The state of international organ trade <ul><li>by Yosuke Shimazono  </li></ul><ul><li>Bulletin of World Health Organizatio...
<ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Points of discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Key messages </li></ul><ul><li>Rating </li></u...
Background <ul><li>organ transplantation:  the transfer of an organ from the body of one person (the donor) to another (th...
Background <ul><li>Organ donors may be living or dead  </li></ul><ul><li>Use of live donors for transplantation is practic...
Main points <ul><li>Transplant tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Who gains? Who loses? </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences & effects </...
Transplant tourism <ul><li>Potential patient travels abroad to undergo organ transplantation </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of...
Transplant tourism Background  Points of Discussion   Key Messages  Rating  Issues for Discussion
Transplant tourism <ul><li>Allegations of embassy officials and local doctors facilitating such organ transplants in Pakis...
Who gains? Who loses? <ul><li>May involve human trafficking for the purpose of organ trade </li></ul><ul><li>Organ exporte...
Who gains? Who loses? <ul><li>Number of patients have decreased because of Human Organ Transplantation Act of 1994 </li></...
Consequences and effects <ul><li>Newspaper articles have reported the death of patients who went abroad for overseas trans...
Economic and social effects of organ trade Background  Points of Discussion   Key Messages  Rating  Issues for Discussion
Key messages <ul><li>Organ trade is an economical, societal, and ethical problem </li></ul><ul><li>Governments must step u...
Rating <ul><li>8/10 </li></ul>Background  Points of Discussion  Key Messages  Rating   Issues for Discussion
Issues for discussion <ul><li>Given factors and circumstances indicated earlier, will organ trade ever be viable? Will you...
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Kara Amantoy

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Kara Amantoy

  1. 1. The state of international organ trade <ul><li>by Yosuke Shimazono </li></ul><ul><li>Bulletin of World Health Organization </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/85/12/06-039370/en/ </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Points of discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Key messages </li></ul><ul><li>Rating </li></ul><ul><li>Issues for discussion </li></ul>Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>organ transplantation: the transfer of an organ from the body of one person (the donor) to another (the patient) with the intention of replacing the patient’s damaged or missing organ </li></ul><ul><li>includes: heart, kidneys, eyes, liver, etc. </li></ul>Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
  4. 4. Background <ul><li>Organ donors may be living or dead </li></ul><ul><li>Use of live donors for transplantation is practiced but purchase and sale of transplant organs from live donors are strictly prohibited </li></ul><ul><li>66,000 kidney transplants, 21,000 liver transplants and 6,000 heart transplants in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Rough estimate given limited and paucity of available information </li></ul>Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
  5. 5. Main points <ul><li>Transplant tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Who gains? Who loses? </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences & effects </li></ul>Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
  6. 6. Transplant tourism <ul><li>Potential patient travels abroad to undergo organ transplantation </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of patients is usually facilitated by intermediaries and healthcare providers </li></ul><ul><li>Advent of internet has also played a crucial role in transplant tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Some websites offer all-inclusive packages that range from US $70,000 to $160,000 in developed countries </li></ul>Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
  7. 7. Transplant tourism Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
  8. 8. Transplant tourism <ul><li>Allegations of embassy officials and local doctors facilitating such organ transplants in Pakistan and the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Major exporters: China, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Brazil, Bolivia </li></ul>Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
  9. 9. Who gains? Who loses? <ul><li>May involve human trafficking for the purpose of organ trade </li></ul><ul><li>Organ exporters vs Organ importers </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics have shown organ donors are worse off financially and health-wise </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical dilemma - in China, most of 12,000 kidneys and livers transplanted were from executed prisoners </li></ul>Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
  10. 10. Who gains? Who loses? <ul><li>Number of patients have decreased because of Human Organ Transplantation Act of 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>But even with rules outlawing illegal organ trade, some doctors and medical institutions still persist </li></ul><ul><li>Australia, Canada, Israel, Japan, Oman, Saudi Arabia and the USA are major organ-importing countries </li></ul><ul><li># of patients getting transplants overseas > # of patients locally </li></ul>Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
  11. 11. Consequences and effects <ul><li>Newspaper articles have reported the death of patients who went abroad for overseas transplants </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse, fraud, and coercion of paid kidney donors are also frequently reported </li></ul><ul><li>Lower health standards: transmission of HIV, hepatitis B and C </li></ul><ul><li>Fueled by desperate desire of patients to undergo organ transplant </li></ul>Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
  12. 12. Economic and social effects of organ trade Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
  13. 13. Key messages <ul><li>Organ trade is an economical, societal, and ethical problem </li></ul><ul><li>Governments must step up and refine regulatory frameworks </li></ul><ul><li>Urgent need to further medical and social scientific research </li></ul>Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
  14. 14. Rating <ul><li>8/10 </li></ul>Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
  15. 15. Issues for discussion <ul><li>Given factors and circumstances indicated earlier, will organ trade ever be viable? Will you ever partake in it? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some possible technological or readily-available alternatives to organ trading? </li></ul>Background Points of Discussion Key Messages Rating Issues for Discussion
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