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Gender diversity power point (girls)
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Gender diversity power point (girls)


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Gender Diversity-- High School students did research, prepared a report, and summarized their work at the Salina Public Library's Community Learning Center. Their talk is entitled "The Eisenhower …

Gender Diversity-- High School students did research, prepared a report, and summarized their work at the Salina Public Library's Community Learning Center. Their talk is entitled "The Eisenhower Roots of Judicial Diversity: Race and Gender," sponsored by the Salina League of Women Voters.

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  • 1. Women and the Judiciary Branch
    During the Eisenhower Presidency
    Mary Ralston and Marie Stoss
  • 2. Before Eisenhower
    The president before Eisenhower, Harry Truman, opposed having a woman sitting on the highest court
    He thought that having a woman around would make the male judges uncomfortable
    "They say they couldn't sit around with their robes off and their feet up and discuss the problems."
    When there were more than 20 Federal court vacancies, his original list of nominees was all male
    Only after protests from women politicians, the president named Burnita Shelton Matthews to the Federal District Court bench
  • 3. Women in the Judicial Service
    Only judicial post held by a woman was Justice of the United States Supreme Court
    Not a large number, but steadily increased
    In 1955, the Directory of American Judges counted at least 185 women judges
    About 150 served in country courts which would included Probate, Superior, Surrogate and Courts of Ordinary
    There were 5,036 women lawyers in the United States 
    Other posts include court clerk, librarian, and court administrative officer, are held by growing numbers of women.
    Some States reported women as Assistant U.S. Attorneys, deputy U.S. marshals, and justices of the peace.
  • 4. Federal and United States Courts
    There were 4 women appointed to these courts
    Florenece E. Allen
    Burnita Shelton Matthews
    Marion J. Harron
    Mary H. Donoln
  • 5. Florence E. Allen
    Judge of the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals (6th District), holds the highest judicial post ever held by a women in the United States
  • 6. Background on Florence Allen
    Did volunteer work with the local Legal Aid Society, where she not only got that experience but got involved with an important case about suffrage
    As a child saw suffragists Susan B. Anthony and Anna Howard Shaw (women’s rights)
    The belief that women should be treated as equals under the law resonated with her even more as a result of her struggles to be taken seriously as an attorney
    In 1919, she was appointed the assistant prosecuting attorney for Cleveland’s Cuyahoga County
    1922, elected to the Ohio Supreme Court, intended to keep partisan out of the judiciary
    Succeeded Judge Smith Kickenlooper, who had died
    Reported that Allen was the first women Federal judge, but in 1928, Genevieve R. Cline had been named to the Federal judiciary by President Calvin Coolidge
    Retired a year after being named chief judge of a United States Court of Appeals
  • 7. Burnita Shelton Matthews
    Second woman to hold a judgeship of a federal court; appointed in 1959 as Judge of the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia, the first women to service in this court
  • 8. Background on Burnita Matthews
    Not welcomed into the professional associations by male lawyers; the District of Columbia Bar Association returned her application and check for dues
    Her and other women formed their own professional associations, including the Woman’s Bar Association of the District of Columbia and the National Association of Women Lawyers
    Worked with the suffragist National Woman’s Party
    Obtained the largest condemnation settlement awarded by the U.S. government at the time: $299,200
  • 9. Marion J. Harron
    A Judge of the Tax Court of the United States, sitting in Washington, D.C.
  • 10. Background on Marion Herron
    Appointed to the Tax Court of the United States at a time when only three other women occupied the Federal Bench
    A charter member of the Women’s Equity Action League’s Advisory Board
    Appointed to direct a survey of New York State’s labor laws and in 1927 she entered the law office of Julius Henry Cohen, where she began to specialize in tax law.
    Followed by appointment to a series of appointments to boards and commissions concerned with labor and tax law, culminating with her appointment by Franklin D. Roosevelt to the United States Board of Tax Appeals on June 19, 1936
    Later reappointed by President Truman on June 22, 1948.
  • 11. Mary H. Donlon
    a Judge of the United States Customs Court, sitting in New York City
  • 12. Background on Mary Donlon
    Ran on the Republican ticket for an at-large seat in the U.S. House of Representatives but lost to the Democratic incumbent Caroline O’Day
    Chairwoman of the New York State Industrial Board from 1944 to 1945
    Chairwoman of the New York State Workers Compensation Board from 1945 to 1955
    Appointed for life, stepped down to a senior judge
    Delegate to the 1948 Republican National Convention
    Appointed by Eisenhower to the United States Customs Court.
    Retired in 1954
  • 13. Women as Clerks
    10 other women were appointed as clerks
    Mrs. Ida O. Creskoff
    Catherine A. Dougherty
    Miss Loryce E. Wharton
    Mrs. Della I. Holt
    Miss Mary Aguayo
    Sarah de la Pena
    Mrs. Lucile M. Alstad
    Miss Capitola G. Allison
    Mary Belle Nicol
    Mary A. Young
  • 14. Other Appointments
    Oveta Culp Hobby—Health, Education and Welfare
    Ivy B. Priest—Treasurer of United States
    Oswald Lord—United States Representative on Human Rights Commission of Economic and Social Council of United Nations
    Mrs. Daniel J. Schneider—Superintendent of United States Mint in Denver
    Clare Luce—Ambassador to Rome
    Katherine G. Howard—Assistant to Administrator of Federal Civil Defense Administration
    Lorena B. Hahn—United States Representative on status of Women Commission to United Nations
    Jane Morrow Spaulding—Assistant to Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare
    Judge Vera Banks—Director of Registration and Education
    Lila Neuenfelt—Judge of Circuit Court
    Catherine B. Cleary—Assistant Treasurer
    Kathleen W. Kane—Judge of Nassau County District Court
    Miss Albina R. Cermal—Collector of Customs
    Miss Mildred E. Reeves—Associate Judge of District of Columbia District Court
    Mrs. Hiram C. Houghton—Assistant Director for Refugees, Migration and Travel, Mutual Security Administration
  • 15. Within Kansas
    2 clerks of county courts
    5 probate judges
    8 clerks of District courts
  • 16. Used as an Example
    Allen, Matthews, Herron, and Donlon, along with the 15 other women appointments and clerks, set the standard for allowing women to participate in the judiciary
    Influential leaders, like President Truman, realized that women had opinions and viewpoints that were just as important as men, even though they may have differed
    Sotomayer, Scalia, Kagan
  • 17. Judicial Appointments
    John F. Kennedy: 125 judges, 1 woman, 3 African-Americans, 1 Hispanic.
    Lyndon Johnson: 167 judges, 3 women (including the first African-American woman), 9 African-Americans, 3 Hispanics.
    Richard Nixon: 220 judges, 1 woman, 6 African-Americans, 2 Hispanics, 1 Asian American.
    Gerald Ford: 62 judges, 1 woman, 3 African-Americans, 1 Hispanic, 2 Asian Americans.
    Jimmy Carter: 258 judges, 40 women (including the first Hispanic woman), 37 African-Americans, 16 Hispanics, 3 Asian Americans, 1 Native American.
    Ronald Reagan: 358 judges, 29 women, 7 African-Americans, 14 Hispanics, 2 Asian Americans.
    George H.W. Bush: 187 judges, 36 women, 11 African-Americans, 8 Hispanics.
    Bill Clinton: 367 judges, 104 women (including the first Asian American woman), 61 African-Americans, 23 Hispanics, 5 Asian Americans, 1 Native American.
    George W. Bush: 321 judges, 71 women, 23 African-Americans, 30 Hispanics, 4 Asian Americans.
  • 18. Judicial Positions Given to Women are Increasing
  • 19. Works Cited
    Newsletters from Republican National Committee, Women in Politics: Bulletin of Women’s Activities Republican National Committee, Box 21, Adkins, Bertha S. Papers, 1907-1989, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library
    Correspondents with Women and President, Interviews-Prominent Women, Box 108, National Federation of Republican Women, Subject Files, 1949-1952, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library
    Information on the League, League of Women Voters-General, Box 108, National Federation of Republican Women, Subject Files, 1949-1952, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library
    List of Women in the Judicial Service, Box 20, 1959 Bertha S. Adkins Papers, Women in the Public Service 1959, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library
    "Burnita Shelton Matthews." Wikipedia. Web. 11 Dec. 2010.
    "Florence Ellinwood Allen." Wikipedia. Web. 11 Dec. 2010.
    "Marion Janet Harron." Wikipedia. Web. 11 Dec. 2010.
    "Mary Donlon Alger." Wikipedia. Web. 11 Dec. 2010.
    Sherman, Mark. "Diversity on the Bench." Higher Education News and Jobs. 22 May 2009. Web. 11 Jan. 2011.