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ORGANIZED BY : KARACHI BRANCH COUNCIL, ICMAPDated : December 10 & 11, 2011 Facilitator Zahid MAHMOOD FCMA, FPA, CCFC Zahid MAHMOOD FCMA, FPA, CCFC Group CFO & Company Secretary Group CFO & Company Secretary Pak Shaheen Group of of Companies Pak Shaheen Group Companies Cell: +923008297285 +923332187476 Cell: +923008297285 & & +923332187476 Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP 0 Email: cynosure_80@hotmail.com Email: soigne76@gmail.com – Zahid MAHMOOD
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PunctualityRespect other’s view pointsNo SmokingMobile / Cell phones No rings No frequent call answering No SMSQuestions Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 2
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MS Excel as Tool for Financial Model Columns Rows Workspace Area: 2003 256 16,384 2007 & 2010 16,384 1,048,576 Transition from Excel 2003 to 2007 & 2010 Functions & Formulas (Nested Formulas) Data Validations Paste Special – Transpose Names Logical Functions Lookup & Reference Functions Text to Column Goal Seek Protection / Security PIVOT Table Sub Total Conditional Formatting Data Sort Data Filter Data Consolidation Auditing Chart and Graphs Dynamic Charting Data Table Scenario Manager Solver (Linear Programming) Macros Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 3
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Examining The Excel Worksheet, Workbook, Template & Excel FundamentalsAn Overview Of Saving, Opening, Closing WorkbooksFormatting & Editing WorksheetSolving Printing Problems Creating Single & Nested Formulas And Performing Data AnalysisMaths & Trigonometry Functions Statistical FunctionDate & Time Function Text FunctionLookup Functions Financial FunctionsLogical Functions Information Functions Writing Absolute Formulas Range Names And Its Applications In Formulas Using IF Functions For Perfect Solutions Linking Worksheets Creating Hyperlinks In Excel Adding Notes To Cells Understanding Error Types & Removing Errors Creating Conditional Formatting By Values & Formulas Data Consolidation Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 4
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Using Data Filtering To Convert DATA Into INFORMATION Data Filtering Advanced Data Filtering Printing ReportsExcel Database Creation Data Validation For Accurate Data Entry Database Functions & Subtotal To Extract Facts & Figures Sorting Data For Desired Result Understanding Group & Outline Advanced Charting And Graphs Working With Built In Charts Column Cluster ChartCylinder Chart Gauge ChartGantt Chart Pie & Pie Of Pie Chart Dynamic Charting And GraphsDefine Dynamic Charts Using Forms Control In Charts Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 5
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What ~ If Analysis (Data Optimization & Analysis Tools)Using goal seek Creating data tablesUsing scenario managers Working with solver Pivot Table & Pivot Chart Report Analyzing data with pivot tableGrouping pivot table Items Creating a calculated field & calculated itemCreate Pivot Chart Automating ExcelRecording Macros Working With FORMS CONTROLCombo Box Command ButtonList Box Spin ButtonScroll Bar Check BoxOption Button Group Box Protection & SecurityProtecting worksheet Protecting workbook Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 6
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Introduction & Principles Goal Seek MS Excel as Tool for Data Table Financial ModelingTransition from 2003 to 2007 Scenario Manager Sub Totals PIVOT Table Data Validation Conditional Formatting Data Consolidation Data Filter Formula Auditing MS Solver Dynamic Charting Macros Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 7
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I n this workshop I don’t refer to excel worksheet functions as excel functions. They are called excel formulas. This is because excel worksheet functions are used within a cell together with the basic mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.W e refer Excel functions to another group of tools in Excel. This group of tools is very powerful in managing data in the worksheet. Tools that fall into this category include pivot table, scenario analysis, solver, subtotal, etc. This workshop covers standard financial models inthe areas of corporate finance, financial statement simulation, portfolio problems, options, portfolioinsurance, duration, and immunization. While Excel is often inappropriate for high-level, industrial-strength calculations (portfolios are an example), it is an excellent tool for understanding thecomputational intricacies involved in financial modeling. It is often the case that the fullestunderstanding of the models comes by calculating them, and Excel is one of the most accessible andpowerful tools available for this purpose.T he topics in Excellence With Excel are designed to teach you everything you need to know about Excel to work in investment banking or private equity. If you’re in a time crunch and needed answers yesterday, you can skip to whatever you need help with – but if you want to go througheverything from top to bottom, you can do that too.T he basic idea behind any financial model is to bring order and understanding to the numerous variables and complex information that financial transactions present. Learning to build one from a blank spreadsheet is often a daunting task to newcomers because of the sheer amount ofinformation and nearly infinite methods of manipulating data. This workshop seeks to bring asystematic, well-explained method to constructing a particularly popular and adaptable type of model—The Financial Model. Through the use of thorough explanation, graphical examples, and thesimultaneous application of learned methods featured in the Model Builder exercises, anyone with abackground in finance and basic spreadsheet understanding can develop and understand a fullyfunctioning Financial Model. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 8
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T he topics in Excellence With Excel are designed to teach you everything you need to know about Excel to work in investment banking or private equity. If you’re in a time crunch and needed answers yesterday, you can skip to whatever you need help with – but if you want to go througheverything from top to bottom, you can do that too.In this workshop I don’t refer to excel worksheet functions as excel functions. They are called excelformulas. This is because excel worksheet functions are used within a cell together with the basicmathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.We refer Excel functions to another group of tools in Excel. This group of tools is very powerful inmanaging data in the worksheet. Tools that fall into this category include pivot table, scenario analysis,solver, subtotal, etc. This workshop covers standard financial models in the areas of corporate finance,financial statement simulation, portfolio problems, options, portfolio insurance, duration, andimmunization. While Excel is often inappropriate for high-level, industrial-strength calculations(portfolios are an example), it is an excellent tool for understanding the computational intricaciesinvolved in financial modeling. It is often the case that the fullest understanding of the models comes bycalculating them, and Excel is one of the most accessible and powerful tools available for this purpose.The basic idea behind any financial model is to bring order and understanding to the numerous variablesand complex information that financial transactions present. Learning to build one from a blankspreadsheet is often a daunting task to newcomers because of the sheer amount of information andnearly infinite methods of manipulating data. This workshop seeks to bring a systematic, well-explainedmethod to constructing a particularly popular and adaptable type of model—The Financial Model.Through the use of thorough explanation, graphical examples, and the simultaneous application oflearned methods featured in the Model Builder exercises, anyone with a background in finance andbasic spreadsheet understanding can develop and understand a fully functioning Financial Model. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 9
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T he first part of the course is based on a fixed curriculum and its purpose is to equip you with foundational skills and competence to explore Excel on your own. The second part of the course is customised to your needs by working through your real, existing problems encountered in yourwork, and providing solutions to you. The level of customization is dependent on the needs, skill level,expectation and requests of the class.Knowing what the formulas and functions in Excel can do is not enough to maximize the use of Excel.The above tests shows that the importance of applying these formulas in your work. In this workshopwe will learn how to apply those seemingly useless formulas and functions to your excel projects andunleash the potential of Excel.It will help managers and executives overcome practical problems in Data Analysis with Excel.Financial Modeling is a part of corporate modeling.• Computer based models carry out the calculations necessary to produce financial models based ongiven sets of assumptions and predictions.• Learning objective of this workshop is to develop financial models and usage of tools and featuresavailable in Microsoft Excel that supports flexile modeling.• Financial Model is primarily a tool for quantitative analysis.• Models can be manipulated and analyzed more easily than the real system and hence permit theanalyst, in effect, to carry on various experimentation. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 10
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T hese training not only shows you how Excel formulas and Excel functions work, it also shows you how they should be applied in real business situations. If you wish to fully maximize the use of these microsoft excel tutorials, you must first have a good basic understanding of Excel. Thesemicrosoft excel tutorials are meant to help you manage large spreadsheets containing hundreds andeven thousands of rows of data records. You will not only become more competent in navigatingthrough the Excel worksheets but also how to format these spreadsheets quickly and accurately. At theend of these mini microsoft excel tutorials, you will become more confident in managing large andcomplicated worksheets.T he workshop is based on real business scenarios I have encountered over the years and the solutions were found through various means. I am confident that your work on Excel woud has been easier for you and would have saved you hours and hours if you have been using themethods applied in this workshop. Through these training, you will be able to make Microsoft® Excelwork harder for you without using macro programming / VBA.E xcel training tailored for managers and executives who are seeking practical solutions to their Excel problems in raw data management, business analysis and reporting. It is conducted based on business case studies with the aim of maximizing your benefits (e.g. productivity, reportaccuracy) in using Excel. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 11
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• One can systematically vary some properties of the system, holding others constant,and in this way determine how the system as a whole would be affected if thechanges actually did occur.• The models accomplish the reduction of uncertainty about the future of thebusiness by introducing statistical data about relationships and trends.• A new users understand how the standard analysis should be conducted.• Model becomes common yardstick of analysis.• A projection model is best because it allows to change the inputs quickly for aseries of sensitivity tests. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 12
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Financial Modeling – Purpose• Credit Analysis: Focus on Cash Flows and Ratios• Equity Investment: Projections of Equity Returns• Project Financing: Evaluate the consequences of alternative decisions.• Leverage Buyout: Focus on both Equity and Debt Changes• Assess the impact of quantifiable outside forces.• Provide a flexible structure for modification.• Provide the ability to measure performance.• Forecast expectations.• Provide a vehicle for improved communication among managers. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 13
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Financial Modeling – Principles• KISS—Keep it simple, stupid• Have a clear idea of model: Needs to do• Be clear about what the users want and expect• Maintain a logical arrangement of the parts• Make all calculations in the model visible• Be consistent in everything you do• Use one input for one data point• Think modular: controlled and modules of formulas that perform discrete operations• Make full use of Excel’s power• Provide ways to prevent or back out of errors• Save in-progress versions under different names• and save them often• Test, test, and test Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 23
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Financial Modeling and MS ExcelA spreadsheet is considered the most widely applicable tool for developing a financial modelbecause of its ability to:• Control the format and content of inputs and outputs• Quickly recalculate the entire model when data or formulas are added or modified.• Rapidly provide comparative output for alternative assumptions.• Interact with users as they become more familiar with data.• Promote a better understanding of cause-and effect relationships. Excel has a whole repertory ofover 250 functions (preformatted formulas) that make it a hugely powerful calculator. Thesefunctions are divided into the following types:• Financial • Date and time• Statistical • Lookup & reference• Database • Text• Logical • Information Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 24
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MS Excel as Tool for Financial Model• Basics of MS Excel • Customizing Excel (Toolbars)• Functions & Formulas (Nested Formulas) • Conditional Formatting• Data Validations • Goal Seek• Data Table • Scenario Manager• PIVOT Table • Chart and Graphs• Solver • Macros• Model Security • Title Bar• Menu Bar • Tool Bar• Reference Area • Formula Bar• Column Header & Row Header • Status Bar• Workspace Area: 256 col (A – IV) & 16384 row Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 25
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Basics of MS ExcelWorkshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 26
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• F1 Help • F2 Edit the active cell• F3 Paste a name into a formula • F4 Repeat the last keyboard action• F5 Go to • F6 Move to the next pane• F7 Check spelling • F8 Anchors the start of a range• F9 Calculate all sheets in all open workbooks • F10 Activate the menu bar (Like Alt)• F11 Create a chart • F12 Save As command F KEYS Combination• F2+F4: Cycle through absolute references, insert the $ symbol manually by typing it into theappropriate places in the cell address.• F2+F5 Trace back to formula sources, helpful to tracing back to source when editing a longformula• F2+F9 Recalculate portions of formulas by highlighting portion of formula and pressing F9. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 27
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You can rearrange and modify toolbar buttons, menus, and menu commands by using the mouse or you can use the Rearrange Commands dialog box which is accessible using a keyboard menu. These tasks are identified as (keyboard accessible). On the Tools menu, click Customize, and then click the Toolbars tab. Click New. In the Toolbar name box, type the name you want, and then click OK.Click the Commands tab.Do one of the following: Add a button to the toolbar – Click a category in the Categories box. – Drag the command you want from the Commands box to the displayed toolbar. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 28
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Returns a value either from a one-row or one-column range or from an The LOOKUPfunction has two syntax forms: vector and array. The vector form of LOOKUP looks ina one-row or one-column range (known as a vector) for a value and returns a valuefrom the same position in a second one-row or one-column range. The array form ofLOOKUP looks in the first row or column of an array for the specified value andreturns a value from the same position in the last row or column of the array.Lookup value is a value that LOOKUP searches for in the first vector. Lookup value can be a number, text, a logical value, or a name or reference that refers to a value.Lookup vector is a range that contains only one row or one column. The values in lookup vector can be text, numbers, or logical values. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 30
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Searches for a value in the leftmost column of a table, and then returns a value in the same rowfrom a column you specify in the table.The V in VLOOKUP stands for "Vertical.“If range lookup is TRUE, the values in the first column of table array must be placed in ascendingorder: ..., -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ..., A-Z, FALSE, TRUE; otherwise VLOOKUP may not give the correct value. Ifrange lookup is FALSE, table array does not need to be sorted.You can put the values in ascending order by choosing the Sort command from the Data menuand selecting Ascending (explained separately).The values in the first column of table array can be text, numbers, or logical values.Uppercase and lowercase text are equivalent. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 31
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Searches for a value in the top row of a table of values, and then returns avalue in the same column from a row you specify in the table or array. UseHLOOKUP when your comparison values are located in a row across the top ofa table of data, and you want to look down a specified number of rows.The H in HLOOKUP stands for "Horizontal.“Rest is same as V Lookup Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 32
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Charting specifications Data points (data points: Individual values that are plotted in a chart. Related data points make up a data series. Data points are represented by bars, columns, lines, slices, dots, and other shapes. These shapes are called data markers.) in a data series for 2-D charts32,000 Data points in a data series for 3-D charts4,000 Data points for all data series in one chart256,000 Line styles8 Line weights4 Area patterns (screen display)18 Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 33
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Before creating a chart, the data to be charted must be available on the spreadsheet1. Place the chart data onto the spreadsheet as shown 2. Although not required, it isbelow. The first column of the range always contains recommended that the user highlight thethe independent (X-axis) values and all subsequent desired data range prior to creating thecolumns to the right contain the dependent (Y-axis) chart. Make sure to highlight the columnvalues. In this case, there is only 1 dependent variable labels as part of the selection.(distance) which is located in column C. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 34
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To create a chart, use the Insert command on the main menu: 4. Left-click to select main category for charts (Standard Types Displayed) 3. Left-click mouse on Insert and then left-click on Chart… Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 35
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6. Click Next to continue or Back 5. Left-click on XY (Scatter) and then to return to previous step. select the chart sub-type as shown. Left-click to select desired chart type and sub-type5a. Left-clickto preview the chart. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 36
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7. Click on Titles. Then insert chart title,x-axis and y-axis titles Note: Selecting the “As new sheet” option will create a full-sized chart on a newly-created chart tab. 8. Select the “As object in” radio button and then click Finish. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 37
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9. Basic charting process is now complete.Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 38
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Continuation from slide Creating Add data values Charts (4) and/or data labels to the plotted data points. Add & remove X- Set location of the axis and Y-axis chart legend gridlines Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 39
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All parts of the chart can be formatted. To do this, double-click on the desired part of the chart and then use the menus. EXPERIMENT!Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 40
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D ata Validation is a function provided by Excel to limit users from entering value other than those pre-defined by you. For business users, it is commonly used to create a dropdown list so that users can select the items from the list instead of typing the value or text in. It is also a great way to maintain consistency in your data. Ready to create your dropdown list?You can make your data entries more foolproof by limiting the types of data that can be entered.• Data Validation pop-up boxes alert to wrong type of data being input.• Data Validation Input Message Show message when cell is selected.• Select Data and Go to Data > Validation for limitations, Alerts and Input Messages. Select the cell to validate. On the Data menu, click Validation, and then click the Settings tab. Specify the type of validation you wantValues From a ListIn the Allow box, click List.Click the Source box and then do one of the following:To define the list locally, type the list values separated by commas.To use a range of cells with a defined name, type the equal sign (=) followed by the name of the range. Touse cell references, select the cells on the worksheet and then press ENTER. Note Cell references have tobe to cells on the same worksheet. If you have to refer to a different worksheet or a different workbook,use a defined name and make sure the workbook is already open.Make sure the In-cell dropdown check box is selected.Allow numbers within limits In the Allow box, click Whole Number or Decimal. In the Data box, click the type of restriction you want. For example, to set upper and lower limits, click between. Enter the minimum, maximum, or specific value to allow. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 42
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Specify the type of validation you want› Use a formula to calculate whats allowed In the Allow box, click Custom. In the Formula box, enter a formula that calculates a logical value (TRUE for valid entries or FALSE for invalid). For example, to allow the value greater than the minimum limit u can use If condition with True and False, you could enter =IF( cell value>20000,TRUE,FALSE) for the custom formula. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 43
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S ubtotal is a formula as well as function in excel. As a function, it is able to insert subtotal into different groups of data. For example, subtotal function can calculate the total sales turnover for each industry group.This summary function also Consolidates data but its result is strange to work. The data must be sortedfirst. This feature is Great for printing reports. You can use this feature available by clicking Data >Subtotals.Microsoft Excel can automatically calculate subtotal and grand total values in a list(list: A series of rows that contains related data or a series of rows that you designate to function as adatasheet by using the Create List command.)When you insert automatic subtotals, Excel outlines the list so that you can display and hide the detailrows for each subtotal.To insert subtotals, you first sort your list so that the rows you want to subtotal are grouped together.You can then calculate subtotals for any column that contains numbers. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 44
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This summary function Consolidates data on one sheet from multiple worksheetswith 3-D references or formulas or by position or category. You can use this featureavailable by clicking Data > Consolidate.To consolidate data, you combine the values from several ranges of data. Forexample, if you have a worksheet of expense figures for each of your regional offices,you might use a consolidation to roll these figures into a corporate expenseworksheet.Excel provides several ways to consolidate data. The most flexible method is to createformulas that refer to cells in each range of data that youre combining. Formulasthat refer to cells on multiple worksheets are called 3-D formulas. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 45
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Using 3-D formulas When you use 3-D references (3-D reference: A reference to a range that spans two or more worksheets in a workbook.) in formulas, there are no restrictions on the layout of the separate ranges of data. You can change the consolidation any way you need to. The consolidation updates automatically when the data in the source ranges changes. Use formulas to combine data In the following example, the formula in cell A2 adds three numbers that are located in different positions on three different worksheets. Add data to a consolidation with 3-D references When all of your source worksheets have the same layout, you can use a range of sheet names in 3-D formulas. To add another worksheet to the consolidation, just move the sheet into the range your formula refers to. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 46
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Display the relationships between formulas and cells You can display both precedent cells (precedents: Cells that are referred to by a formula in another cell. For example, if cell D10 contains the formula =B5, cell B5 is a precedent to cell D10.) and dependent cells of formulas (formula: A sequence of values, cell references, names, functions, or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=).). On the Tools menu, click Options, and then click the View tab. Check that Show all or Show placeholders is selected under Objects. On the Tools menu, point to Formula Auditing, and then click Show Formula Auditing Toolbar. Do one of the following. Trace cells that provide data to a formula (precedents) Select the cell that contains the formula for which you want to find precedent cells. To display a tracer arrow (tracer arrows: Arrows that show the relationship between the active cell and its related cells. Tracer arrows are blue when pointing from a cell that provides data to another cell, and red if a cell contains an error value, such as #DIV/0!.) to each cell that directly provides data to the active cell, click Trace Precedents on the Formula Auditing toolbar (toolbar: A bar with buttons and options that you use to carry out commands. To display a toolbar, click Customize on the Tools menu, and then click the Toolbars tab.). To identify the next level of cells that provide data to the active cell, click Trace Precedents again. To remove tracer arrows one level at a time, starting with the precedent cell farthest away from the active cell, click Remove Precedent Arrows . To remove another level of tracer arrows, click the button again. Trace formulas that reference a particular cell (dependents) › Select the cell for which you want to identify the dependent cells. › To display a tracer arrow (tracer arrows: Arrows that show the relationship between the active cell and its related cells. Tracer arrows are blue when pointing from a cell that provides data to another cell.) to each cell that is dependent on the active cell, click Trace Dependents on the Formula Auditing toolbar (toolbar: A bar with buttons and options that you use to carry out commands. To display a toolbar, click Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD menu, and then click the Toolbars tab).47 Workshop on Customize on the Tools
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Trace formulas that reference a particular cell (dependents) › To identify the next level of cells that depend on the active cell, click Trace Dependents again. › To remove tracer arrows one level at a time, starting with the dependent cell farthest away from the active cell, click Remove Dependent Arrows . To remove another level of tracer arrows, click the button again.To remove all tracer arrows (tracer arrows: Arrows that show the relationship between the active celland its related cells. Tracer arrows are blue when pointing from a cell that provides data to another cell)on the worksheet, click Remove All Arrows on the Formula Auditing toolbar (toolbar: A bar withbuttons and options that you use to carry out commands. To display a toolbar, click Customize on theTools menu, and then click the Toolbars tab.).Note If the selected cell is referenced by a cell on another worksheet or workbook, a black arrow pointsfrom the selected cell to a worksheet icon. The other workbook must be open before Microsoft Excelcan trace these dependencies. TipsTo see the color-coded precedents for the arguments (argument: The values that a function uses toperform operations or calculations. The type of argument a function uses is specific to the function.Common arguments that are used within functions include numbers, text, cell references, and names.) ina formula, select a cell and press F2.To select the cell at the other end of an arrow, double-click the arrow. If the cell is in another worksheet orworkbook, double-click the black arrow and then double-click the reference you want in the Go to list.To see all the relationships on a worksheet, in an empty cell type = (equal sign), and then click theSelect All button. Select the cell, and press Trace Precedents twice. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 48
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Evaluate a nested formula one step at a timeYou can see the different parts of a nested formula evaluated in the order the formula iscalculated. For example, you can see this in the following formula where the functionAVERAGE(F2:F5) is shown as its value, 80.=IF(AVERAGE(F2:F5)>50,SUM(G2:G5),0) as=IF(80 > 50,SUM(G2:G5),0)Select the cell you want to evaluate. Only one cell can be evaluated at a time.On the Tools menu, point to Formula Auditing, and then click Evaluate Formula.Click Evaluate to examine the value of the underlined reference. The result of theevaluation is shown in italics. If the underlined part of the formula is a reference to anotherformula, click Step In to display the other formula in the Evaluation box. Click Step Out togo back to the previous cell and formula.Continue until each part of the formula has been evaluated.To see the evaluation again, click Restart. To end the evaluation, click Close.Note The Step In button is not available for a reference the second time the referenceappears in the formula, or if the formula refers to a cell in a separate workbook. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 49
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Goal Seek is an Excel function used to derive the input / variable that will helpyou to achieve the goal you have set. One of the common applications of goalseek is to find the breakeven point for a project or business such that it makesno profit or loss. See how easy it is to find the breakeven of a project using thegoal seek function. This is what-if analysis tool, When you know the desiredresult of a single formula but not the input value the formula needs todetermine the result, you can use the Goal Seek feature available by clickingTools > Goal Seek Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 50
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This is also what-if analysis tool, A data table is a range of cells that shows howchanging certain values in your formulas affects the results of the formulas. Itcan be One-variable multiple outputs data tables or Two-variable single outputdata tables Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 51
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Projecting future values can be an important part of the financialdecision-making process. How a set of values affect the results?Tools menu > Scenarios - Add, type Scenario name, enter references inChanging cells, Add to create more scenarios Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 52
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The PivotTable is an extremely powerful tool of Excel. It is a powerful data-analysistools in Excel. It provides a way to easily summarize, analyze, consolidate, filter,prepare data for charting, and to report on large quantities of raw data in a fast, flexible,ad hoc manner. They are called PivotTables because you can change their layout byrearranging, or pivoting, the row and column headings quickly and easily.PivotTables are interactive tables that make it possible to summarize, analyze, & manipulatedata within any workbook. Many times an Excel worksheet contains so much data that itbecomes difficult to interpret the data & make any useful meaning out of it. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 53
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Those who use PivotTables extensively know that, on demand, PivotTables willautomatically group data together by a number of time and date options, includingdays, months, quarters, and years. Notably absent from the automatic grouping optionsis weeks. However, by understanding how to apply the grouping options that areavailable, we can cause PivotTables to group based on weeks, with our choice of thestarting date.Begin by creating a basic PivotTable similar to the one shown in Figure 1 based on thedaily data. Figure 1 - Basic PivotTable Based on Daily Data Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 54
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Next, right click on any of the dates and choose Group from the resulting pop-upmenu to open the Grouping dialog box. Select the Days option and set the Number ofdays option to “7” as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2 - Grouping Date Data by Weeks in a PivotTable Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 55
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Figure 3 - PivotTable Grouped by WeeksUpon clicking OK, the PivotTable data groups based on seven-day periods, as shownin Figure 3. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 56
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Conditional formating as the name implies formats a cell when the condition(s) provided is(are)satisfied. Excel conditional formatting is a hidden and powerful gem that when used well, canchange the outlook of your project report/ sales budget/ project plan or analytical outputs frombunch of raw data in default fonts to something truly professional and good looking.Analyzing large amounts of data to find trends and variances is a time-consuming process.Conditional Formatting allows to apply a defined format to cells that meet specific criteria and usercan quickly draw attention to variances.Select the cells for which you want to add, change, or remove conditional formatting (conditionalformat: A format, such as cell shading or font color, that Excel automatically applies to cells if aspecified condition is true.). On the Format menu, click Conditional Formatting. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 57
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Add a Conditional Format Do one of the following: To use values in the selected cells as the formatting criteria, click Cell Value Is, select the comparison phrase, and then type a constant (constant: A value that is not calculated and, therefore, does not change. For example, the number 210, and the text "Quarterly Earnings" are constants. An expression, or a value resulting from an expression, is not a constant.) value or a formula. If you enter a formula, start it with an equal sign (=). To use a formula as the formatting criteria (to evaluate data or a condition other than the values in selected cells), click Formula Is and then enter the formula that evaluates to a logical value of TRUE or FALSE. Click Format. Select the formatting you want to apply when the cell value meets the condition or the formula returns the value TRUE. To add another condition, click Add, and then repeat steps 1 through 3. You can specify up to three conditions. If none of the specified conditions are true, the cells keep their existing formats. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 58
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Copy formats to other cells• Select the cells that have the conditional formats you want to copy.• On the Formatting toolbar (toolbar: A bar with buttons and options that you use to carry out commands. To display a toolbar, click Customize on the Tools menu, and then click the Toolbars tab.), click Format Painter , and then select the cells you want to format.• Change or remove a conditional format• Do one or more of the following:• To change formats, click Format for the condition you want to change.• To reselect formats on the current tab of the Format Cells dialog box, click Clear and select new formats.• To remove one or more conditions, click Delete, and then select the check box for the conditions you want to delete.Tip• To remove all conditional formats as well as all other cell formats for selected cells, point to Clear on the Edit menu, and then click Formats.• Note Using multiple conditions If more than one specified condition is true, Microsoft Excel applies only the formats of the first true condition, even if more than one condition is true. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 59
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The autofilter function allows you to quickly filter a set of records in the excel worksheets based on certain criteria. For example, you can select to see only the companies that belong to a particular industry class by apply that particular industry class as the autofilter criteria.• You can also create your own filters. Numbers within a range you specify? Numbers above or below a certain amount? Filters for many different purposes.• Best-selling products or the worst• Employees with the most or least vacation time• Students with the highest or lowest grades. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 60
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Returns one value if a condition you specify evaluates to TRUE and another value if itevaluates to FALSE.Use IF to conduct conditional tests on values and formulas.SyntaxIF (logical test, value if true, value if false)Logical test is any value or expression that can be evaluated to TRUE or FALSE. Forexample, A10=100 is a logical expression; if the value in cell A10 is equal to 100,the expression evaluates to TRUE. Otherwise, the expression evaluates to FALSE. Thisargument can use any comparison calculation operator. Already explained earlier Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 61
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Define and solve a problem by using SolverSolver works with a group of cells that are related, either directly or indirectly, to the formula in the target cell. Solver adjusts the values in the changing cells you specify— called the adjustable cells— to produce the result you specify from the target cell formula. You can apply constraints to restrict the values Solver can use in the model, and the constraints can refer to other cells that affect the target cell formula. On the Tools menu, click Solver. If the Solver command is not available on the Tools menu, you need to install the Solver add-in program. In the Set Target Cell box, enter a cell reference or name for the target cell. The target cell must contain a formula.Do one of the following: To have the value of the target cell be as large as possible say a profit calculation, click Max. To have the value of the target cell be as small as possible say a cost analysis workings, click Min. To have the target cell be a certain value, click Value of i.e. a specific value, and then type the value in the box. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 62
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In the By Changing Cells box, enter a name or reference for each adjustable cell,separating nonadjacent references with commas. The adjustable cells must be relateddirectly or indirectly to the target cell. You can specify up to 200 adjustable cells.If you want to have Solver automatically propose the adjustable cells based on thetarget cell, click Guess.In the Subject to the Constraints box, enter any constraints you want to apply.Click Solve and do one of the following:To keep the solution values on the worksheet, click Keep Solver Solution in theSolver Results dialog box.To restore the original data, click Restore Original Values. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 63
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PurposeMacro automates the task through series of commands and functions that are stored in a MicrosoftVisual Basic module and can be run whenever you need to perform the task. If you perform a task repeatedly in Microsoft Excel, you can automate the task with a macro. Amacro is a series of commands and functions that are stored in a Microsoft Visual Basic moduleand can be run whenever you need to perform the task. For example, if you often enter long text strings in cells, you can create a macro to format thosecells so that the text wraps.Recording macros When you record a macro, Excel stores information about each step you takeas you perform a series of commands. You then run the macro to repeat, or "play back," thecommands. If you make a mistake when you record the macro, corrections you make are alsorecorded. Visual Basic stores each macro in a new module attached to a workbook. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 64
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Making a macro easy to run You can run a macro by choosing it from a list inthe Macro dialog box. To make a macro run whenever you click a particular buttonor press a particular key combination, you can assign the macro to a toolbar button,a keyboard shortcut, or a graphic object on a worksheet.Managing your macros After you record a macro, you can view the macro codewith the Visual Basic Editor to correct errors or change what the macro does. Forexample, if you wanted the text-wrapping macro to also make the text bold, youcould record another macro to make a cell bold and then copy the instructions fromthat macro to the text-wrapping macro. Workshop on Excellence in Excel by KBC, ICMAP – Zahid MAHMOOD 65
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ORGANIZED BY : KARACHI BRANCH COUNCIL, ICMAPDated : December 18 & 19, 2010 Zahid MAHMOOD FCMA, FPA, CCFC Zahid MAHMOOD FCMA, FPA, CCFC GroupCFO && Company Secretary Group CFO Company Secretary Pak Shaheen Group of Companies Pak Shaheen Group of Companies Cell: +923008297285 & +923332187476 Cell: +923008297285by KBC, ICMAP+923332187476& – Zahid MAHMOOD Workshop on Excellence in Excel 66 Email: cynosure_80@hotmail.com soigne76@gmail.com
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