G&P - Chapter 12 - North-South Gap


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G&P - Chapter 12 - North-South Gap

  1. 1. The North-South Gap<br />CHAPTER TWELVE<br />International Relations 9/e<br />Goldstein and Pevehouse<br />Pearson Education, Inc. <br />publishing as Longman © 2010 <br />
  2. 2. State of the South<br />World’s poor region states called:<br />Third world countries, less developed countries (LDCs), underdeveloped countries (UDCs), or developing countries<br />Scholars do not agree on the causes or implications of poverty in the global South (or solutions).<br />
  3. 3. State of the South<br />About a billion people live in abject poverty – no access to basic nutrition and health care<br />Concentrated in Africa<br />Two decades ago, similar situation in South Asia, but average income per person there has increased<br />Every 6 seconds, somewhere in the world, a child dies as a result of malnutrition.<br />5 million children die a year due to malnutrition.<br />
  4. 4. State of the South<br />Millennium Development Goals<br />Sets targets for basic needs measures to be achieved by 2015<br />Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger<br />Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education<br />Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women<br />Goal 4: Reduce child mortality rate<br />Goal 5: Improve maternal health<br />Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases<br />Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability<br />Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development<br />The five regions of the global South differ on poverty reduction, income level, and growth.<br />Experts disagree about the decreases in poverty and inequality.<br />
  5. 5. UN Millennium Goals<br />Achievements<br />Reducing poverty by half within reach<br />Primary school enrollment is at least 90%<br />Except in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia<br />Malaria prevention is expanding<br />1.6 billion people have gained access to safe drinking water since 1990.<br />Future Targets (likely to be missed)<br />¼ of all children underweight<br />500,000 mothers to die annually in childbirth<br />Proportion of those living just over $1/day will unlikely be cut in half<br />
  6. 6. Basic Human Needs<br />Food, shelter, and other necessities <br />Help people feel secure<br />Extreme poverty fuels revolution, terrorism, and anti-Western sentiments.<br />
  7. 7. Basic Human Needs<br />Education allows a new generation to meet over basic needs and move through the demographic transition.<br />Literacy – reading and writing a simple sentence – is key.<br />A person who can read and write can obtain a wealth of info about farming, health care, birth control, etc.<br />Children suffer from hunger in the global South.<br />2008 UNICEF data: One in four children suffered severe hunger, one in seven lacked access to health care, and one in five had no safe drinking water.<br />Health care<br />Medicines that are critical in the global South are often not available because they are not profitable for that market.<br />War, Natural Disasters, Shelter, and Drinking Water are all areas of concern in the global South<br />
  8. 8. World Hunger<br />Of all the basic needs of people in the global South, the most central is food.<br />Malnutrition: refers to the lack of needed foods, including protein and vitamins.<br />Hunger: refers broadly to malnutrition or outright undernourishment – a lack of calories.<br />920 million people (1 in 8 worldwide) are chronically undernourished.<br />Rural communities and farming<br />Colonialism disrupted pattern of subsistence farming.<br />Shift to commercial farming; displacement of subsistence farmers from the land.<br />Cash crops – high food prices good for farmers, but many unable to afford food<br />
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  10. 10. Rural and Urban Populations<br />The displacement of subsistence farmers leads to massive population shift.<br />Urbanization: movement from rural areas to the city<br />Search for economic opportunity<br />Capital accumulation is concentrated in cities.<br />Influx of people can cause difficulties.<br />What is land reform?<br />
  11. 11. Women in Developing Countries<br />Economic accumulation in poor countries is closely tied to the status of women in those societies.<br />Women in much of the world just as hard as men with just compensation (i.e. head of the family)<br />Hold inferior social status to men in the countries of the South (more so than in the North)<br />Discrimination against girls is widespread in education and literacy.<br />Across the global South, only in Latin America do women’s literacy rates approach those of men<br />Taliban regime<br />Banned all girls from school and all women from paid work<br />Work of international agencies to help women (UN; UNICEF)<br />
  12. 12. Migration and Refugees<br />Millions of people from the global South have crossed international borders, often illegally, to reach the North.<br />Migration from poorer to richer states.<br />The home state – no obligation to let people leave, and no state is obligated to receive migrants.<br />Displacement Theory?<br />
  13. 13. Migration and Refugees<br />Migration produces complex patterns of winners and losers.<br />Most industrialized states try to limit immigration from the global South.<br />Illegal immigration <br />Migrants are distinguished from refugees<br />Refugees are people fleeing to find refuge from war, natural disaster, or political persecution.<br />Economic impact<br />Nationalism<br />
  14. 14. Quiz 11-19-10<br />Answer the following questions. Groups of four or less.<br />1. What are the two contrasting theories of wealth accumulation in the international system and how do they differ in the spread of wealth in the international system?<br />2. What is the World-System Theory? What is the difference between core and periphery states? How can states make the jump from periphery states to core states? <br />3. Who benefits more via the World-Systems Theory: Global North or Global South?<br />4. What is the importance of imperialism in explaining the North-South Gap?<br />
  15. 15. Theories of Accumulation<br />Approaches<br />Two primary contrasting theories of wealth accumulation<br />Based on more liberal and more revolutionary perspectives<br />How do we explain the enormous gap between income levels in the world’s industrialized regions and those in the global South?<br />
  16. 16. Economic Accumulation<br />Capitalism - view based on liberal economics stressing overall efficiency in maximizing economic growth<br />Views the global South as merely lagging behind the industrialized North.<br />Wealth creation in both areas is a good thing.<br />
  17. 17. Economic Accumulation<br />Socialism – concerned with the distribution of wealth as much as the absolute creation of wealth.<br />Sees the North-South divide as more of a zero-sum game in which the creation of wealth in the North most often comes at the expense of the South.<br />Also gives the state more of a role in redistributing wealth and managing the economy than does capitalism.<br />Believes capitalists exploit cheap labor and cheap resources<br />
  18. 18. Economic Accumulation<br />In reality, no state is purely capitalistic.<br />Some redistribution of wealth; welfare state<br />Under capitalism economic development is based on capital accumulation<br />Creation of standing capital<br />Production of economic surplus; more resources available for investment above the minimum level of consumption needed to sustain human life<br />Industrial Revolution – world accumulation<br />Information technologies<br />Route to economic development for global South uncertain<br />
  19. 19. The World-System<br />The global system of regional class divisions has been seen by some IR scholars as a world-system, or a capitalist world economy.<br />View is Marxist in orientation<br />Class divisions regionalized<br />Third world regions extract raw materials (the periphery)<br />Industrialized regions mostly manufacture goods (the core)<br />Class struggle between the two<br />Semiperiphery: area with some manufacturing and some capital concentrates<br />Eastern Europe and Russia<br />China and South Asia<br />Actual patterns of world trade support the world-system theory to some extent<br />But the shift of export-oriented manufacturing from the industrialized countries to Asia reflects globalization<br />
  20. 20. Imperialism<br />Imperialism structured world order starkly around the dominance principle.<br />At the same time, imperialism depends on the identity principle to unite the global North around a common racial identity that defines nonwhite people as an out-group.<br />
  21. 21. History of Imperialism 1500-2000<br />European imperialism<br />15th century, with the development of oceangoing sailing ships in which a small crew could transport a sizable cargo over a long distance<br />Portugal, Spain, France, and Britain<br />Empires in Central America and Brazil<br />Colonies in North America and the Caribbean<br />Decimated indigenous populations<br />Decolonization<br />20th century<br />Almost no European colonies remained.<br />
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  23. 23. Effects of Colonialism<br />Being colonized had a devastating effect on a people and culture.<br />New government, language, cultural practices, education, and being told they were racially inferior to the foreigners<br />White domination seen as normal after generations under colonialism<br />Negative economic implications<br />Positives of colonization<br />Fostered local economic accumulation<br />Infrastructure<br />Cohesive political unit<br />Anti-colonial movements; Importance of WWII<br />
  24. 24. Figure 12.7<br />
  25. 25. Postcolonial Dependency<br />Accumulation in the global South did not take off once colonialism was overthrown.<br />Left few people with the experience to manage an economy.<br />Economies had been narrowly developed.<br />Difficult to abandon the export commodities<br />Workers trained in these areas<br />Infrastructure supported them<br />Inherited borders that were drawn in European capitals.<br />Government corruption of postcolonial states<br />
  26. 26. Postcolonial Dependency<br />Neocolonialism<br />The continuation of colonial exploitation without formal political control<br />Dependency theory<br />Dependency as a situation in which accumulation of capital cannot sustain itself internally.<br />A dependent country must borrow capital to produce goods; its debt payments then reduce the accumulation of surplus.<br />
  27. 27. Postcolonial Dependency: Forms of Dependency<br />Enclave economy<br />Foreign capital is invested in a third world country to extract a particular raw material in a particular place.<br />Angola’s Cabinda provinceand Chevron<br />Nationally controlled production by local capitalist class<br />Penetration of national economies by MNCs<br />Class struggle and dependency theory<br />
  28. 28. Revolutionary Movements<br />Political revolutions seek to change the form of government.<br />Social revolutions seek changes in the structure of society, such as class relations.<br />Cold War years: communist insurgeny<br />By early 1990s, communist third world revolutions seemed to have played themselves out.<br />
  29. 29. Post-revolutionary Governments<br />Poverty and lack of access to basic human needs are the prime causes of revolutions<br />Most revolutionary movements espouse egalitarian ideals: more equal distribution of wealth and power…<br />Communist revolutions<br />Movement against U.S. imperialism<br />Often more local power struggle than a fight against imperialism<br />
  30. 30. Revolutionary Movements<br />In foreign policy, revolutionary governments often start out planning different relationships with neighbors and great powers.<br />However, after new government comes in they realize:<br />It has the same interest as other states in promoting national sovereignty and territorial integrity <br />Become similar to old government<br />Short term shifts in foreign policy, over the long run, very much the same<br />
  31. 31. Revolutionary Movements<br />Overall, North-South relations show how difficult it has become to separate political economy from international security.<br />Marxist strategies – from armed revolutions to state ownership – have not been successful at changing those realities.<br />