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Reading vocabulary Wiseman

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  • You can search for and select audio exercises for
    your students that are on a relevant topic and at an appropriate level. You could
    also let your students select their own listening activities for themselves or each
    other and they could discuss what they learned from the information content in
    class.
    You could ask your students to add links to
    audio files that they want to understand such as song mp3s, news reports or
    interviews, then you could create the dictation activities and transcriptions to go
    with the audio (or hope that someone else does)
    for your
    students based on the audio files that you want them to understand.
  • You can paste in short texts that your students have studied
    recently. Show them the word cloud and see if they can remember what the text
    was about and how the words were used within the text. You can build up a bank
    of word clouds over a semester and pull them out at random to get students to
    recall the texts they have studied and the key vocabulary in them. You could also
    see if they could rewrite or reconstruct the text based on the word cloud.
    You can create word clouds of texts before the students read or listen
    and ask them to make predictions about the content of the text based on the word
    cloud. They could also check any new words from the word cloud that they are
    unsure of before they read or listen.
    - You can create a word cloud of a dialogue students
    are studying and use it as a prompt to remember or reconstruct the dialogue.
    You can generate a word cloud from a short poem or
    Haiku, then ask students to create their own work based on the word cloud. They could then see how close they came to the original.
    • Text comparison - You can create word clouds from a of number text genres
    (news article, poem, story, advertisement, dialogue , etc.) and then see if the
    students can decide which genre each is from and why. You could also do this with
    a small collection of poems, short stories or articles. Then students could read the
    complete texts and match them to the word clouds. Here are two poems. One is
    from Shakespeare and the other is from Robert Frost. Try to decide which one is
    from Shakespeare. How did you know?
    • Personal information - You could get your students to each create a text about
    themselves and then turn it into a word cloud. You could them put the clouds up
    around the class and see if the students could identify each other from the cloud.
    They could exchange clouds and use them to introduce each other.
    • Topic research tasks - You can create a word cloud based around a topic you
    want students to research. You could use a page from Wikipedia to do this, then
    use it to find out what students already know about the topic by asking what they
    think the relevance of each of the word is to the overall topic. They could then go
    to Wikipedia and find out more. Then report back on their findings using the key
    words as prompts. Here's an example I created by cutting and pasting the intro
    text on Cairo
    Learner training - This is a good tool for students to use regularly to help
    themselves. They can regularly make copies of the texts they study and pin them up to revise them or keep them in their gallery on the site. They could even create
    word clouds of their study notes to help them revise

Transcript

  • 1. Cynthia Wiseman
  • 2. Reading Motivation Framework & activities Reading groups Materials & Technology Vocabulary Vocabulary Resources Vocabulary development Q&A
  • 3. “…We must work fiercely as a society to preserve the development of particular aspects of reading….” – Wolfson, Proust and the Squid (23)  The reading brain is a complex network of synaptic circuitry that is developed through the process of reading.  The brain circuitry developed in the reading brain must be wired to activate schema and sustain that schema over a long period of time. ABE Instructional challenge: to help adults develop that circuitry by engaging with the text of longer works through structured activities in a social environment.
  • 4. Why is reading an important skill to develop? List 3 reasons.  Has reading enriched your life? Describe what reading means to you. What’s your reading speed? At what speed do you think your students read? What would be a goal? What reading materials do you use with your class now? List some. Put them in order of difficulty. What is a reading strategy that you use? How would you demonstrate this strategy to your students? What rewards do you give students for improving their reading proficiency? What are the criteria for improving reading fluency?
  • 5. Identify why reading is an important skill to develop Discuss your personal passion for reading and how you have benefited personally from being an avid reader. Use prereading activities like Shadow Reading to prepare students for meaningful engagement with a text Directly relate the reading material to the previous knowledge of the readers to show them that what they are reading ties to things they have read and learned previously, e.g., activate the schema Decreasing Expected Effort
  • 6. Listening & dictation tool. Create your own dictation. Ready-made dictation exercises in a number of languages. Track students progress Create homework tasks. Competitions: keep a class scoreboard to show which students are doing best. http://www.listen-and-w /
  • 7. Shadow Reading: record the selection on Listen and Write, distribute the reading to Ss, let them listen and shadow read at home
  • 8.  Audio or video tape or online websites, e.g., Listen and Write (video is better as the students can see the lip movements & there are the paralinguistics - the body language)  Choose a short part of the text, eg. 8-10 lines of the dialogue, & give the script out for the students to read & listen at the same time.  At this stage Ss could analyze the script & mark the sense groups - words which are said together between pauses.  Play the recording again but this time the students talk along with it in exactly the same way as the speakers, taking on their accents. If it is a dialogue, you could have each speaker being imitated by different halves of the class. Play the tape a few times & as the students become more confident & accurate, slowly turn the volume down so that you can't hear the original, only the students. So in effect they are dubbing the text.  Tape the students' version & use it for a comparison with the original & an analysis of different phonological aspects.  Ss try hard to sound as natural as the speakers on the tape  SS gain confidence as they realize how good they sound  Follow up with discussions re reading and re the process
  • 9. Do animals have Language? What’s the difference between human language and animal communication? Please read the paragraph. What difficulties did you have in reading this paragraph? Please discuss with a partner. What else could I have done to activate the schema of participants before asking then to read the passage? video
  • 10.  Abstract  Syntactic rules allow a speaker to combine signals with existing meanings to create an infinite number of new meanings. Even though combinatory rules have also been found in some animal communication systems, they have never been clearly linked to concurrent changes in meaning. The present field experiment indicates that wild Diana monkeys, Cercopithecus diana, may comprehend the semantic changes caused by a combinatory rule present in the natural communication of another primate, the Campbell's monkey, C. campbelli. Campbell's males give acoustically distinct alarm calls to leopards, Panthera pardus, and crowned-hawk eagles, Stephanoaetus coronatus, and Diana monkeys respond to these calls with their own corresponding alarm calls. However, in less dangerous situations, Campbell's males emit a pair of low, resounding ‘boom’ calls before their alarm calls. Playbacks of boom- introduced Campbell's alarm calls no longer elicited alarm calls in Diana monkeys, indicating that the booms have affected the semantic specificity of the subsequent alarm calls. When the booms preceded the alarm calls of Diana monkeys, however, they were no longer effective as semantic modifiers, indicating that they are meaningful only in conjunction with Campbell's alarm calls. I discuss the implications of these findings for the evolution of syntactic abilities.
  • 11. Invite former students who are successful readers to visit your class and share how their improvement of reading skills has helped them reach their personal and academic goals Create class reading goals for words-per-minute (wpm) and comprehension, e.g., Timed Readings. Post the goals in the classroom Engage the readers in specific reading rate improvement exercises so that they see that they can improve their reading fluency Use all of your knowledge about the specific group of students you are currently teaching to maintain achievable goals Decreasing expected effort
  • 12. Please read this passage as quickly as you can. Look up at me when you have finished and I will write your time on the board. Calculate your reading speed: divide 706 words by your time in minutes, e.g., 1.5 or 2 P. 230 Real Reading, Pearson
  • 13. You will need:  Stopwatch or clock  Pencil  Clipboard (so students will not see what you are writing)  1-minute reading selection Start the stopwatch when the student begins the first word of the passageT Assure the student you will say an unknown word after a couple of seconds . After one minute, say "Stop," stop the stopwatch, and circle the last word read. During the reading, don’t correct mistakes. Mistakes and self-correction will be counted in the score. If the student has extreme difficulty, stop the test.  Reassure the student that she or he will redo the assessment after further reading practice.  Select a lower level passage for the next assessment. Follow as the S reads.. Make a slash ( / ) through any words missed or unable toread without help.  Mark a dash above words skipped. Errors include:  Skipped words  Mispronounced words  Word substitutions, including incorrect forms of the word  Words in the wrong order; both or all words are counted as wrong  Struggling that lasts for 3 to 5 seconds, or more  The following are not considered misses:  Added words  Varying pronunciation due to accent, dialect, or speech impediment  Repetitions in which the wording is correct  Self-correcting a mistake; the word is scored as correct.
  • 14.  Count the total words read in one minute using the words-per-line totals listed in the margin (WPM reading rate)  Mark this on a chart, along with the date of the reading.  Count the number of errors (slashes). Record the number in the "errors" box  Subtract the number of errors from the total number of words read to find the number of correct words read.  Divide the number of correct words by the total words read and multiply this result by 100. This is the student's accuracy percentage.  Record this number in the box.  After about four to six readings, students should reach the target words-per- minute standard for their grade level with an accuracy rate of 90 to 95 percent.  Example:Total words read: 60Number of errors: 6  Number of correct words:60 – 6 = 54  Accuracy percentage:54/60 = .9  .9 x 100 = 90%
  • 15. Select a variety of reading passages at slightly different levels of difficulty so that students can see the progress they are making yet the challenges that are still ahead to become better readers. Resource:, e.g, Fry Readability Generator Model for your students the strategies that you use while reading in your second language Allow readers to select some of their own reading materials for extensive reading outside of the classroom. Allow readers to work with their peers during comprehension checks. Decreasing Expected Effort
  • 16. Used to calculate grade reading level (or reading difficulty level)  Average number of sentences (y-axis) and syllables (x-axis) per hundred words are plotted onto a specific graph; To calculate a grade level score: Randomly select three separate 100 word passages. (Count every word including proper nouns, initializations, and numerals.) Count the number of sentences in each 100 word sample (estimate to nearest tenth). Count the number of syllables in each 100 word sample. (Each numeral is a syllable. For example, 2007 counts as 1 word with 4 syllables.) Plot the average sentence length and the average number of syllables on the graph. The area in which it falls is the approximate grade
  • 17. http://www.readabilityformulas.com/free-readability-form The Dale-Chall Formula calculates the US grade level of a text sample based on sentence length and the number of ‘hard’ words. http://www.readabilityformulas.com/new-dale-chall- readability-formula.php
  • 18.  Provide genuine praise for the improvements that Ss are making in increasing their reading fluency  Establish the criteria for successful completion of reading tasks prior to engaging in the reading, e.g., increase wpm by__, find pp. x-x in novel, learn x-number of new words/week, be able to decode an unknown word based on context/parts of words/understand an article from NYTimes, be able to paraphrase the idea in a sentence/ be able to summarize the author’s main idea in a paragraph/article/essay, be able to write a letter to editor re issue. Engage readers in comprehension checks that do not require them to take a written test Teach readers how to self- assess their performance based on predetermined criteria for successful completion of reading tasks Decreasing expected effort
  • 19. Controlled-vocabulary basal reading series, 50s/60s Skills mastery curriculum models and materials (1960s/70s) Literature-based instruction Process approaches to writing Integrated language arts, 80s/90s Schema theory: reading is a constructive process in which reader is creating meaning from a text Transactional theory of reading: reading is activity that combines the energies of the writer and reader, with meaning the product of the unique collaboration of text and reader in any act of reading – “live circuit”: when reader meets text it allows a reader to infuse meaning with the text as the text guides and contains that meaning.
  • 20. Features of the Good Reading Task Nunan (1999) Makes use of authentic and challenging texts Frequently involves an oral reading of the text by the teacher or a student followed by silent reading and rereading of the text Provides students with a rhetorical or topical framework for processing and analyzing the text Involves the student interacting with the text and with each other Involves students in direct analysis of the text instead of indirect question answering Frequently involves the transfer of information from text to a visual or diagrammatic representation
  • 21. Active, constructive, social experience Fosters independent readers Uninterrupted sustained silent reading – technique designed to engage students in free reading of self- selected materials People learn and remember more when conditions require them to understand the material. Activities: collaborative group work/comprehension questions/vocabulary lists/crossword puzzles/timelines/class discussions/wikis/PowerPoint presentations/critical analysis/book review – multiple drafts
  • 22.  Comprehension questions: micro & micro; include questions that require attention to language for meaning  Prediction, summarizing, paraphrasing: Wordle  vocabulary exercises/crosswords  Information gap  Jigsaw  Role play & dialogues– characters  Journal writing: write on the same topic first from the point of view of 1 character and then from that of another character  Book reviews/critiques  Websites, e.g., www.wikipedia.com Student-generated wikis/blogs  Student Samples  Wiki pages/blogs for each book  PPTs for each book  Elements of fiction  Book review  http://esl094bmcc.wikispaces.com/Books
  • 23. •Create colorful graphic representations of texts based on word occurrence from any given text. •Feed in the text either by copy and paste or by specifying a URL •Analyze text and creates a colorful representation with more frequently occurring words appearing much larger than less frequent words. •Adjust colors and designs to suit your taste. http://www.wordle. net/
  • 24. Review/Summarize/Retell text Prediction Dialogue reconstruction Short poems / Haiku Text comparison Topic research tasks
  • 25. Features of the Good Reading Task Nunan (1999) The Role of Wikis in Reading Tasks Makes use of authentic and challenging texts Repository of authentic reading passages and materials, e.g., links to relevant websites and e- books Frequently involves an oral reading of the text by the teacher or a student followed by silent reading and rereading of the text Collaborative writing/reading projects require reading and rereading of texts, individually and independently and collectively and collaboratively Provides students with a rhetorical or topical framework for processing and analyzing the text Wiki format has certain rhetorical characteristics that require that the learner process and analyze the text, Involves the student interacting with the text and with each other Wiki projects require student-to-student collaboration and student-to-text engagement and analysis Involves students in direct analysis of the text instead of indirect question answering Wiki content requires analytical and higher order critical thinking tasks, such as monitoring posts, fact-checking information, and editing Frequently involves the transfer of information from text to a visual or diagrammatic representation The presentation of content in the wiki medium involves the transfer of information from text to a visual or diagrammatic representation.
  • 26. Materials to Support Novels/Books Resource/support for reading, writing, grammar Comprehension Questions & discussion Student –created Wikis about assigned readings, e.g., novels Student Power Points about Novels Vocabulary Resource Vocabulary Development Suffixes Interactive w/ readings Student contributions
  • 27.  Denotative meaning: dictionary definition, e.g., look at/over: detect errors  Connotative meaning: the meaning of the word in the context of the language/culture  Creating ‘concept pods’ – Merton, Test-L listserve Classification/categorization of words in semantic fields Labeling pictures Grids/charts w/ categories Semantic mapping or clustering  Repeated processing Vivian Cook (1991) 10-12 encounters with word: active vocabulary The deeper the processing, the more likely acquisition Grammar & Reading  Learning roots and prefixes  Learning major suffixes that change a word from one grammatical category to another.
  • 28. Fill in the blanks with the following words:  Check  Examine  Inspect  Scan  Scrutinize 1. The immigration official _____ his luggage at Customs. 2. The computer spell checker ____ the document for errors. 3. The researcher _____ the results of the analysis for any oversights. 4. The student ____ his homework before handing it in. 5. The doctor ____ the patient at his annual check-up. How are each of these words used? Context?
  • 29. Blogging … Promotes more effective communication skills Encourages critical thinking
  • 30. Promotes development of reading/writing ability Integrates reading and writing Requires response to reading Heuristic: What did the writer say? How do I feel about that? What do I think about that?
  • 31. Writers & readers become active participants in communication Develop critical thinking skills Develop a perspective about what they’ve read Develop confidence as a reader and writer
  • 32. English Vocabulary Games with Pictures http://www.manythings.org/lulu/ Just Read Now: Provides different instructional approaches, such as concept mapping, Frayer model, and contextual redefinition http://www.justreadnow.com/strategies/vocabulary.htm “A Little Latin…and a Lot of English” -- This article, written by Newton and Newton, offers guidelines and resources for teaching the “classic vocabulary” approach woven through a happy school memory of “Roots Day. http://ohiorc.org/adlit/InPerspective/Issue/2005-06/Article/Feature.aspx “A Focus on Vocabulary” -- From Pacific Resources for Education and Learning and written by Lehr, Osborn, and Hiebert, this is research overview has in-depth information in a reader-friendly format. The 44-page booket could be used for professional development or even shared with parents. http://www.prel.org/products/re_/ES0419.htm .
  • 33. Use theme-based approach Supplemental materials related to topics Online resources Websites/programs Wikis Blogs Promotes engagement w/ text and w/ peers Develops critical thinking skills Increased input and fosters language acquisition Increases motivation