Several questions:• Which is correct: Mary runs faster than I or Mary runs faster than me ?• How can we explain why it’s odd when learners say : I am boring today?• How do we explain the problem in “ lady go supermarket meet friend”?
The greater part of this world’stroubles are due to questions ofgrammar.” -----Michel de Montaigne
What is grammar?
• Grammar : the rules by which words change their forms and are combined into sentences, or the study or use of these rules: ------Longman Dictionary
• You can learn a language as a child. Then you will learn all the grammar “by heart” and you will not even think about it as grammar. This is the normal way you learn your first language.
• When you get older and want to learn a new language, you use another centre in your brains. You learn by: ? Listening and slowly understand, phrase by phrase ? More and more you learn more phrases, useful in everyday life
If you learn English in this way,congratulations!You can master the language! But notEnglish, but the “pigeon language”(pidgin language)
But if you really want to learn to use a foreign language, you have to √Learn an amount of words so you can make yourself understood√Learn the grammar of the language, so youcan use it, feel comfortable and make youreally understood.
The importance of grammar• Learning the grammar by heart makes you understand the real language and will make you feel that you are safe and secure when you use a foreign language.• You will feel safe that you use the right expressions and also feel that you use the wording that is used and common where natives speak this language.• A language consists of much more than words, it also consists of grammar, i.e. rules of how to use the words.•
The importance of grammar• How you combine these words and how you use them is essential for the practical use of a language.• The better you learn grammar, the better you will understand the real “soul” of a language and can avoid speaking a bad language. Only by learning this (by heart) you can say that you speak and read another language.• Therefore it is very important to learn the grammar of a new language you learn, in order not to be regarded as a “less knowing person”.
• E,g, The cat is chasing the dogs.• 一般现在时： nothing comes from nothing• 定语从句： He that travels far knows much.• 宾语从句： I forget what I was taught, I only remember what I have learned.• 动词不定式： To err is human; to forgive is devine
• 2 通过课本学习 《英语自考系列》 《新概念（第二册）》
• 3 一本语法书 《张道真语法》 《薄冰语法》 《剑桥英语语法》 a. 通读 b . 查询 你想弄懂什么语法项目，就直接去看那 一章。
• e.g1. Whether an organism is a plant of an animal sometimes taxes the brain of a biologist. 主语从句 主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句，通 常放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语 it 代替 ，而本身放在句子末尾。
• e.g2. It is a matter of common experience that bodies are lighter in water than they are in air It+ 谓语 + th at (wh e th e r) 引导的从句 先译从句，再译主句，再主句前加译“ 这” 。
• e.g3. Sunlight is no less necessary than fresh air to a healthy condition of body 比较级
• e.g4. Were there no gravity, there would be no air around earth. 虚拟： 如果 If 从句谓语含有 h ad , we re , s h o u ld , 则 可省略 if ，并常将 h ad , we re , s h o u ld 提至 主语前，用此倒装表虚拟。
• 5 ）要做一定量的相关练习
• 6 ）注意汉英语法的差异性Number of nounse.g.One book, two books 一本书 , 两本书 们: 人们 , 同志们 , 朋友们 X 猴子们 , 书们 X 三个人们
• 7 ）学习英语语法象学习母语一样，不要 钻牛角尖
previous questions:• Which is correct: Mary runs faster than I or Mary runs faster than me ?• How can we explain why it’s odd when learners say : I am boring today?• How do we explain the problem in “ lady go supermarket meet friend”?
• II The problems we often meet in grammar learning
1 . 时态动词时态的使用，主要看时间状语和上下文。每种时态都有相应的时间状语。e.g.1 often ， usually ， sometimese.g.2 last week ， yesterday ， in 2000e.g.3 tomorrow ， next yeare.g.4 already ， yet ， for, since
• 时间、条件两种从句，使用时要特殊记：主句 是一般将来时态，从句要用一般现在时 态。 e.g.I‘ll phone you back as soon as I get home ． e.g.You‘ll fail if you don’t work harder ． 其它一般都遵循 " 时态一致 " 的原则。
• 含宾语从句的句子，主句是现在时态，从句可 以用所需要的任何时态（注：宾语从句讲的是 事实或普遍真理，总是用一般现在时态）；主 句是过去时态，从句也要用相应的过去时态。e.g. He says he will go to Shanghai someday. He said he would go to Shanghai someday.
Other tips about learning tense• 1 应准确掌握该时态的用法。即在什么情况下 可以使用这种时态 A. 表示现在（通常指说话时）正在进行或发生 的动作。 e.g. They are playing basketball. B. 表示当前一段时期内的活动或现阶段正在进 行的动作。 e.g. Im working with Tom for the summer.
• 2 要牢记时态的构成形式。主要包括以下几点 ： A. 由助动词 be 的现在式 （ am, is, are ）＋ doing 。 B. 本时态的助动词是 be 的现在式 am ,is ,are ，而不是 was, were, 更不是 do, did, will 等。 C. 牢记本时态所用的动词现在分词的构成规律 e.g. work-working, close-closing, sit-sitting
• How can we avoid making mistakes? Practice makes perfect!
2 主谓一致谓语动词随着主语人称和数的变化而变化，这就 是所谓的主谓一致。
What’s wrong with the sentence?• 1 、 People likes swimming in summer.• 2 、 What are on the two plates?• 3 、 The singer and dancer are going to the party.• 4 、 Not only Mary but also her sister enjoy listening to the radio.
• 5 、 This kind of apple taste good.• 6 、 Physics were taught by Mr. Wang last term.• 7 、 His family is all healthy.• 8 、 Half of the money are yours.
• 9 、 Mr. White together with some Japanese friends, have visited our school.• 10 、 Either of the answers are right.• 11 、 The number of the students in our class are over fifty.• 12 、 The boys and girls each has their own books.
• 13 、 There are some fish and chicken on the table.• 14 、 This pair of trousers are too short for me.• 15 、 Between the two buildings stand a hospital.• 16 、 Two weeks are quite short time for us finish the work.
3 终止性动词问题 英语的动词有延续性和终止性之分。有一些动词表示的动作可以延续而有些动词表示的动作则是短暂的。这类动词被称为非延续性动词或终止性动词 ( 如： close, open 等 )
Which one is correct?• She has caught a bad cold for a week.• She has had a bad cold for a week.
• 若需要表示持续一段时间时，可以用下列两种 形式： 1 用 It is( 或 has been)since 句型； 2 用副词 ago 把句子改为一般过去时。 ×The American musician has arrived here for about a month. √It is( 或 has been)about a month since the American musician arrived here. √The American musician arrived here about month ago.
• 除了改变句型结构外，还可对动词作相应变化。 其中多数终止性动词可用 be 来表示延续，有 些可用相应的延续性动词来代替。 × My sister had joined the Party for over six years. √ My sister has been a Party member for over six years. × How long have you borrowed the book? √ How long have you kept the book?
• 常用的替换词有： come be here, leave be away, die dead, begin be on, open be open, become be ,buy ,have, borrow keep, eat have, join be in, get up be up, get ready be ready, get to know know, make friends be friends, go to bed sleep, catch a cold have a cold 等。
• Notice 1 、在否定句中，终止性动词可以转化为延续性的否定 状态，因此可以和表示一段时间的状语连用。I haven’t heard from my brother for many years.The rain hasn’t stopped since three minutes ago. 2 、终止性动词可以用于 " 表示过去发生的某一动作对 现在造成的影响或结果 " 这种概念的现在完成时中， 说明某个动作的结果还存在，不跟表示一段时间的状 语连用，但可用 already, yet, before, just, ever, now, today 等时间状语。 I have already posted the photos. Have you seen the film before?
• 1 、陈述句部分的主语是名词时，简短问句的主 语用人称代词来代替。 e.g. The teacher had a long talk with you, didnt he?• 2 、主语若是指示代词 this 或 that 时，简单问句 的主语用 it ，指示代词若是 these 或 those 时，简 单问句的主语用 they 。 e.g. This is a useful book, isn’t it? e.g. Those aren’t desks, are they?
• 3 、陈述句部分主谓是 "I am…" 时，简单问句 用 aren’t I 。 e.g. I am older than you, aren’t I?• 4 、第一部分陈述句是 "there be" 句型时，提问 部分须保留 there 。 e.g. There are some apples in the basket, arent there?
• 5 、否定意义的词时，简单问句部分用肯定形 式。 e.g. There’s nothing wrong with it, is there? e.g. Few people went to the exhibition, did they?• 6 、陈述句中若有通过加前缀或后缀构成否定 意义的词，仍作肯定句处理，因此简短问句一 般仍用否定形式。 e.g. The cloth is useless, isnt it? e.g. Kate dislikes the book, doesnt she?
• 7 、陈述句部分的主语是 everyone 、 everybody 、 someone 、 somebody 、 anyone 、 anybody 、 no one 、 nobody 及 none 等，简短问句部分的主语一般用 they 。 e.g. Nobody can work it out, can they? e.g. of the students went there,did they? ※everything 、 nothing 、 something 、 anything 等总是用单数动词。 e.g. Everything has gone wrong today, hasn’t it? e.g. Nothing was right, was it?
• 8 、当陈述句中有 had better 时，简短问句一般 用 shouldn’t 或 hadn’t. e.g. You’d better do it by yourself, should’t you?/hadn’t you?• 9 、若第一部分是祈使句，在它后面的疑问尾 句一般为 will you 或 won’t you 的婉转表示请求 、恳求之意，并没有反问之意。 Will you 多表 示 " 请求 " ， won’t you 多表示 " 提醒对方注 意 " 。但是，祈使句的否定结构后面，只能用 will you 。如： e.g. Look at the picture, will you/ wont you?
• 1 0 、以 Let’s 开始的祈使句中，反意疑问句部分用 shall we 或 shan’t we, 但是 Let us (me, him) , 问句则用 will you 或 won’t you 。 e.g. Let’s go for a walk, shall we? (shan’t we?) e.g. Let us go to the park, will you? (won’t you?)• 11 、若陈述句是主从复合句，反意疑问句部分的代词 和助动词应跟主句中的主语和动词保持一致。 e.g. They never said Tom would come, did they? e.g. When the teacher speaks, we have to keep quiet, don’t we?
• 1 2 、陈述句若是 "I th in k(b e lie ve ,s u p p o s e ,e xp e c t 等 ) ＋宾语从句 " ，反意疑问句部分应与宾语从句的主 谓保持一致 ( 特殊情况例外 ) ，并要注意否定转移。 e.g. I believe they’ve finished their work, havent they? e.g. I don’t think he is right, is he? e.g. You thought he was an honest man, didnt you?• 1 3 、陈述句若是并列句，简短问句的主语一般与最接 近的分句主语保持一致。 e.g. We must study English hard, or we aren’t good at English, are we? e.g. He was lazy, and he didn’t pass the exam, did he?
• 1 4 、简短问句在感叹句后，动词用否定式， 人称与前面的名词一致。 e.g. What delicious food, isn‘t ?• 1 5 、陈述句动词是 wis h 和 h o p e , 简短问句 要用 m ay ，代词与 wis h 、 h o p e 的主语相 一致 e.g. I wish to see a film now, may I? e.g. I hope to visit Nanjing soon, may I?
A sentence for you :There is light at the end of the long channel.