1. He learns German. （一个主语和一个谓语）2. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music. （并列主语和一个谓语）3. We sang and danced yesterday evening.（一个主语和并列谓语）4. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at five in the afternoon.（并列主语和并列谓语）
. 主语 + 系动词 + 表语（ S+Link.V+P ），说 明主语的特征、类属、状态、身份。 You are students. We are in the classroom. We are good friends, aren’t we?
Correct mistakes:1. Her voice sounds beautifully. beautiful2. The whole company was surprising at the news. surprised3. To see is Λbelieve. to4. It seem like a good idea. seems5. The lights Λ on. still are6. All the potatoes changed bad. went7. Jim was remained a worker.
1. 布朗夫人看起来很健康。 Mrs Brown looks very healthy.2. 我的兄弟都是大学生。 My brothers are all college students.3. 这个报告听起来很有意思。 The report sounds interesting.
2. 主语 + 不及物动词 ( S +Vi. )Our school lies in the center of Kaifeng.You will graduate from it next year. The car accident was happened yesterday. 注：不及物动词不能用于被动语态。
1. 五年前我住在北京。 I lived in Beijing five years ago.2. 那天早上我们谈了很多That morning we talked a great deal.3. 她昨天回家很晚。She went home very late yesterday evening.
3. 主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语（ S+Vt+O ）I like my job very much.Each of you has a dream .注：及物动词可用于被动语态People use a great deal of water in thatcity.（主动语态） A great deal of water is used by people in that city. （被动语态）
1. 昨晚我写了一封信。.I wrote a letter last night.2. 他们成功地完成了计划。They have carried out the plan.successfully.3. 那位先生能流利地说三种语言That gentlemen can speak threelanguages fluently.
Exercises:1. － Is this raincoat yours? － No, mine______ there behind the door. C. is hanging B. is hung C. hangs D. was hung 2. ______ your head, and you’ll see the sun______ now. C. Raise; rising D. Raise; raising C. To raise, rising D. Lift; being risen
3. More than a dozen students in thatschool______ abroad to study medicine last year. A. sent B. were sent C. had sent D. had been sent4. The hero’s story______ differently in the newspaper. A. was reported B. was reporting C. Reports D. reported
4. 主语 + 及物动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 (S+Vt+Oi+Od) Who can find me the eraser? Who can find the eraser for me? Pass me the eraser. Pass the eraser to me.常跟双宾语的动词：bring, give, lend, hand, offer, pass,return, send, show, teach, tell, write,ask, buy, call, cook, choose, draw,find, sing, save 等。
1.Johnson 先生去年教我们德语Mr Johnson taught us German last year.2. 我父亲已经给我买了一辆新自行车。 My father has bought me a new bike.3. 奶奶昨晚给我们讲了一个有趣的故事。 Grandma told me an interesting story lastnight.
5. 主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语 + 宾补 (S+Vt+O+C) We saw him jump into the box. We saw them dancing. We saw him knocked down. 注：可用作宾补的词有：名词、形容词、 副词、介词短语、动词不定式、分词。
1.我们大家都认为他是诚实的。 All of us considered him honest. 2. 我们要使学校变得更美丽。 We will make our school more beautiful. 3. 他请我们参加做游戏。He asked us to join in the game.
Exercises:1.Don’t leave the water______ while you brush your teeth. A. run B. running C. being run D. to run2. You should understand the traffic rule by now. You’ve had it______ often enough. A. explaining B. to explain C. explain D. explained
3. My daughter encouraged______ a summer course to improve my writing skills. A. for me taking B. me taking C. for me to take D. me to take4. － Is Bob still performing? － I’m afraid not. He is said______ the stage already as he has become an official. A. to have left B. to leave C. to have been left D. to be left
Exercise 1. 会议将持续两个小时 . The meeting will last two hours. 2. 他们成功地完成了计划。 They have carried out the plan successfully. 3. 树叶已经变黄了。 The leaves have turned yellow. 4. Robinson Crusoe 给自己做了一只小船。 Robinson Crusoe made himself a boat. 5. 我们叫她 Alice. We call her Alice.
e.g. Sandy, be quick. 呼 语Oh, my God! 感叹 语It’s too expensive, I think. 插入语We must all help to fight pollution. 同位 语
1.主语(1) 主语成分主语是句子所叙述的主体 , 说明句子讲的人或事 物.可作主语的有 :e.名词 Shanghai is in the east of China. Tom works very hard.b. 代词 I bought a new book. That is a picture of our school. Who knows the answer?c. 数词 Three plus four is seven.
d. 动词不定式 To see is to believe. It is important to learn English.e. 动名词短语 Smoking is harmful to the health.f. 名词化的形容词或分词 The old should be respected. The disabled will receive more money.g. 名词性短语 A man with a book is coming towards us.h. 主语从句 What he said is not true.Note: How to finish the work is a problem.
(2) 形式主语 (Formal Subject) 是代词 it 的一种用 法。当句子的主语是动词不定式、动名词短语或 从句时 , 为使句子平衡 , 一般用 it 作形式主语放 在句首 , 而将真正的主语当在谓语动词之后。b. It + 谓语 + 动词不定式短语 It is a good habit to do morning exercises. It is difficult for him to give up smoking.b. It + 谓语 + 动名词短语 ( 主要用在以 no good/use, useless, worthwhile, dangerous 等词 作表语的句子中 ) It is no use learning without thinking. It is dangerous playing with fire.c. It + 谓语 + 名词性从句 ( 真正的主语是 that 引导 的名词性从句 )
It is a pity that you didn’t come to the party. It is said that nobody knows where he lives.2. 谓语 谓语用来说明主语的动作或状态 , 由动词承 担 , 一般放在主语之后 . He is a coollege student. The new term will begin on the 1st of September. His novel has been translated into English.3. 宾语(10)宾语成分 宾语用来表明动作的对象或结果 , 是动作的承 受 者 . 宾语常用于及物动词之后 , 称为动词宾 语 . 介词后面的名词或代词 , 称为介词宾语 .
a.名词 He lost his parents in his childhood.b. 代词 ( 人称代词用宾格 ) Everybody likes her.c. 数词 ---How many chairs do you want? ---I want four.d. 名词化的形容词和分词 The doctor is operating on the injured.e. 动词不定式短语 I’d like to have some coffee.f. 动名词短语 I haven’t finished reading your book yet.
g. 名词性短语或从句 I like coffee with some sugar. I think you are right.Note: I really don’t know what to do next.(2) 双宾语有些及物动词可以有两个宾语 : 直接宾语(Direct Object) 和间接宾语 (Indirect Object),称为双宾语 . 这两个宾语往往一个指人 ( 一般为间接宾语 ), 另一个指物 ( 一般为直接宾语 ). 间接宾语一般放在直接宾语之前 . He gave me a book. 间接宾语 直接宾语
有时为了强调间接宾语 , 也可将间接宾语后置 ,并在其前加上介词 to 或 for. He gave a book to me. He bought this book for me.注意 : 如果直接宾语是人称代词 , 则间接宾语必须后置 , 并在其前加上介词 to 或 for. Here’s your report. Don’t forget to show it toyour parents.(3) 复合宾语 有些及物动词 , 除了接一个直接宾语外 , 还接宾语补足语 (Object Complement), 用来说明宾语的动作、状态或特征 . 宾语 + 宾语补足语叫做复合宾语 (Complex Object). 其各种形式如下 :
a.名词或代词宾格 + 名词 His father named him Johnny.b. 名词或代词宾格 + 形容词 You’ll find our washing-powder excellent.c. 名词或代词宾格 + 介词短语 At last, he found him in trouble.d. 名词或代词宾格 + 分词或动词不定式短语 Mum asked him to buy some bread. I can see some students playing basketball.注意 : 在 let, make, watch, see, hear, feel 等词后 , 接动词不定式作宾补 , 则须省去不定式符 号 to.
如果复合宾语中的宾语是动词不定式、动名词短语或从句 , 常用 it 来代替宾语 , 将真正的宾语置于宾语补足语之后 , it 则被称为形式宾语 (FormalObject). We found it difficult to solve this problem. 形式宾 宾语补足语 真正宾语 语I think it necessary that we should vote on it. 真正宾 宾语补足语形式宾语 语
(4) 定语 定语的作用是修饰和限定名词或代词 . 可 作定语的有 :c.形容词 Newton is a famous scientist.b. 名词 Let’s listen to the weather forecast first.c. 动名词 Our school is going to build a swimming pool.d. 分词短语或动词不定式短语 She is reading an interesting book. I have no pen to write with.
e. 介词短语或副词 I haven’t got the solution to the problem. I used to live in the room above.f. 从句 The man who is coming toward us is myEnglish teacher.(5) 同位语 在一个句子中 , 一个名词或代词 , 或相当于名词的短语或从句 , 放在另一个名词或代词之后 , 用以说明它的性质或情况 , 被称为同位语 (Appositive). 可作同位语的通常有 :
a.名词 This is my best friend, Tom.b. 代词 We all got a surprise.c. 数词 This prize is for you two.d. 从句 I had no idea that you were here.(6) 状语 用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子 , 说明地点、时间、原因、目的、结果、条件、 让步、方向、程度、方式或伴随情况的句子成 分 , 被称为状语 (Adverbial). 可充当状语的有 :
a.副词 Who can write beautifully?b. 介词短语 We’re going to spend the holiday at the seaside.c. 分词短语 Not knowing what to do, I decided to give up.d. 动词不定式短语 His mother often comes to see him.e. 名词 Please come this way.
f. 从句 As soon as the teacher came in, all the students stood up.(7) 表语 表语 (Predicative) 是用来说明主语的身份、特征或状态的 , 一般用在连系动词 be,或半系动词如 become, look, turn, seem,appear 等之后 . 可充当表语的有 :h.名词 His father is a teacher.b. 代词 This book is mine.c. 形容词或分词短语 The leaves turn yellow in autumn.
The teacher was satisfied with your work. The story is very interesting.d. 数词 One plus one is two.e. 动词不定式或动名词短语 My job is looking after her. What we want to do now is (to) lie down and rest.f. 副词或介词短语 Sorry, my father isn’t in. Tom is in Shanghai now.g. 从句 The question is why we should put off themeeting.