Thinking, Language  and Intelligence
Thought <ul><li>Cognition—mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Thinki...
Concepts <ul><li>Concept—mental category of objects or ideas based on shared properties </li></ul><ul><li>Formal concept—m...
Examples of Concepts <ul><li>Formal concept—follows rigid rules, not usually intuitive (A polygon is….) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Problem Solving Strategies Trial and error
Problem Solving Strategies <ul><li> y +   z = r 2 </li></ul>Algorithm
Problem Solving Strategies <ul><li>Heuristic—strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number...
Insight and Intuition <ul><li>Insight—sudden realization about how a problem can be solved </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition—com...
Functional Fixedness <ul><li>type of mental set </li></ul><ul><li>inability to see an object as having  a function other t...
Nine dots problem <ul><li>Without lifting your pencil or re-tracing any line, draw four straight lines that connect all ni...
Nine dots mental set <ul><li>Most people will not draw lines that extend from the square formed by the nine dots </li></ul...
Mounting candle problem <ul><li>Using only the objects present on the right, attach the candle to the bulletin board in su...
Answer to candle problem <ul><li>Most people do not think of using the box for anything other than its normal use (to hold...
Metal Set <ul><li>Q: Why couldn’t you solve the previous problems? </li></ul><ul><li>A:  Mental set —a well-established ha...
Decision Making <ul><li>Single feature model—make a decision by focusing on only one feature </li></ul><ul><li>Additive mo...
Availability Heuristic <ul><li>Judge probability of an event by how easily you  can recall previous occurrences of that ev...
Representative Heuristic <ul><li>Judge probability of an event based on  how it matches a prototype </li></ul><ul><li>Can ...
Bias Effects <ul><li>Confirmation bias—only search for information confirming one’s hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Belief bi...
<ul><li>1. Break mental sets </li></ul><ul><li>2. Find useful analogy </li></ul><ul><li>3. Represent information efficient...
Language <ul><li>Language and thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Language and social perception </li></ul><ul><li>Language and gen...
Language and Thinking <ul><li>Language is a system for combining arbitrary symbols to produce an infinite number of meanin...
Characteristics of Language <ul><li>Connection between word and symbol usually  arbitrary </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning of sym...
Animal Communication <ul><li>Animals clearly communicate with each other, but is that language? </li></ul><ul><li>Some pri...
Animal cognition—Do animals “think”? Do they have “self-awareness”?
Intelligence <ul><li>Global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with  the environment </l...
Measuring Intelligence <ul><li>Alfred Binet </li></ul><ul><li>Mental age </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological age </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Alfred Binet (1857–1911) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence—collection of higher-order mental abilities loosely re...
Modern Intelligence Tests <ul><li>The Stanford-Binet Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>modification of the original Binet-Simon,...
Group Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Began during WWI when the army had to screen millions of army recruits </li></ul><ul><l...
Wechsler Intelligence Tests <ul><li>Used more widely now than Stanford-Binet </li></ul><ul><li>Modeled after Binet’s, adul...
WAIS Scales <ul><li>Test measured several abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Performance scales--nonverbal abilities </li></ul><u...
Types of Tests <ul><li>Achievement test—designed to measure level of knowledge, skill, or accomplishment in a particular a...
Qualities of Good Tests <ul><li>Standardized—administered to large  groups of people under uniform conditions to establish...
Standardized Scoring  of Wechsler Tests <ul><li>All raw scores converted to standardized scores </li></ul><ul><li>Normal d...
How valid are IQ tests? <ul><li>Validity—test measures what it’s intended to measure </li></ul><ul><li>Does test correlate...
What do IQ tests measure  about your mind? <ul><li>Mental speed and span of working memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>typically...
Theories of Intelligence <ul><li>Charles Spearman—“g” factor </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Thurstone—intelligence as a person’s ...
Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Robert Sternberg <ul><li>Analytic intelligence—mental processes used in learning how to solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Nature vs. Nurture in IQ <ul><li>Are differences between people due to environmental or genetic differences? </li></ul><ul...
Heredity and Environment <ul><li>Heritability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>degree to which variation in trait stems from genetic,...
Twin Studies & Family Influence <ul><li>If trait genetic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>closely related more similar than less clo...
Racial Difference in IQ <ul><li>Racial difference in average IQ among different racial groups can be measured </li></ul><u...
Within and Between  Group Differences <ul><li>Each corn field planted from same package of genetically diverse seeds </li>...
Other Influences on IQ Scores <ul><li>Cross cultural studies show that average IQ of groups subject to social discriminati...
Creativity <ul><li>To enhance your creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C reativity as a goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R ein...
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Chapter 7 Ppp

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  • Chapter 7 Ppp

    1. 1. Thinking, Language and Intelligence
    2. 2. Thought <ul><li>Cognition—mental activities involved in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking—manipulation of mental representations to draw inferences and conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Mental image—representation of objects or events that are not present </li></ul>
    3. 3. Concepts <ul><li>Concept—mental category of objects or ideas based on shared properties </li></ul><ul><li>Formal concept—mental category formed by learning rules </li></ul><ul><li>Natural concept—mental category formed by everyday experience </li></ul>
    4. 4. Examples of Concepts <ul><li>Formal concept—follows rigid rules, not usually intuitive (A polygon is….) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural concept—results from everyday experience (Some mammals are….) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Problem Solving Strategies Trial and error
    6. 6. Problem Solving Strategies <ul><li> y +  z = r 2 </li></ul>Algorithm
    7. 7. Problem Solving Strategies <ul><li>Heuristic—strategy that involves following a general rule of thumb to reduce the number of possible solutions </li></ul>
    8. 8. Insight and Intuition <ul><li>Insight—sudden realization about how a problem can be solved </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition—coming to a conclusion without conscious awareness of thought processes involved </li></ul>
    9. 9. Functional Fixedness <ul><li>type of mental set </li></ul><ul><li>inability to see an object as having a function other than its usual one </li></ul>
    10. 10. Nine dots problem <ul><li>Without lifting your pencil or re-tracing any line, draw four straight lines that connect all nine dots </li></ul>
    11. 11. Nine dots mental set <ul><li>Most people will not draw lines that extend from the square formed by the nine dots </li></ul><ul><li>To solve the problem, you have to break your mental set </li></ul>
    12. 12. Mounting candle problem <ul><li>Using only the objects present on the right, attach the candle to the bulletin board in such a way that the candle can be lit and will burn properly </li></ul>
    13. 13. Answer to candle problem <ul><li>Most people do not think of using the box for anything other than its normal use (to hold the tacks) </li></ul><ul><li>To solve the problem, you have to overcome functional fixedness </li></ul>
    14. 14. Metal Set <ul><li>Q: Why couldn’t you solve the previous problems? </li></ul><ul><li>A: Mental set —a well-established habit of perception or thought </li></ul>
    15. 15. Decision Making <ul><li>Single feature model—make a decision by focusing on only one feature </li></ul><ul><li>Additive model—systematically evaluate the important features of each alternative </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination-by-aspects—rate choices based on features. Eliminate those that do not meet the desired criteria, despite other desirable characteristics. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Availability Heuristic <ul><li>Judge probability of an event by how easily you can recall previous occurrences of that event </li></ul><ul><li>Most will overestimate deaths from natural disasters because disasters are frequently on TV </li></ul><ul><li>Most will underestimate deaths from asthma because they don’t make the local news </li></ul>
    17. 17. Representative Heuristic <ul><li>Judge probability of an event based on how it matches a prototype </li></ul><ul><li>Can be good </li></ul><ul><li>But can also lead to errors </li></ul><ul><li>Most will overuse this strategy </li></ul>
    18. 18. Bias Effects <ul><li>Confirmation bias—only search for information confirming one’s hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Belief bias—accept only information that conforms to beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Fallacy of positive instances—remember uncommon events that confirm our beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Overestimation—tendency to overestimate rarity of events </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>1. Break mental sets </li></ul><ul><li>2. Find useful analogy </li></ul><ul><li>3. Represent information efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>4. Find shortcuts </li></ul><ul><li>5. Establish sub-goals </li></ul><ul><li>6. Turn ill-defined problems into well-defined problems </li></ul>Strategies for solving problems
    20. 20. Language <ul><li>Language and thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Language and social perception </li></ul><ul><li>Language and gender bias </li></ul><ul><li>Animal communication </li></ul>
    21. 21. Language and Thinking <ul><li>Language is a system for combining arbitrary symbols to produce an infinite number of meaningful statements </li></ul>
    22. 22. Characteristics of Language <ul><li>Connection between word and symbol usually arbitrary </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning of symbols is shared among speakers of the language </li></ul><ul><li>Has syntax --set of specific structural rules </li></ul><ul><li>Is generative --can create infinite number of phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement --can communicate meaningfully about things that are not present </li></ul>
    23. 23. Animal Communication <ul><li>Animals clearly communicate with each other, but is that language? </li></ul><ul><li>Some primates that have been trained demonstrate the same level of language comprehension as that of an average 2 1/2-year-old child </li></ul><ul><li>Non-primates can also acquire some language abilities, i.e., dolphins, parrots </li></ul>
    24. 24. Animal cognition—Do animals “think”? Do they have “self-awareness”?
    25. 25. Intelligence <ul><li>Global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment </li></ul>
    26. 26. Measuring Intelligence <ul><li>Alfred Binet </li></ul><ul><li>Mental age </li></ul><ul><li>Chronological age </li></ul><ul><li>IQ—comparison of people in similar age groups </li></ul>
    27. 27. <ul><li>Alfred Binet (1857–1911) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence—collection of higher-order mental abilities loosely related to one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not rank “normal” students according to the scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intelligence is nurtured </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Binet-Simon Test developed in France, 1905 </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Modern Intelligence Tests <ul><li>The Stanford-Binet Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><li>modification of the original Binet-Simon, bu Lewis Terman at Stanford university </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intelligence quotient (IQ)—child’s mental age divided by child’s chronological age </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Group Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Began during WWI when the army had to screen millions of army recruits </li></ul><ul><li>Army Alpha--given to people who could read </li></ul><ul><li>Army Beta--given to people who could not read </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted for civilian use, but widely misused </li></ul>
    30. 30. Wechsler Intelligence Tests <ul><li>Used more widely now than Stanford-Binet </li></ul><ul><li>Modeled after Binet’s, adult test called WAIS </li></ul><ul><li>Consisted of several subtests </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected belief that intelligence involves different strengths and weaknesses </li></ul>
    31. 31. WAIS Scales <ul><li>Test measured several abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Performance scales--nonverbal abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal scales--vocabulary, comprehension, and other verbal tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-scales gave the WAIS practical and clinical value </li></ul>
    32. 32. Types of Tests <ul><li>Achievement test—designed to measure level of knowledge, skill, or accomplishment in a particular area </li></ul><ul><li>Aptitude test—designed to measure capability to benefit from education or training </li></ul><ul><li>Interest test—measures self-reported vocational interests and skills </li></ul>
    33. 33. Qualities of Good Tests <ul><li>Standardized—administered to large groups of people under uniform conditions to establish norms </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable—ability to produce consistent results when administered on repeated occasions under similar conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Valid—ability to measure what the test is intended to measure </li></ul>
    34. 34. Standardized Scoring of Wechsler Tests <ul><li>All raw scores converted to standardized scores </li></ul><ul><li>Normal distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Mean of 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Standard deviation of 15 </li></ul>50 70 85 100 115 130 145 2.14% 13.59% 34.13% 34.13% 13.59% 2.14% 0.13% 0.13% 95.44% 68.26% Wechsler IQ score Number of score
    35. 35. How valid are IQ tests? <ul><li>Validity—test measures what it’s intended to measure </li></ul><ul><li>Does test correlate with other measures of same construct? </li></ul><ul><li>School achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IQ tests (i.e., S-B and the Wechsler) correlate highly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but they were designed to test what you learn in school </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prestigious positions </li></ul><ul><li>On-the-job performance & other work-related variables </li></ul>
    36. 36. What do IQ tests measure about your mind? <ul><li>Mental speed and span of working memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>typically use a digit span test to measure this </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more recent studies find significant correlations between reaction times and IQ scores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why is this important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mental quickness may expand capacity of working memory </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Theories of Intelligence <ul><li>Charles Spearman—“g” factor </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Thurstone—intelligence as a person’s “pattern” of mental abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Gardner—multiple intelligences </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg–triarchic theory </li></ul>
    38. 38. Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
    39. 39. Robert Sternberg <ul><li>Analytic intelligence—mental processes used in learning how to solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Creative intelligence—ability to deal with novel situations by drawing on existing skills and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Practical intelligence—ability to adapt to the environment (street smarts) </li></ul>
    40. 40. Nature vs. Nurture in IQ <ul><li>Are differences between people due to environmental or genetic differences? </li></ul><ul><li>Misunderstanding the question </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Is a person’s intelligence due more to genes or to environment?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>both genes & intelligence crucial for any trait </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Heredity and Environment <ul><li>Heritability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>degree to which variation in trait stems from genetic, rather than environmental, differences among individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>degree to which variation is due to environmental rather than genetic differences </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Twin Studies & Family Influence <ul><li>If trait genetic: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>closely related more similar than less closely related </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many close relatives share environments too </li></ul><ul><li>Types of studies to separate effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monozygotic twins reared together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monozygotic twins reared apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>siblings/dizygotic reared together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>siblings/dizygotic reared apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adoptive siblings reared together </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Racial Difference in IQ <ul><li>Racial difference in average IQ among different racial groups can be measured </li></ul><ul><li>More variation in IQ scores within a particular group than between groups </li></ul>
    44. 44. Within and Between Group Differences <ul><li>Each corn field planted from same package of genetically diverse seeds </li></ul><ul><li>One field is quite fertile, the other is not </li></ul><ul><li>Within each field, differences due to genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Between each field, differences due to environment (fertility) </li></ul>
    45. 45. Other Influences on IQ Scores <ul><li>Cross cultural studies show that average IQ of groups subject to social discrimination are often lower than socially dominant group even if there is no racial difference </li></ul><ul><li>Tests reflect the culture in which they are developed; cultural factors also influence test taking behavior (culture bias) </li></ul>
    46. 46. Creativity <ul><li>To enhance your creativity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C reativity as a goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R einforce creative behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E ngage in problem finding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A cquire relevant knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T ry different approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E xert effort and expect setbacks </li></ul></ul>

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