Dreyfus Model Of Skills Acquisition


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How skills are learned.

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  • The quotation suggests that we change behavior because we are not content with existing behavior.
  • Dreyfus Model Of Skills Acquisition

    1. 1. Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition
    2. 2. <ul><li>“ To become competent you must feel bad” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hubert Dreyfus </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Activities Studied <ul><li>Airplane pilots, </li></ul><ul><li>Chess players, </li></ul><ul><li>Automobile drivers, </li></ul><ul><li>Adult learners of a second language </li></ul>
    4. 4. Five Stages <ul><li>Novice </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Beginner </li></ul><ul><li>Competent </li></ul><ul><li>Proficient </li></ul><ul><li>Expert </li></ul>
    5. 5. Best Opportunity to Observe Stages <ul><li>Unstructured problems </li></ul><ul><li>Number of potentially relevant facts enormous </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of solutions extensive </li></ul>
    6. 6. Novice <ul><li>The novice follows rules </li></ul><ul><li>Specific rules for specific circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>No modifiers </li></ul><ul><li>“ Context free” </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t feel responsible for other than following the rule </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>The early medical student is taught to obtain an EKG for chest pain, without other modifiers. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Advanced Beginner <ul><li>New “situational” elements are identified </li></ul><ul><li>Rules begin to be applied to related conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions still are made by rule application </li></ul><ul><li>Does not experience personal responsibility </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>The more experienced medical student finds that dyspnea also might be associated with cardiac ischemia and orders an EKG for that situation as well. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Competence <ul><li>Numbers of rules becomes excessive </li></ul><ul><li>Learn organizing principles or “perspectives” </li></ul><ul><li>Perspectives permit assorting information by relevance </li></ul><ul><li>The experience of responsibility arises from active decision-making </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>The competent physician realizes the multitude of factors influencing the likelihood that a single symptom represents ischemia and has a decision tree to allocate probabilities balancing a number of factors in deciding when to order an EKG or other diagnostic modalities and begin treatment </li></ul>
    12. 12. Proficiency <ul><li>Intuitive diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Approach to problem molded by perspective arising from multiple real world experiences </li></ul><ul><li>“ Holistic similarity recognition” </li></ul><ul><li>Learner uses intuition to realize “what” is happening </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious decision-making and rules used to formulate plan </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>The proficient physician realizes “this is an infarction” and then applies rules to decide about thrombolysis. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Expertise <ul><li>Don’t make decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Do what works </li></ul><ul><li>No decomposition of situation into discrete elements </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern recognition extends to plan as well as diagnosis </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>“ This is an infarction and we should implement the following diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.” </li></ul>
    16. 16. When Expertise Fails <ul><li>The expert uses rules and explicit decision-making. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Novice <ul><li>Novice: follows rules and does not feel responsible for outcomes. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Advanced Beginner <ul><li>recognizes new situations in which the rules may be applied. Still does not feel responsible. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Competent <ul><li>Follows rules, applies an organizing “perspective” to determine what elements of the problem are relevant and feels accountable because of decision-making </li></ul>
    20. 20. Proficiency <ul><li>The proficient learner uses pattern recognition arising from extensive experience to identify the problem (“what” is happening”) and rules and analysis in formulating the “how” of the solution. A sense of responsibility follows the decision-making. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Expertise <ul><li>immediately sees “what” is happening and “how” to approach the situation. Pattern recognition extends to management plan as well as diagnosis. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition <ul><li>The utility of the concept of skill acquisition lies in helping the teacher understand how to assist the learner in advancing to the next level. </li></ul>