American Government - Chapter 9 - Parties and Campaigns


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American Government - Chapter 9 - Parties and Campaigns

  1. 1. PARTIES AND POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS : Citizens and the Electoral Process Chapter 9
  2. 2. Madison – The Federalist 10 Quiz 11-12-10 <ul><li>1. What is a “faction” according to Madison? </li></ul><ul><li>We can either remove the cause of factions or control the effects of factions? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What are the ways Madison argues that we can eliminate factions? Are either of the ways possible? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>3. How can we control for the effects of factions? </li></ul><ul><li>4. When is a faction cause for concern? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Madison argues that a pure democracy would fail. Why? What does Madison recommend? </li></ul><ul><li>6. What conclusion does Madison come to regarding factions? </li></ul>
  3. 3. POLITICAL PARTIES AND ELECTORAL POLITICS <ul><li>What are political parties? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference between them and interest groups? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parties fulfill different roles for different actors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties simplify voters’ electoral choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties help candidates gain political power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties provide elected officials a common set of principles that help them govern </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. POLITICAL PARTIES AND ELECTORAL POLITICS <ul><li>Various factors led to U.S. two-party system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States employs a single-member district or winner-take-all system in elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is a proportional representation system? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages v. Disadvantages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duverger’s Law? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did Madison argue for SMD or PRS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans downplay class or ethnic differences, reducing the attraction of parties that target specific groups </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. POLITICAL PARTIES AND ELECTORAL POLITICS <ul><li>State laws make it difficult for new parties to gain access to the ballot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state holds its own requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualification usually requires certain percentage in previous election </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signatures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public financing of campaigns favors established parties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without federal support, few third party or independent candidates can sustain costs </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF OUR TWO-PARTY SYSTEM <ul><li>Shifting party loyalties have produced five distinct party eras: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Andrew Jackson built first mass party in the United States, the Democrats, in the early 1800s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second party era began in mid-1800s with rise of opposition parties such as Whigs and Republicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In third party era, politics emphasized loyalty to party or faction and voter turnout was high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political machines and patronage? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of third-party movements marked fourth party era in the early 1900s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Depression started fifth party era; Democrats dominated government from the 1930s to the 1960s </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF OUR TWO-PARTY SYSTEM <ul><li>What happened to the “Democratic South” during the sixties? </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans have made inroads with middle income and blue collar workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats have done better in recent years among women and professionals with higher incomes and education. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the gender gap argument for partisanship? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women overall tend to support Democrats. However there is a gap even among women. Single women are much more likely to vote Democratic; married women prefer the Republicans. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF OUR TWO-PARTY SYSTEM <ul><li>The periodic changes in the strength, composition, and direction of parties are known as realignments. </li></ul><ul><li>Are we going through an realignment right now? </li></ul><ul><li>Scholars’ differing theories as to the causes for realignment include generational changes, critical elections, and transforming events. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is divided government? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Added check or policy hindrance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dealignment is a competing theory that asserts that both parties are losing their relevance and that the American voter is indifferent to the major parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Are parties dying? Case of dealignment? </li></ul>
  9. 9. BUILT TO WIN: PARTY STRUCTURE <ul><li>Each party has a national committee made up of members from each of the state parties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is bigger: The RNC or DNC? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In recent years, fundraising has been one of the primary functions of the national committees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the difference between soft money and hard money? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soft money can be used however not to promote individuals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The national committee is also an important source of information and expertise (i.e. polling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close working relationships with interest groups has polarized the parties at the national level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the national convention? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National party platforms often reflect the priorities of interests groups rather than the average party supporter </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. BUILT TO WIN: PARTY STRUCTURE <ul><li>Each party maintains organizations to elect candidates to the House and Senate. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited amount of money. Only goes towards promising candidates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are safe seats? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State parties have organizations somewhat parallel to national parties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National and state organizations often integrate their party activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State parties have become more professionalized and improved their ability to raise money (not reliant on soft money) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. BUILT TO WIN: PARTY STRUCTURE <ul><li>Local party organizations have declined in importance, but many still recruit candidates and organize and run campaigns for local offices. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in importance due to decrease of machine politics (patronage; political machines) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The level of organization that comes closest to the voter is the precinct – the area serving as a polling district for a part of the population. </li></ul>
  12. 12. THIRD PARTIES AND INDEPENDENT CANDIDACIES <ul><li>Third parties or independent candidacies usually arise in periods of great change or crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Splinter parties break away from one of the major parties. (Republicans breaking away from the Whigs) </li></ul><ul><li>Ideological parties are committed to an ideological position different from most voters (Tea Party, Libertarian example) </li></ul><ul><li>Single issue or candidate parties arise around an issue or a strong personality (Perot; Green Party) </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacles for these parties and candidates include getting on the ballot, organizing supporters, and generating sufficient funding. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the best way for a third party to get its platform to the public, especially in a single member district system? </li></ul>
  13. 13. CANDIDATES AND ELECTORAL POLITICS: CANDIDATE-CENTERED CAMPAIGNING <ul><li>Candidates devote a large part of their time to raising money. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of campaign funding include private donors, political action committees, 527 groups, and the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Major campaign expenses include advertising, polling, market research, hiring staff, and renting a headquarters. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary elections allow voters to choose who will lead their parties in the general elections. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference between open and closed primaries? </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. CANDIDATES AND ELECTORAL POLITICS: CANDIDATE-CENTERED CAMPAIGNING <ul><li>Candidates communicate with voters in several ways. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In retail politics, candidates personally meet voters and ask for support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earned media is free media coverage given to a candidate because of some action or position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paid media includes TV, radio, and newspaper ads along with printed brochures </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. CANDIDATES AND ELECTORAL POLITICS: CANDIDATE-CENTERED CAMPAIGNING <ul><li>Candidates may resort to negative or attack advertising. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack ads may convey information that some voters find useful in making up their minds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative campaigning may reduce political interest among voters in the long run </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. VOTERS IN THE ELECTORAL PROCESS: HOW AMERICANS DECIDE <ul><li>For committed partisans, party affiliation is still a powerful predictor of choice of candidate. </li></ul><ul><li>When party affiliation fails to guide voters, they turn to factors like issues and personal characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>The performance of the economy is high on the list of issues voters are most concerned about. </li></ul><ul><li>Social and cultural issues have increasingly dominated recent campaigns. </li></ul>
  17. 17. VOTERS IN THE ELECTORAL PROCESS: HOW AMERICANS DECIDE <ul><li>Candidate characteristics are especially important when no pressing issues divide the public or when the public perceives little difference between party positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Voters usually feel more comfortable with candidates to whom they can personally relate. </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigns sometimes use opposition research to find and exploit weaknesses in opponents’ backgrounds. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Going Negative <ul><li>Weakening political parties; growing voter cynicism; negative campaign advertising: what is the central thesis Ansolabhehere and Iyengar arrive at after relating the three concepts? </li></ul>