• defined as a mental predisposition to act that
is to expressed by evaluating a particular entity
w/ some degree of favor or disfavor.
Comprised of four components.
c. Behavioral Intentions
• beliefs, theories , expectancies , cause- and
–effect beliefs and perceptions relative to
• refers to our feeling with respect to the
focal object such as fear, liking, or anger.
3. Behavioural Intentions
• are our goals, aspirations, and our expected
responses to the attitude object
Emotion and Cognition are inextricably linked
and perhaps never entirely separate,
distinctive nor pure.
The separation of the head from the heart has
contributed to a fractured education system
that produces minds that do not know how to
feel and hearts that do not know how to think.
considered as central components of
Consist of imputation of some object degree
of goodness or badness to an attitude object.
“ it is most often the evaluation that is stored
in memory, often w/o the corresponding
conditions and affect that were responsible for
its formation.”( Robert Scholl, University of
Rhode Island , 2002)
a reason or set of reasons for engaging in a
particular behavioral especially human
behavioral as studied in Psychology and
Refers to the initiation, direction, intensity
and persistence of human
There are many theories that explain human
The Need Theory
1. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy
Safety and security
2. Frederick Herzberg’s two factor theory
Concludes that certain factors in the workplace
result in the job satisfaction, while others do
not, but if absent lead to dissatisfaction. He
Hygiene factors(e.g. status, job security)
3. Clayton Alderfer
ERG Theory( existence, relatedness and
Physiological and safety, the lower order
needs, are placed in the existence category
love and self esteem needs in the relatedness
The growth category contained the self –
MOTIVATION IN EDUCATION
Can have several effects on how students learn
and their behavior towards the subject matter
(Ormrod, 2003). it can:
1. direct behavior toward particular goals.
2. Lead to increased effort and energy.
3. Increase initiation of and persistence in
4. Enhance cognitive processing.
5. Determine what consequences are reinforcing.
6. Lead to improved performance.
Two kinds of Motivation
1. Intrinsic Motivation
Occurs when people are internally
motivated to do something.
2. Extrinsic Motivation
Comes into play when a student is
compelled to do something or act in a
3. SELF -EFFICACY
an impression that one is capable of
performing in a certain manner or attaining
A belief that one has the capabilities to execute
the courses of actions required to manage