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  • 1. Pacing the Heart:Impact of Pacemakers on the Society
    The BioBusiness Revolution:
    Healthcare and the
    Biomedical Sciences:
    Past, Present, Future
    Teo Te Wei
    G13
  • 2. Background
    In the past, no cure for immediate heart stoppage
    Heart Failure
    Mortality rate was high
  • 3. How to solve this problem?
    To create a prosthetic device that would permanently manage a heart in complete block
    Pacemaker
  • 4. What is Pacemaker?
    Device that consists of a pulse generator, electrodes and a lead
    Pacemaker
    Pulse Generator
    Lead
    Electrodes
  • 5. What is Pacemaker?
    Delivers electrical impulses to the heart so as to regulate the heartbeat
  • 6. Timeline
    Stabilized Pacing
    Qualified as a major surgery
    External Pacing
    Externally Programm-able Pacer
    500,000-600,000 users
    1950s
    1960s
    1970s
    1975
    1990s
    Internal Pacing – Implant
    Users exceed 150,000
    110,000 annual implants
  • 7. Advantages
    Kept patients alive in complete heart block
    Enabled many of them to enjoy moderately active lives
    The doctor could noninvasively and repeatedly alter pacing device
  • 8. Drawbacks
    Battery of the internal pacemaker may run low
    Require further surgical procedures
  • 9. Key Takeaway Points
    Pacemaker brought about a lot of advantages in the medical history and saved a lot of lives
    Pacemaker was constantly refined to suit to new heart diseases
    Prolonged mortality rate
  • 10. Rating
    5/5
    Displayed the evolution of heart pacing and the impact on the lives of people
    Covered both advantages and drawbacks of the pacemakers
  • 11. Issues for Discussion
    Do you think that the battery of the pacemaker will be able to operate indefinitely in the future?
    Will mankind be over-reliant on technology and implanting a pacemaker even when not required or as a preventive measure of heart attacks?
  • 12. The END
    ‘The best and most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or even touched - they must be felt with the heart’ - Helen Keller
  • 13. References
    Pacing the Heart: Growth and Redefinition of a Medical Technology, 1952-1975, Kirk Jeffrey, Technology and Culture, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Jul 1995), pp. 583-624