Organizational theories

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Organizational theory overview to help PMP candidates prepare for their PMP certification exam.

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Organizational theories

  1. 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs<br />Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maslow%27s_Hierarchy_of_Needs.svg<br />(license: CC BY-SA 3.0)<br />
  2. 2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs<br />Maslow first presented this theory in a 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation.<br />First four levels are “deficiency needs” or “d-needs”<br />With the exception of physiological needs, if D-needs are not met, there are no obvious external signs but the individual feels anxious and tense<br />“Metamotivated” people are driven by B-needs (Being Needs), instead of deficiency needs (D-Needs).<br />Self-actualization: ““What a man can be, he must be.” – Maslow<br />There is significant criticism of Maslow’s model<br />Based too much on individualistic societies like the US<br />Little data to support model<br />
  3. 3. Herzberg’s Theory of Motivation<br /><ul><li>"The job should have sufficient challenge to utilize the full ability of the employee.“
  4. 4. "Employees who demonstrate increasing levels of ability should be given increasing levels of responsibility.“
  5. 5. "If a job cannot be designed to use an employee's full abilities, then the firm should consider automating the task or replacing the employee with one who has a lower level of skill. If a person cannot be fully utilized, then there will be a motivation problem."</li></li></ul><li>“You can not pay me as little as I can work.”<br />- Expression in former socialist country in Eastern Europe<br />
  6. 6. McGregor’s Theory of X and Y<br /><ul><li> Developed by Douglas McGregor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1960s
  7. 7. Managers need to shift their approach depending on the worker
  8. 8. Most organizations have one dominant approach
  9. 9. Most people don’t consider this very useful in modern human resources management... too simplistic view of worker motivation
  10. 10. Still managers can learn from this model and attempt to have more trust of their employees and encourage the Theory of Y</li></li></ul><li>Ouchi’s Theory Z<br />In 1991, William Ouchi published Theory Z: How American Management Can Meet the Japanese Challenge<br />Based on the participative management style of the Japanese. <br />Workers are motivated by a sense of commitment, opportunity and advancement<br />Workers learn the business by moving up the ranks of an organization<br />Credits the idea of “lifetime employment” where dedication is mutual between workers and a company<br />Interesting article about the recent application of Ouchi’s Theory Z to quality performance by students in schools: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/26/AR2008092600801.html<br />

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