EDUCATIONAL CURICULLUM IN ALGERIA
By: Cyra Mae R. Soreda
I. BRIEF DESCRIPTION
The French colonial education imposed on Alg...
At independence in 1962 the Algerian education system was highly exclusive and
geared toward the training of French coloni...
religious studies. In the technical/vocational stream students follow one of six
concentrations: electronics; electrotechn...
VI. COMPARE THE CURICULLUM WITH THE PHILIPPINE BASIC
EDUCATION CURICULLUM
ALGERIA
PHILIPPINES
(2002 BEC)
EDUCATIONAL
AIMS ...
electrotechnology; mechanics;
public works and construction;
chemistry; and accounting.
Hybrid concentrations exist in
the...
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  1. 1. EDUCATIONAL CURICULLUM IN ALGERIA By: Cyra Mae R. Soreda I. BRIEF DESCRIPTION The French colonial education imposed on Algeria was designed primarily to meet the needs of the European population and to perpetuate the European cultural pattern. A large majority of the students were children of the colonists. French was the language of instruction, and Arabic, when taught, was offered as an optional foreign language. At the beginning of the 1963 school year, the education system was in complete disarray, and enrollments in schools at all levels totaled only 850,000. In the years immediately following, teachers were trained hastily or recruited abroad; classrooms were improvised, many in the vacated homes of former French residents. Attendance climbed to 1.5 million in 1967, to nearly 3 million by 1975, and to 6.5 million in 1991- 92. An education reform passed in 1971 introduced the nine-year basic education program. Further reforms in 1976 extended the period of compulsory education from six years to 10 years while also guaranteeing that education at every level be provided free to all. In addition to guaranteeing tuition-free instruction, the reforms of 1976 mandated that education be the exclusive domain of the state. As a result, the private sector has had little impact on education and training in Algeria; however, private instruction has been offered on a limited basis since the early 1990s and may soon play a bigger role. Reacting to a need to reduce the burden on the state, the government passed an executive decree in 2004 that amended the 1976 reforms and explicitly allowed for the establishment of private institutions of education under well-defined regulations. Private education in Algeria still remains, however, very much a nascent industry. The structure of the school system is based on 6+3+3 model: six years of primary school, three years of lower secondary school and another three years of upper secondary school. Together, the nine years of primary and lower secondary education constitute the compulsory basic education phase. Primary education is mandatory and lasts for nine years (École fondamentale). Secondary education is compulsory and consists of a three- year cycle of study provided in secondary schools and technicums. There are three branches of secondary education: general, specialized, and technical/vocational. Students in general secondary and specialized secondary education study for three years and sit for the Baccalauréat examination. Successful students are awarded the Baccalauréat de l’Enseignement secondaire in one of the various streams offered. The Baccalauréat gives access to higher education but some institutions require it to be of a certain type (science, arts, etc.). The objective of technical and vocational secondary education is to prepare students for active life and industry (technicians and qualified workers). Studies last between one and four years, according to the type of training undertaken and can also lead to higher education. II. EDUCATIONAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
  2. 2. At independence in 1962 the Algerian education system was highly exclusive and geared toward the training of French colonial elite. With the creation of the Ministry of Education in 1963, the process of building an inclusive and open national education system was set in motion. The Algerian government inherited the remnants of an education system focused on European content and conducted in a foreign language by foreign teachers. Algerian authorities set out to redesign the system to make it more suited to the needs of a developing nation. The hallmarks of their program were indigenization, Arabization and an emphasis on scientific and technical studies. They sought to increase literacy, provide free education, make primary school enrollment compulsory, remove foreign teachers and curricula, and replace French with Arabic as the medium of instruction. They also planned to channel students into scientific and technical fields, reflecting the needs of Algerian industrial and managerial sectors. The approach to education has been gradual, incremental, and marked by a willingness to experiment--unusual characteristics in a developing country. III. WHAT ARE THE AREAS BEING STUDIED In the nine years of BASIC EDUCATION cycle (divided into three three-year cycles), all students take classes in the following subjects: Arabic, Islamic studies, mathematics, political education, history and geography, physical sciences, two foreign languages (French and English), information technology, art and music, physical education, natural sciences, and manual work depending on their stream. In academic year 1992-93, English was introduced alongside French as a first foreign language to be taught from the beginning of the second three-year cycle. Prior to this, French was the only foreign language taught at the primary level. Students pick up either French or English as their second foreign language in the eighth grade. In the first year of SECONDARY STUDIES (technical and general), all students take classes in the following subjects: Arabic, mathematics, history and geography, Islamic studies, physical sciences, two foreign languages (French and English), information technology, art and music, physical education. In addition, students take technical design, natural sciences, and a third foreign language depending on their stream. In the second year, students in the same streams take similar classes, but with different weightings depending on their concentration. For example, students studying in the five concentrations from the general education stream are all required to take classes in Arabic, mathematics, history and geography, Islamic studies, philosophy, two foreign languages, art or music, physical education and one of either physical or natural science. In the third year, students specialize to a greater degree in their area of concentration. In the second and third years of the technical stream, approximately two-thirds of all classes are focused on technical training and other technical subjects related to the specialization, with the remaining classes devoted to general academic subjects. In the general education stream there are five main concentrations: hard sciences; natural and life sciences; liberal arts and literature; literature and foreign languages;
  3. 3. religious studies. In the technical/vocational stream students follow one of six concentrations: electronics; electrotechnology; mechanics; public works and construction; chemistry; and accounting. Hybrid concentrations exist in the following fields: mechanical technology; electrical technology; civil technology; and business and management. IV. WHAT TEACHINGMETHODOLOGIES AND STRATEGIES ARE USED Algerian education is still grounded in the French fact-acquisition orientation, and teaching is almost exclusively in the lecture and memorization mode. As far as the majority of Algerian schools is concerned, teaching materials are confined to traditional ones such as the board, the chalk, and the textbook (or handouts). This is not to mention the absence of audio-visual aids which are said to facilitate learning. V. HOW ARE THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS BEING ADMINISTERED The Constitution guaranteed the right to free education, made fundamental education compulsory, and allocated to the state the power to organize the educational system and legislate the general rules for scientific research. Control of education, originally vested in the Ministry of Education, now rested in two ministries: the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, and the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education. In 1995, the Higher Council for Education was created to improve the efficiency of the educational structure and to link the ministries of Education, Higher Education, and Employment. An Arabization law, implemented in 1998, required governmental and educational functions to be conducted in Arabic. The deadline for Arabization in higher education was extended to July 5, 2000. By that time, officials in government ministries had to acquire at least a minimal facility in literary Arabic. Additionally, the media had to increase the use of Arabic. Algerian Philosophy: In 1961, African ministers of education met in Addis Ababa and developed a comprehensive educational plan to set the stage for educational change in Algeria. The plan called for universal primary schooling, rapid increases in secondary and higher education enrollments, and major improvements in the quality of education. With Algerian independence the following year, educational opportunities were opened to all people, marking a shift from the French exclusive elitist system to an Algerian system with equal opportunities for all. Education became a right rather than a privilege. The Government recognizes the importance of better quality in basic and secondary education and its current priorities for this sector are to: (i) strengthen and renovate educational research capacity; (ii) revise programs and improve curriculum design mechanisms to make what children learn more relevent to their cultural and social environment; (iii) improve teacher and staff training; (iv) improve the school environment by providing adequate pedagogic materials; (v) strengthen management capacity at central and provincial levels; and (vi) improve cost and financing mechanisms in education. The Government also plans to increase access to basic education to include 1001 of the 6-year age group and increase attainment ratios by lowering repetition and dropout rates.
  4. 4. VI. COMPARE THE CURICULLUM WITH THE PHILIPPINE BASIC EDUCATION CURICULLUM ALGERIA PHILIPPINES (2002 BEC) EDUCATIONAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 1. They sought to increase literacy 2. Provide free education 3. Make primary school enrolment compulsory 4. Remove foreign teachers and curricula 5. Replace French with Arabic as the medium of instruction. 6. Planned to channel students into scientific and technical fields, reflecting the needs of Algerian industrial and managerial sectors. 1.To provide knowledge and develop skills, attitudes, and values essential to personal development and necessary for living in and contributing to a developing and changing society. 2. Provide learning experiences which increase the child awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in society; 3. Promote and intensify knowledge, identification with and love for the nation and the people to which s/he belongs; and 4. Promote work experiences, which develop orientation to the world of work and prepare the learner to engage in honest and gainful work. SUBJECTS TAUGHT PRIMARY EDUCATION Arabic, Islamic studies, mathematics, political education, history and geography, physical sciences, two foreign languages (French and English), information technology, art and music, physical education, natural sciences, and manual work depending on their stream. SECONDARY EDUCATION General education five main concentrations: hard sciences; natural and life sciences; liberal arts and literature; literature and foreign languages; religious studies. Technical/vocational six concentrations: electronics; The CORE SUBJECTS: Filipino; English; Math; Science (Science and Health for Elem.); Science and Technology for Secondary The Experiential Area: Makabayan: Araling Panlipunan; MAPEH (Music, Arts, PE and health); TLE; Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga (the practice environment for holistic learning to develop a healthy personal and national self-identity”.
  5. 5. electrotechnology; mechanics; public works and construction; chemistry; and accounting. Hybrid concentrations exist in the following fields: mechanical technology; electrical technology; civil technology; and business and management. TEACHING METHODOLOGIES • Fact-acquisition orientation • Lecture • Memorization mode • Board and chalk • Textbook • Thematic Teaching • Content-Based Instruction • Focusing Inquiry • Demonstration HOW ARE THE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION/ ORGANIZATION BEING ADMINISTERED. The Constitution guaranteed the right to free education, made fundamental education compulsory, and allocated to the state the power to organize the educational system and legislate the general rules for scientific research. Control of education, originally vested in the Ministry of Education, now rested in two ministries: the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, and the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education. In 1995, the Higher Council for Education was created to improve the efficiency of the educational structure and to link the ministries of Education, Higher Education, and Employment. An Arabization law, implemented in 1998, required governmental and educational functions to be conducted in Arabic Administrative structures of curriculum development Development of the basic education level curriculum is the responsibility of the Central Office Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Education, Curriculum Development Divisions. This bureau defines the learning competencies for the different subject areas; conceptualizes the structure of the curriculum; formulates national curricular policies. These functions are exercised in consultation with other agencies and sectors of society (e.g. industry, socio-civic groups, teacher-training institutions, professional organizations, school administrators, parents, students, etc.). The subject offerings, credit points, and time allotments for the different subject areas are also determined at the national level. References: Algeria - Educational System—overview - Percent, Schools, Students, and School - StateUniversity.com http://education.stateuniversity.com World Data Education. Algeria. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/

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