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American Government - Chapter 16 - Foreign Policy
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American Government - Chapter 16 - Foreign Policy

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  • 1. FOREIGN AND DEFENSE POLICY: PROTECTING AMERICA’S INTEREST IN THE WORLD Chapter 16
  • 2. DEFENSE AND FOREIGN POLICY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • What is the difference between defense policy and foreign policy?
    • Defense policy involves strategic decisions about the use of military force in national security.
    • Foreign policy encompasses all military, diplomatic, economic, and security exchanges that take place with other nations.
  • 3. DEFENSE AND FOREIGN POLICY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • National defense and foreign policy change dramatically depending on American interests and the nature of the enemy.
    • Why did Tocqueville think America was prosperous?
      • The Monroe Doctrine was a warning to European powers that attempts to extend their systems into the Western Hemisphere would be considered a threat to U.S. peace and safety.
      • In the late nineteenth century, America sought to achieve economic expansion.
      • The Open Door Policy declared support for equal access for foreign traders in China.
  • 4. DEFENSE AND FOREIGN POLICY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
      • The Roosevelt Corollary
        • asserted the right of the U.S. to intervene in its neighbors’ domestic affairs if they were unable to maintain order and national sovereignty on their own.
      • What was Woodrow Wilson’s contribution to U.S. foreign policy?
      • The Truman Doctrine
        • guided the U.S. policy of containment by declaring the intentions of the U.S. to support free people who resisted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressures.
  • 5. DEFENSE AND FOREIGN POLICY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
      • What was the foreign policy objective after World War II
      • Mutually Assured Destruction was a Cold War principle that presumed neither superpower would launch an attack if such an act would lead to its own destruction.
      • A period of détente in U.S.-Soviet relations ended with the Reagan Administration’s arms buildup, which eventually was a factor in the collapse of the Soviet Union.
  • 6. DEFENSE AND FOREIGN POLICY IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • At the end of the Cold War, terrorism and the War on Terror took center stage in American national security policy and resulted in the reorganization of the bureaucracy and changes in intelligence gathering and military policy.
    • The Bush Doctrine
      • called for preemptive use of force to prevent hostile acts even if the U.S. is uncertain about their time and place.
  • 7. What Do You Think?
    • Is preemptive war a justifiable policy?
  • 8. Nye – Soft Power
    • What is power?
    • How can you convince someone to do something they normally wouldn’t do?
    • Soft v. Hard power (carrot v. stick)
    • How does Nye define soft power in terms of international relations?
      • Culture, democracy, international institutions, promoting peace and human rights.
    • Large part of soft power is reputation. Where does the United States rank on a scale of 1 to 10 right now with regards to their reputation?
  • 9. DEFENDING OUR INTERESTS IN A CONSTANTLY CHANGING WORLD
    • The most important national security goal of any nation is maintaining security in the face of threats.
    • What are national interests comprised of
      • Nation’s national interests are comprised of its military, economic, and ideological concerns about security.
  • 10. DEFENDING OUR INTERESTS IN A CONSTANTLY CHANGING WORLD
    • Foreign policy is guided by the notion that each nation is limited in the pursuit of its interests only by the strength of its resources and the countervailing power of other nations.
      • Foreign policy realism is the belief that national interests can be assured through a strong defense that will act as a deterrent.
      • Foreign policy liberalists believe that national interests are secured by building alliances that make conflict more costly than conflict.
  • 11. DEFENDING OUR INTERESTS IN A CONSTANTLY CHANGING WORLD
      • Foreign policy idealism emphasizes the promotion of the American values of democracy, freedom, and cultural diversity, and the belief that other nations will want to emulate our success in order to gain our support.
      • Democratic Peace Theory?
      • Neoconservatism is a hybrid of the other theories and seeks the dual goals of enhancing military might and spreading support for democratic values around the globe.
    • In reviewing foreign policy options, leaders often use complex mathematical tools like game theory.
  • 12. MAKING NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY
    • National security links diplomatic, economic, and military operations into a framework in which to achieve a nation’s objectives.
    • The president and Congress share the constitutional authority for conducting such policies.
  • 13. MAKING NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY
    • The executive branch is in charge of the day-to-day operations of national security policy and relies on numerous agencies to provide guidance.
      • The National Security Council is made up of the president; vice president; the secretaries of state, defense, and treasury; the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; the CIA director; and the president’s National Security Advisor.
  • 14. MAKING NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY
    • Congress can play a key role in foreign and defense policy in a variety of ways.
      • A principal congressional foreign policy function is to provide funding for various programs.
      • What else can Congress do?
    • Foreign policy is limited by public opinion in as much as policies must attract popular support in order for them to succeed.
  • 15. MAKING NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY
      • The Department of State is the chief diplomatic arm of the U.S. government.
      • The Department of Defense is responsible for maintaining U.S. troops’ combat readiness.
      • The Office of the Director of Intelligence oversees and coordinates intelligence gathering from sixteen intelligence agencies.
  • 16. TOOLS OF FOREIGN POLICY
    • There are a variety of ways that nations can influence the actions of others.
    • Military power is a powerful resource that is both an offensive weapon and a potent deterrent.
    • Diplomacy is the peaceful use of incentives and deterrents to build alliances and support in order to avoid warfare.
  • 17. TOOLS OF FOREIGN POLICY
    • The United States uses loans and grants in the form of military aid, economic assistance, humanitarian assistance, and assistance to multinational organizations in order influence the policies of other nations.
    • The U.S. works with many international organizations in order to share information and resources, influence world opinion, and develop solutions to world problems.
  • 18. CONFRONTING THE FUTURE
    • After the fall of the Soviet Union, the United States remained the only superpower in what became a unipolar world.
    • Threats to U.S. and world stability include terrorism, nuclear weapons, and regional conflicts.
    • The roots of terrorism include extremist ideology, feelings of powerlessness, and lack of economic opportunity.
  • 19. CONFRONTING THE FUTURE
    • Because terrorism is a tactic, nations find it difficult to defend against.
    • Despite various nuclear treaties, there are eight nations that have nuclear weapons, including some that are located in some of the world’s most volatile regions.
    • One of the biggest threats is the prospect of non-nation-state actors gaining access to nuclear material.
    • What is the impact of globalization?
  • 20. CONFRONTING THE FUTURE
    • Globalization ties nations together so that upheavals in one region are liable to have impacts elsewhere.
      • In the Middle East, a solution to the establishment of a permanent Palestinian state could likely ease tensions, but neither side has been able to bring negotiations to a conclusion.
      • Africa is plagued by its lack of economic and modernization progress and the persistence of ethnic and tribal conflicts.
  • 21. CONFRONTING THE FUTURE
    • China’s commercial growth has enabled it to flex its military and economic muscle, including the use of its financial clout to finance U.S. debt.
  • 22. Barber – Jihad v. McWorld Quiz
    • What is the Jihad culture? McWorld?
    • Which of the two theories does Barber conclude are more apt for democracy?
    • What does Barber argue that the Jihad culture and the McWorld culture have in common?