspiringempires.The German leaders who were planning forRussia’s defeat hoped that through the aidof the Bolsheviks, the Russian war effortwould be disorganized and ineffectual. . A month later, the German military train containing the exiled Bolsheviks including Lenin arrived at Russia.
  • 23. The confused Russian people were offered differentkinds of government but all of them failed.Lenin on the other hand, had understood the demandsof the various groups of Russian people. Along thepopular support, Lenin also had a reliable organization,with able and energetic aides. The Bolsheviks were .disciplined and could act as a tightly organized unit.
  • 24. The Bolsheviks soon gained a majority in the soviets ofmajor cities.The Bolsheviks declared a Soviet Republicdedicated to creating a Marxist society. . Lenin’s new government inherited all the problems the czars had faced, made worse by Russia’s past war defeats
  • 25. Please Get a paper cut½ lengthwise…
  • 26. 1) ___________ was the wife of Nicholas II whom he left the responsibility to rule Russia.2) _________ were considered as the leaders of Russia at that time.3) ________ was ablest minister of Nicholas II who stated that: “economic weakness may lead to political and cultural backwardness as well.”4) _________ believed that revolutionary goals could be achieved through non-violent means.5) The leader of Marxists.6) The founder of Marxism was _________ Marx.7) The great riot that overthrew the czarist rule was called ___________.8) - 10) Give 2 ways through which Russia was industrialized.
  • 27. Bonus:Who was the wife of Lenin?