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  • 1. Birla Institute of Management Technology Summer Internship Project I. Skill gap analysis of the Management Cadre in Two Job Groups of HRS North II. Evaluation, Analysis and Redesign of the Training Calendar 2010-11 Company: Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, Noida Industry Guide: Mr. Rajnish Kumar Faculty Guide: Dr. Manosi Chaudhuri Submitted by: Chitra Chakraborty PGDM 2009-11 Roll No. - 033 HR Major
  • 2. SUMMER PROJECT CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Ms. Chitra Chakraborty Roll No. 033, a student ofPGDM has worked on summer project titled “Skill gap analysis of theManagement Cadre in Two Job Groups of HRS North” and “Evaluation,Analysis and Redesign of the Training Calendar 2010-11” at BharatPetroleum Corporation Limited, Noida after trimester-III in partialfulfilment of the requirement for the programme. This is her original work tothe best of my knowledge.Date Signature Name of faculty: Dr. ManosiChaudhuriSeal
  • 3. CERTIFICATE OF APPROVALThe following Summer Internship Report titled ““Skill gap analysis of theManagement Cadre in Two Job Groups of HRS North” and “Evaluation,Analysis and Redesign of the Training Calendar 2010-11”” is hereby approvedas a certified study in management carried out and presented in a mannersatisfactory to warrant its acceptance as a prerequisite for the award of PostGraduate Diploma in Management for which it has been submitted. It isunderstood that by this approval the undersigned do not necessarily endorse orapprove any statement made, opinion expressed or conclusion drawn thereinbut approve the Summer Internship Report only for the purpose it is submitted.Industry Guide Signature..............................Name: Mr. Rajnish KumarDesignation: Deputy Manager
  • 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIt has been a very rewarding experience working in the Human Resources department atBharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, Noida. During the course of my project I was alwaysguided in the right direction and this experience has helped me to grow more rational in mythinking and approach.I am extremely grateful to Mr. Sunil K. Bains, Manager, Employee Relations, NorthernRegion, for giving me the opportunity to work on this project which helped me learn a lotand integrate my theoretical knowledge with the practical workings of a corporation.I am highly indebted to Mr. Rajnish Kumar, Deputy Manager, Employee Relations, NorthernRegion, for taking over as my mentor after Mr. Bains transferred to a different department.My special thanks to Ms. Mansi Dubey, Assistant Manager, Employee Relations, NorthernRegion for helping me throughout my study. I am grateful to her for sharing her valuableinsights and knowledge.I also extend my thanks to Ms. Ritu Mathur, Deputy Manager, Training and Development,Northern Region for giving me an opportunity to work with an additional project.I also sincerely thank my Faculty Mentor Ms. Manosi Chaudhuri, Associate Professor,BIMTECH for guiding me throughout the project. Her expertise in the domain of HumanResources led to the successful completion of this project.I would also like to add that this project would not have been possible to conduct without thesupport of all the members of the Human Resource Department. I would like to take thisopportunity to thank them all.
  • 5. Table of ContentsS.No Particulars Page no.1. Executive Summary2. Objectives3. Scope of the Project4. Research Methodology5. Industry and Company Profile7. Competitor’s Profiles8. Review of literature9. BPCL’s HR structure10. Findings and analysis11. Conclusions12. Recommendations13. Limitations of study14. Learning Experiences15. Annexure16. Bibliography
  • 6. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe levels of excellence an organization reaches depends on the skill levels of its employees.An organization can adopt new procedures and acquire new techniques but if its personnelare not skilled enough to work with them, it all falls flat. Here lies the need for a skills gapanalysis. In today’s dynamic world change is indeed the only constant where new technologyis consistently replacing older ones. Thus it is imperative that employees’ skills be constantlyupgraded.By applying skills gap analysis across a company it is possible to find out which skill andknowledge shortfalls there are in an organization. It is then possible to target trainingresources on those necessary skills that require the most attention. This should result in theoptimal use of resources in terms of improving the overall performance of the company.Since the targets here are job groups A and B, the idea is to build a strong talent pool in thecompany which will aid in career planning and pipelining. The individual employees willthen be benefitted in terms of being able to produce personal development and training plans,support appraisals, and pay reviews. It can also be used to bolster morale by showing howthey have progressed over time.Skills gap analysis will also be used to identify which staff members have most knowledgeof particular aspects of the business as well as those with skill gaps. Furthermore, it will aidrecruitment by identifying the candidate whose skills best match those needed to functioneffectively in a particular role. Analysis will also allow benchmarking and encouragetutoring and mentoring within teams.The entire project was carried out in four phases: 1. Studyingied the HR profile of BPCL. 2. Carryingied out surveys for target group and line managers. 3. Identifying the areas in which training is required. 4. RecommendingFormulate training programs relevant to the needs.Through the surveys that were I conducted, I have been able to reach certain conclusionsabout the skill levels of the target group were assessed. I have also been able to
  • 7. rRecommendations were offered about ways to overcome the skill gaps that the target groupwasseems to be facing. OBJECTIVESAs the title of the project suggests, the objective of this project is to identify and analyze thegaps in skills required to perform the jobs in job groups A and B in the Human Resourcesdepartment. The project has been carried out to aid BPCL in future decision making in termsof designing its training interventions. The main aim is to ensure that in this dynamicenvironment their personnel’s’ skills are up-to-date.The objectives of the project are the following: 1. To understanding the job descriptions of the various positions in job groups A and B in HRS North and to create skills list for the same. 2. To analyse the manager’s list of the skills required and his rating of the employee skill level. 3. To analyse the employee’s list of the skills required. 4. To identify the discrepancies between where skill levels of the employees should be and where they are and to assess the skill gap. 5. To suggest interventions to bridge the skill gap.
  • 8. SCOPE OF THE PROJECTThe skills gap concept is used in areas such as business, educational institutes, and sport. Byapplying skills gap analysis across a company it is possible to find out which skill andknowledge shortfalls there are in an organization. It is then possible to target trainingresources on those necessary skills that require the most attention. This should result in theoptimal use of resources in terms of improving the overall performance of the company.Since the targets here are job groups A and B, the idea is to build a strong talent pool in thecompany which will aid in career planning and pipelining. The individual employees willthen be benefitted in terms of being able to produce personal development and training plans,support appraisals, and pay reviews. It can also be used to bolster morale by showing howthey have progressed over time.Skills gap analysis will also be used to identify which staff members have most knowledgeof particular aspects of the business as well as those with skill gaps. Furthermore, it will aidrecruitment by identifying the candidate whose skills best match those needed to functioneffectively in a particular role. Analysis will also allow benchmarking and encouragetutoring and mentoring within teams.Benefits:  Ensure that staff requirements are understood and integrated with business needs.  Make sure that training and development activities exactly meet the needs of the individual as well as the organisation.  Improve staff morale and support career development.
  • 9. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYThis chapter provides an idea of the process used to carry out the project. Both primary andsecondary data have been used during the course of this project. Survey Researchmethodology has been used via face to face interactions with the target group and their linemanagers. The research instruments used are questionnaires presented as annexure.Secondary data has been collected from the company’s intranet as well as the internet.After getting an idea of the human resources setup in BPCL, I drafted a questionnaire wasdrafted for the target group on the relevant issues and a survey was conducted a survey. Thissurvey was done face to face.Based on preferential sampling, a target group comprising the staff in job groups A and Bwere selectedassigned to me.The entire project was carried out in four steps –Step I – Study of the HR setup and understanding the work profiles of the target group inparticular from secondary sources.Step II – Carrying out the survey of the target group and collecting primary data.Step III – Carrying out the survey of their line managers.Step IV – To analyze the data collected from both the surveys conducted and to drawmeaningful inferences from the same. I also recommended wWays to remove any skill gapsand upgrade skill levels were also recommended.Survey Research has been used because of the following reasons: • It is simple to administer. • Data obtained are reliable because the use of fixed-response questions reduces the variability in the results that maybe caused by difference in interviewers
  • 10. • Interpretation of data and analysis are relatively simple. • Can accommodate large sample sizes and generalize results. INDUSTRY AND COMPANY PROFILEIndian oil and gas industry has been evolving at a rapid pace during the last few years. Theplayers in the industry are preparing themselves to face the marketing conditions after thedismantling of Administered Pricing Mechanism (APM) in 2002. The industry has beenwitnessing two important developments during last two years. One is the adoption of globalstrategies by domestic players (an example is the building of world-class capacity byReliance Petroleum at Jamnagar). Another important development is the increased focus onnatural gas. The government has also initiated several steps to increase the supply of naturalgas (for example, the Government has made an agreement with Iran for the supply of naturalgas).The oil and gas industry has been instrumental in fuelling the rapid growth of the Indianeconomy. India has total reserves of 775 million metric tonnes (MT) of crude oil and 1074billion cubic metres (BCM) of natural gas as on April 1, 2009, according to the Ministry ofPetroleum. BHARAT PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITEDBharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) is one of Indias largest PSU companies, withFortune Global 500 rank of 287 (2008) and has Navratna status. Its corporate office islocated at Ballard Estate, Mumbai. Its interests are in downstream petroleum sector. It isinvolved in the refining and retailing of petroleum products. Bharat Petroleum produces adiverse range of products, from petrochemicals and solvents to aircraft fuel and specialtylubricants and markets them through its wide network of Petrol Stations, Kerosene Dealers,LPG Distributors, Lube Shoppes, besides supplying fuel directly to hundreds of industries,and several international and domestic airlines.
  • 11. Following nationalization in 1976, BPCL changed its gears and embarked upon a Rapidgrowth path. Turnover, profitability and financial reserves grew by leaps and bounds. One ofthe single digit Indian representatives in the Fortune 500 & Forbes 2000 listings, BPCL isoften referred to as an “MNC in PSU garb”. It is considered a pioneer in marketinginitiatives, and employs “Best in Class” practices. It is considered to be a pioneer in Indianpetroleum industry with various path-breaking initiatives such as Pure for Sure campaign,Petro card, Fleet card etc.The 1860s saw vast industrial development. A lot of petroleum refineries came up. Animportant player in the South Asian market then was the Burmah Oil Company Ltd. Thoughincorporated in Scotland in 1886, the company grew out of the enterprises of the RangoonOil Company, which had been formed in 1871 to refine crude oil produced from primitivehand dug wells in Upper Burma.The search for oil in India began in 1886, when Mr. Goodenough of McKillop StewartCompany drilled a well near Jaypore in upper Assam and struck oil. In 1889, the AssamRailway and Trading Company (ARTC) struck oil at Digboi marking the beginning of oilproduction in India.While discoveries were made and industries expanded, John D Rockefeller together with hisbusiness associates acquired control of numerous refineries and pipelines to later form thegiant Standard Oil Trust. The largest rivals of Standard Oil - Royal Dutch, Shell, Rothschilds- came together to form a single organization: Asiatic Petroleum Company to marketpetroleum products in South Asia.In 1928, Asiatic Petroleum (India) joined hands with Burmah Oil Company - an activeproducer, refiner and distributor of petroleum products, particularly in Indian and Burmesemarkets. This alliance led to the formation of Burmah-Shell Oil Storage and DistributingCompany of India Limited. A pioneer in more ways than one, Burmah Shell began itsoperations with import and marketing of Kerosene. This was imported in bulk andtransported in 4 gallon and 1 gallon tins through rail, road and country craft all over India.With motor cars, came canned Petrol, followed by service stations. In the 1930s, retail salespoints were built with driveways set back from the road; service stations began to appear andbecame accepted as a part of road development. After the war Burmah Shell established
  • 12. efficient and up-to-date service and filling stations to give the customers the highest possiblestandard of service facilities.From Burmah Shell to Bharat Petroleum - On 24 January 1976, the Burmah Shell Groupof Companies was taken over by the Government of India to form Bharat Refineries Limited.On 1 August 1977, it was renamed Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited. It was also thefirst refinery to process newly found indigenous crude Bombay High, in the country. TodayBharat Petroleum Corporation Limited has got three refineries at Mumbai, Kochi andNumaligarh. They are also on the verge of commissioning another refinery at Bina inMadhya Pradesh. The refineries at Mumbai and Kochi (Kochi Refineries) have a capacity of12 Million Metric Tonnes (MMT) and 9.5 MMTPA respectively for refining crude oil.BPCLs subsidiary at Numaligarh has a capacity of 3 MMT. The Bina Refinery is wouldoperate at 6 MMTPA for the first year.Bharat Petroleum produces a diverse range of products, from petrochemicals and solvents toaircraft fuel and speciality lubricants and markets them through its wide network of PetrolStations, Kerosene Dealers, LPG Distributors, Lube Shoppes, besides supplying fuel directlyto hundreds of industries, and several international and domestic airlines. The logo of Bharat Petroleum is shown on the left. It represents yin and yang. There have been many changes in BPCL in the recent years. For example, there has been an introduction of SAP software which has made all work go online. Plus the dynamic profile that the company has fosters a need for continuous training and development.A few key numbers are:
  • 13. 2009 Sales (mil.): £18,418.81-Year Sales Growth: (6.1%)2009 Net Income (mil.): £85.51-Year Net Income Growth: (72.6%) COMPETITOR’S PROFILEAlthough it carries the ancient Sanskrit name for India (Bharat), Bharat PetroleumCorporation Limited (BPCL) is a modern refining and distribution company. It vies withHindustan Petroleum for the #2 slot behind Indian Oil.Top competitors of Bharat Petroleum are the following: • Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited • Indian Oil Corporation Limited • Reliance IndustriesHindustan Petroleum Corporation LimitedHPCL is a Fortune 500 company, with an annual turnover of Rs. 1,16,428 Crores andsales/income from operations of Rs 1,31,802 Crores (US$ 25,618 Millions) during FY 2008-09, having about 20% Marketing share in India and a strong market infrastructure.Corresponding figures for FY 2007-08 are: Turnover of Rs 1, 03,837 Croresand sales/income from Operations of Rs.1, 12,098 Crores (US$ 25,142 Million).HPCL operates 2 major refineries producing a wide variety of petroleum fuels & specialties,one in Mumbai (West Coast) of 6.5 Million Metric Tonnes Per Annum (MMTPA) capacityand the other in Vishakhapatnam, (East Coast) with a capacity of 7.5 MMTPA. HPCL holdsan equity stake of 16.95% in Mangalore Refinery & Petrochemicals Limited, a state-of-the-art refinery at Mangalore with a capacity of 9 MMTPA. In addition, HPCL is constructing arefinery at Bhatinda, in the state of Punjab, as a Joint venture with Mittal Energy Investments
  • 14. Pte.Ltd.HPCL also owns and operates the largest Lube Refinery in the country producing Lube BaseOils of international standards, with a capacity of 335 TMT. This Lube Refinery accounts forover 40% of the Indias total Lube Base Oil production.HPCLs vast marketing network consists of 13 Zonal offices in major cities and 90 RegionalOffices facilitated by a Supply & Distribution infrastructure comprising Terminals, AviationService Stations, LPG Bottling Plants, and Inland Relay Depots & Retail Outlets, Lube andLPG Distributorships. HPCL, over the years, has moved from strength to strength on allfronts. The refining capacity steadily increased from 5.5 MMTPA in 1984/85 to 13MMTPA presently. On the financial front, the turnover grew from Rs. 2687 Crores in 1984-85 to an impressive Rs 1, 16,428 Crores in FY 2008-09.What HPCL is doing on the training front?At HPCL, they believe – "The mind is not a vessel to be filled, but a fire to be ignited" assaid by Plutarch."Arousing passion and emotional involvement is the best possible way to align theemployees around a common purpose." With this objective, HPCL embarked upon a processof Organizational Transformation called Project ACE - Achieving Continuous Excellence.Project ACE was conceived to develop a co-created vision shared by the organizationalmembers at large, thereby transforming HPCL into an innovative and learning organizationwhere employees continuously acquire new skills and capabilities to excel, and achieveoutstanding business results.While Project ACE enabled formalization of strategies, a need was felt for a robust tool tohelp execute these strategies. Measurement is the key to ensure that the strategies translateinto business results.
  • 15. With this philosophy, Balanced Scorecard (BSC) was introduced as a strategic initiative forclear articulation of measurable business outcomes and cascading it to different levels of theorganization. Moreover, in order to establish strong linkage with the PerformanceManagement System, and to create a BSC conducive culture, the appraisal format wasredesigned in line with different perspectives of BSC.Accordingly, officers set targets for each of the perspectives of Balanced Scorecard viz. • Financial • Customer • Internal Processes and • Learning and GrowthBenchmarking:When it comes to benchmarking, they believe “The value of achievement lies in theachieving” as said by Albert Einstein.Mobilising the potential of the Project ACE and Balanced Scorecard initiatives, it wasmade sure that every employee was empowered to think beyond boundaries and challengethemselves and each other. This flows from the belief that innovation can come anytimefrom anyone.To encourage novel ideas and to be competitive, the competencies of employees need to bein line with the international standards. Towards this end, another major HR initiative– Competency Mapping and Development was embarked upon at HPCL. Under thisinitiative, the Behavioural and Technical Competency Framework has been finalized.Development Centres for key position holders are conducted to identify the competencygaps. These gaps are systematically addressed through Individual Development Plans,which are drawn up at the end of every Development Centre. This initiative is linked to theLearning and Growth Perspective of Balanced Scorecard initiative. All training programs are
  • 16. linked to the competencies defined in various frameworks and gaps identified in theDevelopment Centres.This is also integrated with our recruitment process, where the interviewers are trained toconduct competency based interviews. Inputs from development centres are also used forcareer and succession planning.Performance ManagementIn their endeavour to effectively analyze the performance of their training and mentoringprograms, they have developed robust and objective performance management processeswhich strive to effectively tread through their employees’ hopes and aspirations. It is allabout endorsing an empowering environment which takes you to your best. And they makesure you get valuable feedback, coaching, and knowledge from the people their employeeswork with.Career progression at HPCL is ensured through objective appraisal of performance. Theirperformance appraisal process is based on Balanced Scorecard Approach and is more thanjust assessment. It enables the employees to identify and develop their strengths andweaknesses and align them towards organizational objectives through counselling,mentoring and additional inputs through specific training programmes.With the competencies being mapped and competency gaps identified, employees are ina learning and growth mode and it has become a way of life at HPCL.They are fully committed to enhancing the skills and competencies of their employees, andalso, enrich their personal growth and development. Capabilities are recognized andopportunities for further learning are provided. Their training programs are at par with thebest and strive to galvanize a person into a thorough professional with which he can realizehis potential.
  • 17. HPCL has a state of art learning centre at Nigdi, Pune called HP– MDI which is a certifiedISO 9002 institute where a wide range of Functional / Behavioural / Managerial programmesare conducted. Carefully designed and developed, these programmes are conducted byexperts drawn from reputed academic institutes to Management Consultants. The instituteslibrary is a treasure house that contains works on a variety of subjects covering all theaspects of management. The institute has a well equipped gymnasium, tennis court andindoor sports for recreation. Each morning, Yoga sessions are also conducted under theguidance of Yoga gurus.HPCL has also developed an e-learning portal using which employees can enhance theirtechnical and behavioural competencies through numerous e-learning modules. Theseinteractive modules are content rich and also enable the employee to evaluate these on theknowledge acquired.An Interactive Training Portal with complete schedule and the details of the various trainingactivities conducted across the country is available. This portal has provisions to enablingemployees to nominate themselves for the programs of their interests, online.Towards Employee DelightThe welfare of their employees is the key theme in their organization. The benefits they offerthem are on par with the best available.These are:VDA (Variable Dearness Allowance), HRA (House Rent Allowance), CCA (CityCompensatory Allowance) etc. and other perquisites as applicable to particular grade are alsoprovided.Perquisites: They have a comprehensive medical insurance program that covers the wholearray of medical expenses for the employee and his dependants. The employee’s growth inthe company will be complemented by his own self-development. Their educational refundplan offers the employee the support in pursuing the course of his interest. Their study leavepolicy also includes a time-off to pursue higher studies related to employee’s profession.Their responsibility towards employees doesn’t stop at compensation alone. They offer all
  • 18. possible help to facilitate employee’s settling down. They provide housing and vehicle loansat a very nominal interest rate that will help in securing employee’s family’s future. Theirother benefits include furniture and computer advance, home lease facility, accommodationat a very minimal charge depending upon availability and a host of allowances and insuranceschemes to make the employee’s stay in their company comfortable. All these in addition toa host of deferred benefits like provident fund, gratuity and pension plan.Sub departments:While they do not have any specific sub divisions in their HR department, they do have thefollowing titles for the work they do: 1. Performance Management 2. Training 3. Industrial Relations 4. Hr marketing 5. Competency mapping and development 6. Manpower planning and recruitmentIn their efforts to nurture merit and enable people to bring out their best, they place apremium on innovation and give their people the freedom to think differently. Theyencourage individuals to take on increased responsibility and thereby contribute to thesuccess of the company. Hard work and contribution never go unnoticed at HPCL; if anemployee’s, or his team’s performance, is of unrivalled standards and has led to substantialsavings, his contribution shall be rewarded with “Outstanding Achievement Award ". It’s inrecognition of the employee’s unrelenting and steady performance. HPCL values loyalty andrewards it suitably. Employees who have been a part of the corporation for more than 15years are rewarded for their service since they have proved to be a major force behind theirsuccessful journey.Indian Oil Corporation LimitedIndian Oil is an Indian public-sector oil and gas company. It is India’s largest commercialenterprise, ranking 105th on the Fortune Global 500 list in 2009. Indian Oil and itssubsidiaries account for a 47% share in the petroleum products market, 40% share in refining
  • 19. capacity and 67% downstream sector pipelines capacity in India. The Indian Oil Group ofCompanies owns and operates 10 of Indias 19 refineries with a combined refining capacityof 60.2 million metric tons per year.Indian Oil operates the largest and the widest network of fuel stations in the country,numbering about 17606 (15557 regular ROs & 2049 Kissan Sewa Kendra). It has alsostarted Auto LPG Dispensing Stations (ALDS). It supplies Indane cooking gas to over 47.5million households through a network of 4,990 Indian distributors. In addition, Indian OilsResearch and Development Centre (R&D) at Faridabad supports, develops and provides thenecessary technology solutions to the operating divisions of the corporation and itscustomers within the country and abroad. Subsequently, Indian Oil Technologies Limited - awholly owned subsidiary, was set up in 2003, with a vision to market the technologiesdeveloped at Indian Oils Research and Development Centre. It has been modelled on theR&D marketing arms of Royal Dutch Shell and British Petroleum.Success is people driven. Building competencies through training is one of the core strengthsof Indian Oil. The Indian Oil Institute of Petroleum Management- a centre of excellence fornurturing future leadership, situated on the outskirts of New Delhi, conducts advancedmanagement education programmes in collaboration with premier business schools and topline professionals. Indian Oil operates 18 training centres across the country for up-skilling,re-skilling and multi-skilling of employees in its pursuit of corporate excellence.Indian Oil has been serving as a source of technical support and expertise to petroleumcompanies of carious countries across the globe. Some of these countries, which havepartnered for excellence, include Sri Lanka, Kuwait, Bahrain Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Tanzania,Ethiopia, Algeria, Nigeria, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives, Malaysia and Zambia.
  • 20. REVIEW OF LITERATUREAny organization needs a skills management program in place. Skills Management is thepractice of understanding, developing and deploying people and their skills. Well-implemented skills management should identify the skills that job roles require, the skills ofindividual employees, and any gap between the two.In the early 1970’s, industrial psychologists and human resource managers were seekingways to better predict job performance. There was significant evidence to show thatpersonality and personality testing was very poor at predicting job performance (about 10%success rate was achievable). At the same time, a number of studies showed that traditionalacademic aptitude, knowledge tests, school grades and credentials did not predict jobperformance.Dr David C. McClelland, Professor of Harvard University published a paper in 1973 titled“Testing for Competency Rather Than Intelligence” which launched the competencymovement in psychology. Over 30 years of research, experience and consulting work havedemonstrated that competencies are the best method to define and predict outstanding jobperformance. They are also free from bias against race, sex or socioeconomic factors.Competencies are personal characteristics that differentiate levels of performance in a givenjob, role, organization, or culture. In other words Competencies are defined as personalcharacteristics that lead to superior performance. Competencies include skills, knowledge,attitudes, motives and other personal attributes that allow managers to perform at anexcellent standard.
  • 21. Below is the iceberg competency model which depicts the various levels of competencycharacteristics, with skill and knowledge forming the tip of the iceberg. The underlyingelements of competencies are less visible but they largely direct and control surfacebehavior. Social role and Self-concept exist at a conscious level; Traits and Motives existeven further below the surface, lying closest to the person’s core. Necessary for top performance but not Skill sufficient to be outstanding Knowledge Characteristics Social Role, Values that provide V Self Image motivation and lead to longer Trait term success Motive As seen in the iceberg there are six basic types of competency characteristics, and they existat different levels of consciousness within people. The upper levels are easy to see, but theyrarely predict or determine outstanding performance. The deeper levels of competencies -traits and motives - tend to drive people’s long-term behavior and, thus, their long-termperformance. • Skill- the ability to perform a certain physical or mental task, e.g., a dentist’s physical skill to fill a tooth without damaging the nerve. • Knowledge- the information a person has in specific areas, e.g., knowledge of basic accounting principles, knowledge of human anatomy etc. • Social Role- the image a person projects to others, the “outer self,” e.g., being a leader or a follower. It reflects a person’s values - what he or she believes is important to do. • Self Image- the way a person sees himself or herself - the “inner self”, or internal concept of identity, e.g., seeing oneself as a teacher or leader. • Traits- are relatively enduring characteristics of a person’s behavior, either cognitive or psycho-social, e.g., being a good listener, or being able to recognize patterns across seemingly unrelated elements. • Motives- are natural and constant thoughts and preferences in a particular area (i.e., Achievement, Affiliation, and Power) that drive, direct, and select a person’s outward behaviour, e.g., continuously wanting to achieve and make things better.
  • 22. The first two are relatively easy to develop and acquire; training is all that is required.However, the last two are the core of one’s personality and are more difficult to assess anddevelop; it is therefore more cost-effective to select for these characteristics. Self- imagecompetencies lie somewhere in-between; attitudes and values such as self-confidence andself-esteem can be changed with training and positive developmental experiences, althoughwith more time and effort. Competencies determine whether someone is well-matched or not so well-matched with hisor her job or role. The better the match, the more effective and satisfied a person will be incarrying out what the job or role requires. Because different jobs have widely differingdemands, the competencies that contribute to outstanding performance will differ from job tojob. For example, the job of an individual contributor in a computer company will require adifferent set of competencies from the job of an executive in a service company.The easiest to assess are the ones above water on the Iceberg Model: skills and knowledge.These are the kinds of competencies, such as extent of education, job experience, and areasof expertise, that are presented in résumés. On the other hand, motives (e.g., Achievement,Affiliation, and Power Motivation) are the most difficult competencies to assess. As wehave seen, motives exist at the unconscious level, and we rarely get feedback on whatmotivates us. So, we may not even know or understand our motives ourselves. However,there are certain behavioral indicators that come from and are associated with the variouscompetencies. For example, a person who has the competency characteristics ofAchievement Orientation will tend to set challenging goals for himself or herself and others.That behavior is the outward indicator of that particular competency. Behavioral indicatorsof competencies can be identified through Behavioral Event Interviews or, in some cases,through questionnaires. Similarly, all competencies can be developed, some more easily than others. The mostimportant thing is that competencies can be taught. But some competencies need extensivedevelopmental effort over an extended period (as do motives), and some are limited as to thedegree of development possible (as is intelligence). In general, the competencies that areharder to see are harder to develop. That is, the level of consciousness at which acompetency exists is not related only to how easily it can be assessed, but also to how easilyit can be developed. Thus, motives are extremely difficult to develop, while acquiring a setof simple skills may only require taking a single class. When people fail to demonstrate the behaviours related to a competency, it may not bebecause they don’t possess the competency, but rather because there are external or internalobstacles that make showing the behavioural evidence of a competency difficult. To develop a competency, or to show it more, it helps to identify whether the key issuesstanding in the way of competency expression are external or internal, and then to focusefforts at competency development.
  • 23. External Issues- A major reason for someone not displaying a competency can be theenvironment or culture in which he or she works. If the expression of a competency isdiscouraged or not permitted, it takes extra effort to show it. Some of these issues can beresolved through discussions with your manager; others may relate to having a different setof cultural assumptions, which may mean reconsidering your own focus as well as that ofothers. Internal Issues- The internal obstacles to expressing a competency may have to do with aperson not understanding the situation (knowledge), seeing the display of a competencybehavior as inappropriate (social role), or simply not enjoying displaying that particularcompetency behavior (motive).The Iceberg Model can help identify exactly what is missing within you or keeping you fromdemonstrating a competency, and what is necessary in order to develop a competency. Listed below are some key questions based on the Iceberg Model that can guide yourthinking about how you want to develop the competency. Different levels of the icebergrequire different kinds of development; for example, adding a skill and changing the wayyou see your social role require different methods of change. Iceberg Level Questions to Ask Yourself Sample Development ActionsKnowledge Do I know enough to act? Am I Research study, observation, missing information? asking questions, booksSkills Do I have the ability or training to Skill training, courses act? Can I act effectively?Social Role, Do I know the part to play? Do I see Choosing new roles to play,Values this as appropriate? Is this the right examining values in the context of thing to do here? the situationSelf-Image Do I see myself doing this? Is this Reordering personal priorities, me? Is this important to me? defining and adopting a new self- imageTrait Do I have the enduring, reliable Organized practice of trait patterns of behaviour needed to do behaviours, establishment of this? systems to substituteMotive Do I enjoy this? Does it get me Long-term organized practice of energized? motives, thoughts, and behaviours
  • 24. Any competency can be acquired or developed by using the step-by-step CompetencyAcquisition Process below. Although some steps are harder than others for somecompetencies, this basic process works for acquiring or developing any competency, to agreater or lesser degree.1. Recognition- “I know it when I see it.” You recognize the competency when it is there or when someone demonstrates it, but cannot explain it or replicate it.2. Understanding- “I know what it is.” You can explain a competency at this step in the process; you know what to do, what a person thinks about when acting, or what is missing, even though you may not be able to do it yourself.3. Self-Assessment- “I see how much I have of it.” This is the comparison between where you are now and where you will be when you have acquired the competency. Accurate, objective feedback is vitally important here, so that you can make a realistic assessment of what you bring and what stands in your way. People’s views of themselves are rarely accurate enough to yield a reliable self-assessment regarding a difficult competency.4. Experimentation- “I am doing it.” This includes experimentation and hands-on practice of the competency, preferably in a “safe” context, where it does not threaten overall job performance. Development tasks and on-the-job assignments are useful here.5. Skill Practice- “I am doing it on the job.” Once the competency has been practised adequately, it can be integrated into daily performance on the job. A goal-setting process is helpful in making long-term plans for how to do this. This is also an opportunity for the manager to take part in a person’s development.6. Feedback- “I know how I am doing.” It is critical to get objective feedback on how well you have begun to demonstrate a new competency, to advance and enhance the process of development over time. Feedback creates a realistic self-assessment, which drives the next steps for development. This is an opportunity to obtain outside help from peers, the manager, employees, or others.The skills involved can be defined by the organization concerned, or by third partyinstitutions. They are usually defined in terms of a skills framework, also known as acompetency framework or skills matrix. This consists of a list of skills, and a gradingsystem, with a definition of what it means to be at particular level for a given skill.To be most useful, skills management needs to be conducted as an ongoing process, withindividuals assessing and updating their recorded skill sets regularly. These updates shouldoccur at least as frequently as employees regular line manager reviews, and certainly whentheir skill sets have changed.Skills management systems record the results of this process in a database, and allow
  • 25. analysis of the data.Skills management provides a structured approach to developing individual and collectiveskills, and gives a common vocabulary for discussing skills. As well as this general benefit,three groups of employees receive specific benefits from skills management:Individual Employees: As a result of skills management, employees should be aware of theskills their job requires, and any skills gaps that they have. Depending on their employer, itmay also result in a personal development plan (PDP) of training to bridge some or all ofthose skills gaps over a given period.Line Managers: Skills management enables managers to know the skill strengths andweaknesses of employees reporting to them. It can also enable them to search for employeeswith particular skill sets (e.g. to fill a role on a particular project).Organization Executives: A rolled-up view of skills and skills gaps across an organizationcan enable its executives to see areas of skill strength and weakness. This enables them toplan for the future against the current and future abilities of staff, as well as to prioritise areasfor skills development.Skill matching and skill-gap analysis: One of the major benefits of a competence management system is that people can be matched with specific jobs or roles as they arise. Skill matching is invaluable, for example, when a project leader asks for assistance in building a team for a new assignment.A skills gap analysis is an evaluation tool for determining training needs of an individual,group or organization. The analysis reveals the differences between the required and theexisting skill levels and the recommended strategies for reducing the differences or closingthe gap. ToolsPerformance assessments, questionnaires, interviews and group discussions are main toolsfor assessing current skill levels. Projections, company goals and long-term plans informwhat the desired skill levels are. EvaluationComparing the two findings reveals the gaps in competencies. Skill areas evaluated includeresponsibilities, duties, tasks, functions and knowledge. RecommendationsDetails of the gap in skill levels inform discussions among trainers, managers and employeerepresentatives to determine the nature of the training program needed.
  • 26. AdvantagesIdentifying employees training needs and the ways of meeting those needs helps managersin planning, time management and budget considerations. With targeted training, employeesreceive job satisfaction, the company optimizes its human resources and production levelsare likely to improve. Additional UsageA skills gap analysis may also reveal employees competencies or lack thereof that couldpoint to the need for replacement, promotion or pursuit of personal growth. An employeemay use knowledge of a skills gap to seek continuing education at an external trainingfacility.For individuals, and for the company as a whole, skill-gap analyses are extremely useful forbusiness planning. It gives employees an opportunity to identify gaps between therequirements of a new role and their existing skills.Similarly, it is very important for the company to have an overview of the skills needed tobridge the gap between what the company wants to deliver and what it is able to deliver. Thesystem can support management by creating graphical overviews for competency profiles. BPCL’s HR SetupBPCL’s Human Resources department is divided into two parts, Human ResourceDevelopment and Human Resource Services. Human Resource Development is a part of thecorporate office in Mumbai. HRD formulates the policies and lays down the procedures toimplement them. Human Resource Services, as the name suggests is the services wing of HRin the company. They deal with the implementation of the policies and follow the guidelinesof HRD. Every region has a separate HRS department viz. Northern, eastern, western andsouthern. The HRS department in the northern region has the following format:
  • 27. Mr. M.V.PrabhakaranChief Manager HRS North Mr. Mukesh Nangia Senior Manager (Benefits Administration) Mr. Lalit Watts Senior Manager (Guest Relations) Mr. Satish Kumar Gupta Manager (Administration) (Admin Facilities) Mr. Rajnish Kumar Deputy Manager (Employee Relations) Ms. Ritu Mathur Deputy Manager (Training and Development and Separations)
  • 28. There are four departments viz. Employee Relations, Administration, BenefitsAdministration, Guest Relations and Training and Development. There are non –management staff attached with every department.The Benefits Administration sub department has the following structure: Mr. Mukesh Nangia Sr. Mgr (Ben- Admin) Ms. Kamaldeep Secretary Mr. Kamal Kant Mr. Saurabh Ms. Madhu Neera Mr. Daleep Bhatnagar Kerketta Kumar Assistant Assistant Deputy Manager Manager Secretary ManagerBenefits Administration, as the name suggests, is concerned with the administration ofbenefits provided by the company to its employees. Ben-admin North deals with a variety ofbenefits. These mainly include the following:
  • 29. 1. Salary Administration 2. Vehicle loan 3. Home loan 4. Transfer Expenses 5. Medical reimbursement etc.The Administration sub department has the following structure: Mr. Satish Kumar Gupta Manager Mr. DipankarMr. Ajoy Singh Mr. Mickey P Mr. Ashwini Ms. Rinki Saha Singh Kumar Jaiswal Dy. Manager Assistant Dy. Manager Executive Executive Manager Mr. S. K. Taneja ExecutiveThe administration department mainly takes care of providing facilities to the employees inthe office and in the housing complex. These services mainly include the following: 1. In the office:
  • 30. a. Electrical Systems b. Housekeeping c. Horticulture d. Arrangements for conferences, meetings etc. 2. In the housing complex a. Electrical systems b. Security c. Maintenance of facilities like gym, swimming pool etc.The Guest Relations sub department has the following structure: Mr. Lalit Watts Sr. Manager Mr. Vinay Mehndiratta Mr. Nadeem Khan Mr. Khalid Ahmed Secretary Dy. Manager Assistant ManagerThe Guest Relations department basically caters to the employees needs with the idea oftreating them like guests. They undertake the acquiring and maintenance of guest houses andholiday homes. The department also takes care of official transportation need of thecompany. Thus the main activities of the department are: 1. Ticket booking 2. Maintenance of holiday homes and transit flats.
  • 31. The Employee Relations sub department has the following structure: Mr. Rajnish Kumar Dy. Manager Ms. Mansi Dubey Mr. Rajesh Kapoor Assistant Manager ExecutiveThe employee relations department takes care of a number of issues. Main amongst themare: 1. Manpower planning – a. Transfers b. Redeployment etc.
  • 32. 2. Performance management for non-management staff 3. Court cases against the companyThe Training and Development and Separations sub department has the following structure: Ms. Ritu Mathur Dy. Manager Mr. Kapil Rohtagi Assistant Manager
  • 33. The training and development and separations department takes care of mainly thefollowing: 1. Training programs formulation and implementation 2. Overseeing the training programs 3. Taking care of the separation i.e. Retirement, death. FINDINGS AND ANALYSISThe study was done on thirteen employees of job groups A and B. The study included twosets of preliminary questionnaires created for two sets of respondents. One was for the targetgroup of the thirteen employees and the other for their line managers. These twoquestionnaires along with observation technique were used to gather data. After thepreliminary data collection, input was taken on the importance, required proficiency andcurrent proficiency. Following are some preliminary findings of the study: 1. SAP knowledge was given highest preference by both the target group and the line managers. 2. The line managers felt that the trainings were well received. However, the effect of the behavioural trainings wore off after a few months, two months on an average. This is corroborated by the skill gap in behavioural skills (refer to graph in next section).
  • 34. 3. The department is working on reducing paperwork; this would require that the personnel are well versed with advanced computer skills including both MS Office applications and SAP. 4. There was an emphasis on behavioural skills. However now the focus needs to shift to functional skills. For this purpose there is a need to identify and quantify the skills and skill levels required. 5. This does not mean less emphasis on behavioural skills as all the line managers emphasized it is of utmost importance. But it seemed that the behavioural trainings were not taken seriously. The attitude towards behavioural trainings needs to change in order for it to be effective. 6. Some employees feel that their job roles do not do full justice to their potential. In such cases job rotation can be performed to give them a sense of achievement and motivation. 7. However there was no case of role ambiguity or role conflict found. 8. Personnel want to go in for various courses viz. Advanced Negotiation Skills etc. It is advised that they meet with their line managers once in three months to discuss the potential courses they might opt for. Findings on the basis of rating survey: The following two formulae were used on the data collected: 1) Weighted Proficiency Gap Index: 0<= ∑Importancei (Profiency Requiredi – Current Proficiencyi) <=4 ∑ImportanceiThis gives the gap between proficiency required and current proficiency while taking theimportance as a weight. The limits come out to be zero and four. The lower limit is zero asthe minimum skill gap is zero, thus multiplied by importance it gives us zero. The maximumis 4 as the minimum proficiency can be one so taking the difference in the bracket i.e. fourcommon and cancelling the numerator by the denominator, we get the value four.Next we divide the weighted Proficiency Gap Index by 4(max gap) to get the gappercentage. 2) Training Needs Analysis (TNA) Index: ∑ Average Importance * Gap
  • 35. No. Of individualsThis gives the TNA index for each skill. They are then sorted in descending order to showwhich skills need more attention.Ben-Admin Functional Skill Requirement Sample A:Skill Importance Proficiency Current Average TNA Index Required Proficiency ImportanceKnowledge of 5 5 2 4. 7 4. 7companypoliciesApplication of 5 5 2 5 5companypoliciesKnowledge of 3 3 1 3.3 2.2industrystandardsSAP 4 5 2 4 4ProficiencyKnowledge of 4 4 2 4.3 2. 9SAPInformation 4 4 1 4 4gathering w.r.t.employee needsChange 4 4 2 4 2. 7communicationDomain 5 4 2 4. 7 3. 1knowledgeGeneral 3 4 1 3 3AwarenessAssimilation of 4 4 2 4 2. 7traininginformationApplication of 4 4 2 4 2.7training in workWeighted 2.47Proficiency GapIndexGap % 61.67%In order of needfor trainingSkill TNA Index
  • 36. Application of 5companypoliciesKnowledge of 4. 7companypoliciesSAP 4ProficiencyInformation 4gathering w.r.t.employee needsDomain 3. 1knowledgeGeneral 3AwarenessKnowledge of 2. 9SAPChange 2. 7communicationAssimilation of 2. 7traininginformationApplication of 2. 7training in workKnowledge of 2. 2industrystandardsBen-Admin Functional Skill Requirement Sample B:Skill Importance Proficiency Current Average TNA Index Required Proficiency ImportanceKnowledge of 5 5 4 4.7 1.6companypoliciesApplication of 5 5 4 5 1.7companypoliciesKnowledge of 4 4 3 3.3 1.1industrystandardsSAP 4 5 4 4 1.3Proficiency
  • 37. Knowledge of 5 4 3 4.3 1.4SAPInformation 4 5 3 4 2.7gathering w.r.t.employee needsChange 5 5 3 4 2.7communicationDomain 5 5 4 4.7 1.6knowledgeGeneral 3 4 3 3 1AwarenessAssimilation of 4 4 3 4 1.3traininginformationApplication of 4 4 3 4 1.3training in workWeighted 1.19Proficiency GapIndexGap % 29.69%In order of needof trainingSkill TNA IndexInformation 2.7gathering w.r.t.employee needsChange 2.7communicationApplication of 1.7companypoliciesKnowledge of 1.6companypoliciesDomain 1.6knowledgeKnowledge of 1.4SAPSAP 1.3ProficiencyAssimilation of 1.3traininginformationApplication of 1.3training in work
  • 38. Knowledge of 1.1industrystandardsGeneral 1AwarenessBen-Admin Functional Skill Requirement Sample B:Skill Importance Proficiency Current Average TNA Index Required Proficiency ImportanceKnowledge 4 4 3 4.7 1.6of companypoliciesApplication 5 4 3 5 1.7of companypoliciesKnowledge 3 3 1 3.3 2.2of industrystandardsSAP 4 5 3 4 2.7Proficiency
  • 39. Knowledge 4 5 3 4.3 2.9of SAPInformation 4 4 3 4 1.3gatheringw.r.t.employeeneedsChange 3 3 2 4 1.3communicationDomain 4 5 4 4.7 1.6knowledgeGeneral 3 3 2 3 1AwarenessAssimilation 4 3 3 4 0of traininginformationApplication 4 4 3 4 1.3of training inworkWeighted 1.17ProficiencyGap IndexGap % 29.17%In order ofneed oftrainingSkill TNA IndexKnowledge 2.9of SAPSAP 2.7ProficiencyKnowledge 2.2of industrystandardsApplication 1.7of companypoliciesKnowledge 1.6of companypoliciesDomain 1.6knowledgeInformation 1.3gathering
  • 40. w.r.t.employeeneedsChange 1.3communicationApplication 1.3of training inworkGeneral 1AwarenessAssimilation 0of traininginformationEmployee Relations Functional Skill Requirement Sample A:Skill Importance Proficiency Current Average TNA Index Required Proficiency ImportanceKnowledge of 5 5 4 5 2.5companypoliciesKnowledge of 5 5 4 5 2.5industrystandardsTeam Player 5 5 3 5 5Ability to lead a 4 5 3 4 4team
  • 41. Foresightedness 5 5 4 5 2.5Written 5 5 5 5 0communicationTask 5 5 5 5 0managementPerformance 4 5 4 4.5 2.25check ofproceduresKnowledge of 5 5 4 5 2.5relevant lawsReception to 5 5 3 5 5trainingPresentation 5 5 3 5 5SkillsDrafting Skills 5 5 4 5 2.5Weighted 1.169811321ProficiencyGap IndexGap % 29.25%In order ofneed of trainingSKILL TNA IndexTeam Player 5Reception to 5trainingPresentation 5SkillsAbility to lead a 4teamKnowledge of 2.5companypoliciesKnowledge of 2.5industrystandardsForesightedness 2.5Knowledge of 2.5relevant lawsDrafting Skills 2.5
  • 42. Performance 2.25check ofproceduresWritten 0communicationTask 0managementEmployee Relations Functional Skill Requirement Sample B:Skill Importance Proficiency Current Average TNA Index Required Proficiency ImportanceKnowledge of 5 5 3 5 5company policiesKnowledge of 5 5 4 5 2.5industrystandardsTeam Player 5 5 4 5 2.5
  • 43. Ability to lead a 4 5 3 4 4teamForesightedness 5 5 4 5 2.5Written 5 5 3 5 5communicationTask 5 5 4 5 2.5managementPerformance 5 5 4 4.5 2.25check ofproceduresKnowledge of 5 5 4 5 2.5relevant lawsReception to 5 5 4 5 2.5trainingPresentation 5 5 4 5 2.5SkillsDrafting Skills 5 5 3 5 5Weighted 1.3Proficiency GapIndexGap % 31.48% In order of needof trainingSkill TNA IndexKnowledge of 5company policiesWritten 5communicationDrafting Skills 5Ability to lead a 4teamKnowledge of 2.5industrystandardsTeam Player 2.5Foresightedness 2.5Task 2.5managementKnowledge of 2.5relevant laws
  • 44. Reception to 2.5trainingPresentation 2.5SkillsPerformance 2.25check ofproceduresOn the basis of behavioural skills only the gap has been calculated since the focus was onfunctional skills.Ben-Admin Behavioural Skill Requirement Sample A:Skill Importance Proficiency Current Required ProficiencyAbility to work in a team 4 5 2Developing People 4 4 1Conflict Management 3 4 2
  • 45. Innovative Problem Solving 4 4 1Negotiation 3 3 2Persuasiveness 3 3 1Problem Analysis 3 4 1Achievement Orientation 4 5 2General Awareness 3 3 1Assertiveness 3 4 1Ability to say No 4 5 2Communication Skills 5 5 1Listening skills 3 3 1Persistence 3 4 2Adaptability 4 4 2Dependability 5 5 2Dedication 4 5 2Passion for work 5 5 3People Skills 4 4 2Holistic approach to work 4 4 2Stress Management 4 3 2Delegation 3 3 1Decisiveness 4 4 1Planning 4 5 2Innovation/Creativity 3 4 2Leadership 3 4 1Behaviour Flexibility 3 4 2Weighted Proficiency Gap Index 2.5Gap % 62.37%Ben-Admin Behavioural Skill Requirement Sample B:Skill Importance Proficiency Current Required ProficiencyAbility to work in a team 4 5 2Developing People 4 4 4Conflict Management 4 4 2Innovative Problem Solving 4 5 2Negotiation 4 4 2Persuasiveness 4 4 3
  • 46. Problem Analysis 4 5 2Achievement Orientation 4 5 4General Awareness 3 4 3Assertiveness 3 4 3Ability to say No 4 4 4Communication Skills 4 5 3Listening skills 4 5 2Persistence 4 4 3Adaptability 4 3 3Dependability 4 5 5Dedication 4 5 4Passion for work 5 5 4People Skills 5 4 2Holistic approach to work 4 4 3Stress Management 4 5 2Delegation 4 4 3Decisiveness 4 4 4Planning 4 4 4Innovation/Creativity 4 5 2Leadership 4 4 3Behaviour Flexibility 4 5 2Weighted Proficiency Gap Index 1.45Gap % 36.34%Ben-Admin Behavioural Skill Requirement Sample C:Skill Importance Proficiency Current Proficiency RequiredAbility to work in a 5 5 2teamDeveloping People 4 4 3Conflict 4 4 1ManagementInnovative Problem 4 4 2Solving
  • 47. Negotiation 5 5 3Persuasiveness 4 3 3Problem Analysis 4 4 3Achievement 5 5 3OrientationGeneral Awareness 3 3 2Assertiveness 4 4 2Ability to say No 4 4 4Communication 4 5 3SkillsListening skills 4 4 2Persistence 4 4 1Adaptability 3 3 1Dependability 5 5 2Dedication 4 5 2Passion for work 4 4 2People Skills 4 3 2Holistic approach to 4 4 2workStress Management 3 3 2Delegation 3 3 3Decisiveness 4 4 3Planning 4 5 2Innovation/Creativity 4 4 3Leadership 4 4 1Behaviour Flexibility 4 5 1Weighted 1.9Proficiency GapIndexGap % 47.69%Employee Relations Behavioural Skill Requirement Sample A:Skill Importance Proficiency Current Proficiency RequiredAbility to work in a 4 5 3teamDeveloping People 3 5 3Conflict 4 5 4ManagementInnovative Problem 5 5 4Solving
  • 48. Negotiation 4 5 3Persuasiveness 5 5 5Problem Analysis 4 5 5Achievement 5 5 5OrientationGeneral Awareness 4 5 4Assertiveness 3 4 5Ability to say No 5 5 3Communication 5 5 4SkillsListening skills 5 5 3Persistence 5 5 5Adaptability 4 5 4Dependability 5 5 5Dedication 5 5 5Passion for work 5 5 5People Skills 5 5 3Holistic approach to 5 5 4workStress Management 5 5 4Delegation 5 5 3Decisiveness 5 5 4Planning 5 5 3Innovation/Creativity 4 5 4Leadership 4 5 3Behaviour Flexibility 5 5 3Weighted 1.04Proficiency GapIndexGap % 26.02%Employee Relations Behavioural Skill Requirement Sample B:Skill Importance Proficiency Current Proficiency RequiredAbility to work in a 5 5 4teamDeveloping People 5 5 3Conflict 4 5 4ManagementInnovative Problem 4 5 4Solving
  • 49. Negotiation 5 5 3Persuasiveness 4 5 4Problem Analysis 5 5 4Achievement 4 5 4OrientationGeneral Awareness 4 5 5Assertiveness 4 4 4Ability to say No 5 5 3Communication 5 5 4SkillsDelegation 5 5 3Listening skills 5 5 4Persistence 4 5 4Adaptability 5 5 4Dependability 5 5 4Dedication 5 5 4Passion for work 5 5 5People Skills 5 5 4Holistic approach to 5 5 3workStress Management 5 5 4Delegation 5 5 3Decisiveness 5 4 3Planning 5 5 4Innovation/Creativity 4 5 4Leadership 5 5 4Behaviour Flexibility 5 5 4Weighted 1.12Proficiency GapIndexGap % 28.22% CONCLUSION • There are significant skill gaps in both the functional and behavioural domain. • Looking at the results of the behavioural skill requirement samples, the focus should not be removed from them. • Further data testing needs to be done by in house personnel to deal with confidentiality concerns. • The list of skill gaps has been given in descending order.
  • 50. RECOMMENDATIONSFollowing are recommendations based on the interactions with the employees and their linemanagers. These are some points in particular: 1. Benefits Admin: • A basic course in understanding medicine as for personnel dealing with the medical benefits section. It would help familiarize them with new and upcoming aspects in the field of medicine. This would also help determine the
  • 51. validity of claims and also suggest correct and cost saving procedures to the employees of BPCL. This can be done by arranging a seminar by medical professionals. BPCL has ties with many hospitals. These contacts can be used to upgrade our personnel’s knowledge. It can be arranged by sending the personnel and counterparts of other regions to an informative seminar like this. • An interaction with counterparts in the other regions can lead to a better performance as it will give a window into how things take place elsewhere. • Presentation and excel skills need to be stressed upon. The employee already has a basic knowledge of these and so needs to go in for an advanced course. • Also, employee’s knowledge and level of interaction with the non – management staff can be utilized by having them conduct a computer skills workshop for them thereby saving the cost of hiring outsiders and making sure the training is well-received. • Personnel interested in hard core SAP training. This can be used to help out with problems in the SAP system.2. Admin: • A refresher course on e tendering for admin personnel would be beneficial for the organization. • A course in “Green Building Construction” has been suggested by the seniors. Seeing as the world is becoming more ecologically conscious, this would benefit the organization in its upcoming construction projects. • A course in “Rehabilitation and repair of old buildings” and “Retrofitting existing buildings with earthquake resistance”.3. Employee Relations: • Active work on statutory compliances and making all locations fully compliant is going on. Apart from this, send personnel to out of company seminars and talks about the same and related subjects. This would lead to knowledge sharing and also interacting with similar companies would help us gauge where we stand in the industry and also give us an insight into how other companies are handling the same problems that we are facing.4. Guest Relations:
  • 52. • Have Guest Relations personnel participate in stress management workshops once in 3 months. They need communication skills course, and an intermediate finance course. They may be sent on a tour of a travel management company to see their work and gauge where they stand vis a vis a professionally run travel unit. • The paperwork has varying levels of importance, so based on the levels of importance, some of it can be filtered out and given to a clerical staff. This will ensure that the big-ticket items get the attention they deserve and the smaller items do not come in the way of processing the former.Moreover some other recommendations are: • There is a need to create an Individual Development Plan for every employee so that it is known what to prepare the employee for next. Since some employees want to be part of something transformational and not just transactional they can be part of the team that does this. BPCL’s closest competitor has enforced this system and it would do well for the company to follow this path if it is to compete. • Some reallocation of job roles has taken place and the employees who have now been assigned certain jobs are new to them and this might slow down the speed of processing. Thus, members of the non – management staff that took care of the respective matters should pass on the knowledge by means of a seminar. • Job rotation is not performed very often in the organization which could benefit immensely. This practise should be started not just within the department but also with other departments wherever there is a match. For example, admin personnel who are connected with tendering and contracting can be rotated with engineering department. • People tend to adopt a laidback attitude because they are not sure how their performance is being judged. So bring in more transparency in the evaluation system to enable employees to know how exactly their performance is affecting their appraisal. • Conduct an employee satisfaction survey in the housing complex to gauge satisfaction levels and find out other possible areas of improvement. Also use this opportunity to manage expectations of employees by letting them know the limits to which service can be provided. • Send personnel for exhibitions where tiles, geysers, flooring etc are exhibited.
  • 53. • Communication skills have been stressed on time and again. These trainings should not be taken lightly and pre and post questionnaires should be circulated to gauge the efficacy of the trainings. • Time and task management courses have been emphasized time and again. These courses would lead to better functioning of the departments according to the line managers. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY• Variation from required skill is difficult to detect due to sensitivity and confidentiality issues.
  • 54. • Industry standards were difficult to gauge. LEARNING EXPERIENCE
  • 55. The experience at Bharat Petroleum was a great learning experience. The culture, structure,processes and functions at BPCL provide a different dimension to Business growth anddevelopment.I am It was really very fortunate to have undertaken an my internship at BPCL which gave anexposure exposed me to the practical HR concepts and their applications.BPCL gave me an opportunity to work on certain confidential aspects of the company as well. Annexure I Questionnaire for target group
  • 56. 1. What is your work profile? 2. Who according to you is the customer of your department? 3. What do you think is the impact of your job on the overall department? 4. What do you think is the impact of your job on the company? 5. What do you think are the skills required for your job profile? 6. Do you think you require any specific courses to perform your job more efficiently? 7. Is there any role ambiguity when it comes to your job description? 8. Is there any role conflict when it comes to your job description? 9. Do you think you have the skills required for the next job role? 10. What are the future goals and challenges that your department faces and are you ready for them? Annexure IIQuestionnaire for line managers
  • 57. 1. What are the major tasks/activities carried out by your department?2. What is the plan that you have for the next few years?3. What is the vision that you have for your department i.e. what do you aim to achieve in the long run?4. Who are your team members?5. What job groups do they fall into and what is their experience level?6. What do you think are the skills required for the job profiles of your subordinates?7. Do you conduct/send your team for skill enhancement programs on a regular basis?8. What is the frequency of sending the team for such programs and what are those programs?9. Do you think these programs have helped in enhancing their job performance or their potential?10. What program-functional (on the job training, software/new technology/materials/accessories/product knowledge/interiors/logistics/cafeteria/security) and behavioural do you suggest and at what frequency? Bibliography1. http://superperformance.com/hrskills.php
  • 58. 2. http://www.hindustanpetroleum.com/en/UI/HRLearningAndDevelopmen t.aspx3. www.exploreHR.org4. http://www.ehow.com/facts_5925583_skills-gap-analysis_.html5. BPCL intralink Add References of books also