Dreyfus Model Of Skills Acquisition
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Dreyfus Model Of Skills Acquisition



How skills are learned.

How skills are learned.



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  • The quotation suggests that we change behavior because we are not content with existing behavior.

Dreyfus Model Of Skills Acquisition Dreyfus Model Of Skills Acquisition Presentation Transcript

  • Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition
    • “ To become competent you must feel bad”
        • Hubert Dreyfus
  • Activities Studied
    • Airplane pilots,
    • Chess players,
    • Automobile drivers,
    • Adult learners of a second language
  • Five Stages
    • Novice
    • Advanced Beginner
    • Competent
    • Proficient
    • Expert
  • Best Opportunity to Observe Stages
    • Unstructured problems
    • Number of potentially relevant facts enormous
    • Variety of solutions extensive
  • Novice
    • The novice follows rules
    • Specific rules for specific circumstances
    • No modifiers
    • “ Context free”
    • Don’t feel responsible for other than following the rule
    • The early medical student is taught to obtain an EKG for chest pain, without other modifiers.
  • Advanced Beginner
    • New “situational” elements are identified
    • Rules begin to be applied to related conditions
    • Decisions still are made by rule application
    • Does not experience personal responsibility
    • The more experienced medical student finds that dyspnea also might be associated with cardiac ischemia and orders an EKG for that situation as well.
  • Competence
    • Numbers of rules becomes excessive
    • Learn organizing principles or “perspectives”
    • Perspectives permit assorting information by relevance
    • The experience of responsibility arises from active decision-making
    • The competent physician realizes the multitude of factors influencing the likelihood that a single symptom represents ischemia and has a decision tree to allocate probabilities balancing a number of factors in deciding when to order an EKG or other diagnostic modalities and begin treatment
  • Proficiency
    • Intuitive diagnosis
    • Approach to problem molded by perspective arising from multiple real world experiences
    • “ Holistic similarity recognition”
    • Learner uses intuition to realize “what” is happening
    • Conscious decision-making and rules used to formulate plan
    • The proficient physician realizes “this is an infarction” and then applies rules to decide about thrombolysis.
  • Expertise
    • Don’t make decisions
    • Don’t solve problems
    • Do what works
    • No decomposition of situation into discrete elements
    • Pattern recognition extends to plan as well as diagnosis
    • “ This is an infarction and we should implement the following diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.”
  • When Expertise Fails
    • The expert uses rules and explicit decision-making.
  • Novice
    • Novice: follows rules and does not feel responsible for outcomes.
  • Advanced Beginner
    • recognizes new situations in which the rules may be applied. Still does not feel responsible.
  • Competent
    • Follows rules, applies an organizing “perspective” to determine what elements of the problem are relevant and feels accountable because of decision-making
  • Proficiency
    • The proficient learner uses pattern recognition arising from extensive experience to identify the problem (“what” is happening”) and rules and analysis in formulating the “how” of the solution. A sense of responsibility follows the decision-making.
  • Expertise
    • immediately sees “what” is happening and “how” to approach the situation. Pattern recognition extends to management plan as well as diagnosis.
  • Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition
    • The utility of the concept of skill acquisition lies in helping the teacher understand how to assist the learner in advancing to the next level.