www.nvcc.edu/workfo
EDUC 1724:
Teaching Pronunciation

American Culture & Language Institute, TESOL Certificate Program
Northern Virginia Comm...
Overview
• What is Pronunciation?
• Pronunciation Myths
• Stress, Pausing, Thought Groups,
Intonation
• Sounds (Phonemes) ...
Reflection
• Think about a time you either…
– Couldn‟t understand what someone was
saying
– Couldn‟t make yourself underst...
What is Pronənsiešən?
• The way in which a language, a word, or a
sound is spoken aloud
• Communicative Language Teaching ...
Pronunciation Myths
• Only native speakers can teach it.
• Teachers must speak „clearly,‟ not naturally
as in normal conve...
In the past..
Teacher

Students

Teacher

Teacher

• Demonstrates proper pronunciation of individual
sounds or words.
• Tr...
Today..
Consonants
& Vowels
Stress,
Thought Groups,
Intonation,
Linking

•
•
•
•
•
•

Active Listening
Noticing
Monitoring...
How the Brain Works
Left Hemisphere

Math, Logic, Analysis
Grammar Rules
Sequence

Right Hemisphere

Music
Emotions & Faci...
Loudness
• Different cultures have different
expectations on what‟s appropriate.
• Appropriate Loudness for English
speaki...
Teaching Appropriate Loudness
• Discuss how body language interferes
with speech.
• Discuss how loudness is perceived in U...
Pausing
• The length of wait time between
connected ideas/Thought Groups
– Wait one clap between ideas.
– Wait two claps a...
Teaching Pausing
• Create an activity with ordinal numbers
or a series of steps:
– Instructions
– Recipes

• Help ELLs ide...
Thought Groups
• A group of words that express an idea
• In writing, commas and periods mark
thought groups.
• In speaking...
Teaching Thought Groups
• Choose known, lower-level reading
material, poetry, or songs.
• Encourage hypothesis testing, i....
Stress
• A syllable in a word that sounds longer,
louder, or changes in pitch.
• Vowels receive stress. Consonants don‟t.
...
Stress (cont.)
• In natural speech…
• Content Words are stressed:
– nouns, main
verbs, adjectives, adverbs, negatives

• F...
Stress (cont.)
• ELLs from syllable-timed languages put the
stress on each word or syllable.
– This makes ELLs sound angry...
Teaching Stress
• Count syllables in multisyllabic words.
• Compare stress shift between nouns &
verbs.
• Practice identif...
Intonation
•
•
•
•

•

The change in pitch – rising or falling
Yes/No Questions use rising intonation
– Did you lock the d...
Teaching Intonation
• Teach intonation as in the context of
an information exchange.
– Asking for directions
– Ordering fo...
English Phonemes
• A unit of sound that distinguishes
one word from another.
– Rope
– Leaf

Robe
Leave

• In English speec...
Producing English Consonants
t, d, s, z, n, l
p, b, m, w

ch, sh, r, y

f, v

k, g, x, w, ng

th

h

www.nvcc.edu/workfo
Producing English Vowels
u, ʊ

i, I
e, ɛ

ə

o, ɔ
a/ɒ

æ

www.nvcc.edu/workfo
Producing English Diphthongs
Iy

ow

ɛy
oy
ay

www.nvcc.edu/workfo
Teaching Phonemes
• Generally used as a repair strategy
• Minimal Pairs:
– die vs. tie or wed vs. wet
– bit vs. beat or ho...
Put it into Practice
• Choose one aspect of pronunciation:
pausing, stress, intonation.
• Choose a participatory style: pa...
Useful Links
• IPA Pronunciation Symbols
–
–
–

http://www.learnersdictionary.com/help/faq_pron_ipa
.htm
http://www.antimo...
Useful Textbooks
•
•
•
•

Well Said, Linda Grant
Targeting Pronunciation, Sue Miller
Clear Speech from the Start, Judy Gil...
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Educ 1724 teaching pronuciation

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Teaching pronunciation to ESL adults

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  • Seinfeld video: low talker: http://youtu.be/BFRoXoh6aks?t=13s
  • Cooking the rice activity handout.
  • Beach Boys – Wouldn’t it be nice handout.
  • State names & noun/verb stress shift
  • Kazoo handout.
  • Educ 1724 teaching pronuciation

    1. 1. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    2. 2. EDUC 1724: Teaching Pronunciation American Culture & Language Institute, TESOL Certificate Program Northern Virginia Community College www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    3. 3. Overview • What is Pronunciation? • Pronunciation Myths • Stress, Pausing, Thought Groups, Intonation • Sounds (Phonemes) of American English • Noticing and Self Correction www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    4. 4. Reflection • Think about a time you either… – Couldn‟t understand what someone was saying – Couldn‟t make yourself understood. • What did you do? www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    5. 5. What is Pronənsiešən? • The way in which a language, a word, or a sound is spoken aloud • Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), focuses on the rhythm of speech as a whole, not on individual sounds. • The result? Fluency and more comprehensible speech! www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    6. 6. Pronunciation Myths • Only native speakers can teach it. • Teachers must speak „clearly,‟ not naturally as in normal conversation. • Pronunciation is about correctly producing consonant and vowel sounds. • Accent reduction teaches you to sound like an American. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    7. 7. In the past.. Teacher Students Teacher Teacher • Demonstrates proper pronunciation of individual sounds or words. • Try to imitate teacher‟s speech. • Points out errors. Asks S to “listen harder.” • Repeats steps 1-3, slower and louder each time. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    8. 8. Today.. Consonants & Vowels Stress, Thought Groups, Intonation, Linking • • • • • • Active Listening Noticing Monitoring Self-Correction Cultural Expectations Body Language Loudness & Pausing www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    9. 9. How the Brain Works Left Hemisphere Math, Logic, Analysis Grammar Rules Sequence Right Hemisphere Music Emotions & Facial Expressions Intonation To help students move from text bound speech, use right-hemisphere activities. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    10. 10. Loudness • Different cultures have different expectations on what‟s appropriate. • Appropriate Loudness for English speaking culture: – Speaking too softly interferes with communication. – Speaking too loudly distorts speech. ELLs need time to comprehend. They aren‟t deaf. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    11. 11. Teaching Appropriate Loudness • Discuss how body language interferes with speech. • Discuss how loudness is perceived in US vs. other cultures. • Indicate when we can‟t hear = Noticing • Discuss the pitfalls of inappropriate loudness. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    12. 12. Pausing • The length of wait time between connected ideas/Thought Groups – Wait one clap between ideas. – Wait two claps at end punctuation. • ELLs often don‟t pause long enough or pause in the wrong places! • Result: Americans lose track of what ELLs are saying. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    13. 13. Teaching Pausing • Create an activity with ordinal numbers or a series of steps: – Instructions – Recipes • Help ELLs identify when and how long to pause. • Practice choral repetition of instructions with pausing. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    14. 14. Thought Groups • A group of words that express an idea • In writing, commas and periods mark thought groups. • In speaking, we pause slightly at commas and longer at periods. – I‟ll call you / when I finish my homework. – 202/546/7309 www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    15. 15. Teaching Thought Groups • Choose known, lower-level reading material, poetry, or songs. • Encourage hypothesis testing, i.e. ELLs predict thought group position, based on punctuation. • Have ELLs listen to check predictions. • Practice choral reading, pausing at thought groups. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    16. 16. Stress • A syllable in a word that sounds longer, louder, or changes in pitch. • Vowels receive stress. Consonants don‟t. • Often indicated with CAPITAL letters. • In English, stress carries meaning. – It‟s COLD. You NEED a COAT! www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    17. 17. Stress (cont.) • In natural speech… • Content Words are stressed: – nouns, main verbs, adjectives, adverbs, negatives • Function Words are unstressed or reduced: – aux verbs, prepositions, articles, pronouns www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    18. 18. Stress (cont.) • ELLs from syllable-timed languages put the stress on each word or syllable. – This makes ELLs sound angry, impatient, or robotic. – It makes Americans lose track of the meaning. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    19. 19. Teaching Stress • Count syllables in multisyllabic words. • Compare stress shift between nouns & verbs. • Practice identifying and using stress with content words in sentences. • Rubber bands and clapping. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    20. 20. Intonation • • • • • The change in pitch – rising or falling Yes/No Questions use rising intonation – Did you lock the door? Wh- Questions use falling intonation – What time does the bus arrive? Statements use falling intonation – I like chocolate. Choice questions use rising/falling intonation – Do you like Fall or Spring? www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    21. 21. Teaching Intonation • Teach intonation as in the context of an information exchange. – Asking for directions – Ordering food at a restaurant • Use kazoos to focus on the sound. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    22. 22. English Phonemes • A unit of sound that distinguishes one word from another. – Rope – Leaf Robe Leave • In English speech, there are: – 24 consonant phonemes – 16 vowel phonemes www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    23. 23. Producing English Consonants t, d, s, z, n, l p, b, m, w ch, sh, r, y f, v k, g, x, w, ng th h www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    24. 24. Producing English Vowels u, ʊ i, I e, ɛ ə o, ɔ a/ɒ æ www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    25. 25. Producing English Diphthongs Iy ow ɛy oy ay www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    26. 26. Teaching Phonemes • Generally used as a repair strategy • Minimal Pairs: – die vs. tie or wed vs. wet – bit vs. beat or hoot vs. hot • Use mirrors and lollypops to aid in place of articulation identification. • Use rubber bands as kinesthetic input. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    27. 27. Put it into Practice • Choose one aspect of pronunciation: pausing, stress, intonation. • Choose a participatory style: pairs, choral, small group, etc. • Create and teach a 10 minute mini lesson teaching an aspect of pronunciation. www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    28. 28. Useful Links • IPA Pronunciation Symbols – – – http://www.learnersdictionary.com/help/faq_pron_ipa .htm http://www.antimoon.com/how/pronuncsoundsipa.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Phonetic_Al phabet_for_English • Color Vowel Chart – http://www.colorvowelchart.org www.nvcc.edu/workfo
    29. 29. Useful Textbooks • • • • Well Said, Linda Grant Targeting Pronunciation, Sue Miller Clear Speech from the Start, Judy Gilbert Learner English, Swan & Smith www.nvcc.edu/workfo

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