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EDUC 1724: Lesson Planning
American Culture & Language Institute, TESOL Certificate Program
Northern Virginia Community College
Lesson Plan Samples Evaluation
Lesson Plan Presentation
• What makes a good
lesson or a bad
• What aspects of
lesson planning are
the most daunting?
"An actual lesson plan is the end point of
many other stages of planning that culminate
in a daily lesson."
(Jensen, Linda. "Planning Lessons." 2001)
• Lesson Continuity
– Links or threads connect lessons
• Recursiveness/Recycling Material
– Looping back to language features or topics
• Depth, not breadth!
– Mastery is the aim, not finishing the book.
Why do we plan?
• Forces us to reflect on the lesson’s priorities
and objectives for learning.
• Provides a guide to help us stay on track and
• Provides us with a foundation for refinement
when we reflect later.
• Ensures no crucial parts are left out.
10-15 mins (TBLT)
15-30 mins (PPP)
• Similar task
15-30 mins (TBLT)
10-15 mins (PPP)
Practice & Perform •
• Controlled to
(TBLT & PPP)
• Assessment &
Determining Lesson Objectives
• Objective = the end goal of the lesson
• What will the students be able to do at the
end of this lesson?
• How students can demonstrate that they have
mastered the lesson content.
• Not about what how much material the
SBWAT: Students Will Be Able To…
• Write lesson objectives on the board before
– Clear Objective:
• Students will be able to use the regular form of simple
past to describe a workplace accident.
– Unclear Objective:
• Students will learn about the simple past.
Lesson Objectives - Practice
• Look at a sample lesson plan. What do you
think are the lesson objectives?
• Compare your objectives with a partner and
• Then compare your objectives with the actual
• Settle students into classroom mindset
• Review previous lesson material & check
• Introduce the focus of the lesson – activating
prior knowledge (schema)
• Activating Schema
– Generate interest and motivation for learning
– Draw on what students already
know, expect, need, and/or have experienced
– Create active learners who can make connections
• A jumping off point.
• Presents an authentic situation, picture, piece
of realia, reading text, dialogue, video
• A good language presentation uses authentic
language to participate in an authentic
• Results in solving a real-world problem.
Presentation/Pre-Task Phase (cont.)
• Provides samples or elicits production of the
language feature your lesson is designed to
• Should be relevant to students’ needs =
• Highlighting/Discovery Phase
– Scaffolds activity/task for students so they can
discover the target feature on their own and use it
to solve a problem.
– Hold back your urge to instruct. Engage students
in hypothesis testing.
– Discovery builds students’ confidence that they
can “figure it out.”
– Fluency first – accuracy second!
Presentation/Pre-Task Phase (cont.)
• Explanation Phase
– Gives students a framework/rules to refer to during
– Helps students see what worked and what didn’t
work during their discovery phase.
– Use a model or diagram.
Presentation/Pre-Task - Practice
• Look at the presentation phase in the sample
• Does it help students try to discover the target
feature for themselves? If so, how?
• Discuss with a partner how it would motivate
learners and/or help them review previous
Practice/Task Phase (cont.)
• Activities should:
– Generate the target feature
– Move learners towards meeting the lesson objectives
– Enable students to use language in real-world
– Build upon each other – from easier to harder
– Involve genuine communication
– Be varied and allow for choice
– Allow learners to demonstrate mastery
• Restricted use
• Authentic use
• Comprehension & accuracy
• Fluency and extension
• Feedback & correction during • Feedback & correction
• Scripted role plays
• Cloze activities
• Role plays
• Information gap tasks
Practice/Task Phase - Practice
• Look at the practice/task phase of the sample
lesson plan with a partner.
• Explain why the instructor has sequenced the
practice activities in the way he/she has.
• How do they build on each other?
• Do the language practice and application
activities connect to the lesson objectives?
• Most common at the end of a lesson in PPP.
• Build assessment at the end of each activity,
as in TBLT.
• Assessment helps you to determine:
– Did learners master the lesson objectives?
– Whether to move forward or spend more time on
the target feature (a.k.a. Depth, not breadth).
• Use comprehension checking questions:
Yes/No “Did the man decide to go to the store?”
Choice “Did the man decide to go to the store or go home?”
Open Ended “What did the man decide to do?”
Ask comprehension questions at each stage in the lesson.
• “Do you understand?” questions don’t provide reliable
answers b/c students will often say “yes.”
• Informal Assessment
– Circulate and observe during pair or small group work.
– Adjust grouping if students need more direction.
– Dual function: student practice & extension and teacher
– Connect to your lesson objectives
– Allow class time to explain instructions
– Extend to real-world activities
• Before the Lesson Begins:
– Create class routines
– Estimate time for each phase of the lesson.
• 10-30 mins per phase
– Have an extra activity for early finishers.
– Decide what you could teach next time if going
– Plan transitions/links between activities.
– Plan a variety of pair and group work.
Time Management (cont.)
• During the Lesson:
– Start and end on time!
– Watch your pacing – compare planned to actual
– Tell students how much time they have for each
activity & give warnings.
– Be flexible
• Skip, shorten, or save for the next class.
• Don’t miss those “teachable moments.”
Time Management (cont.)
• Allow for:
– Transition time & moving into groups
– Summarizing what’s been covered in class
– Wrap-up and homework phase
Time Management - Practice
• Look at each activity in a sample lesson plan.
• Estimate the time each activity will take and
write the time in the space provided.
• Compare your times with a partner.
• If you needed to make the lesson shorter,
what would you modify, remove, or save for
the next class?
Sample Lesson Plans
• In pairs…
– Review sample lesson plans against the lesson
– Discuss what rating you would give each lesson
– Discuss ways to improve the lesson plan.
Put it into Practice
• Choose a “class scenario.”
• Create a 60 minute lesson plan to teach:
– A language function or grammar point
– A primary & secondary skill
• Speaking & listening or Reading & writing
• Organize your lesson using an SLA
• List lesson objectives.
Put it into Practice (cont.)
• Include three phases:
– Practice & Perform/Task
– Assessment/Post –task
• Identify a time estimate for each activity.
• Present your lesson plan to the class.
• Incorporate feedback and email to: