Intimate partner violence  An Examination of Women’s Decisions to Continue or Terminate Their Relationships  by Mildred C....
Introduction <ul><li>Intimate relationships can be rewarding and, for some, very troubling. One factor associated with som...
Introduction: cont’d <ul><li>Previous research has documented higher rates of violence among individuals who have recently...
Purpose <ul><li>The purpose of this presentation is to examine empirical research on intimate partner violence (IPV). </li...
Prevalence and Incidence of IPV <ul><li>Tjaden and Thoennes (2000) reported that 4.8 million women suffer physical and sex...
Prevalence and Incidence: cont’d <ul><li>Researchers have documented that younger women, relative to older women, are more...
Prevalence and Incidence: cont’d <ul><li>The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) reported that women between the ages of 20...
Prevalence and Incidence: cont’d <ul><li>Tjaden and Thoennes, (2000) also analyzed same-sex couples and found that women l...
Prevalence and Incidence: cont’d <ul><li>Turell, (2000) examined that higher educated Caucasian women is associated with h...
Prevalence and Incidence: cont’d <ul><li>Turell (2000) found that same-sex abuse was a significant issue for same-sex part...
Virginia Data: 2003 Description of Perpetrators: Family Violence MALES 94% FEMALES 6% AGES 18 < 1% 18-29= 24% 30-44 = 52% ...
Virginia Data: 2003 Description of Perpetrators: Sexual Assault MALES  96% FEMALES 4% AGE 18 < 1% 18-29 = 24% 30-44 = 52% ...
Virginia Data: 2003 Description of Perpetrators: Stalking Of all the victims whose perpetrators were spouses or partners, ...
Virginia Data: 2003 Description of Victims: Family Violence Females 96% Males 4% Ages < 30= 35% 30-44 = 48% 45-64 = 16% > ...
Virginia Data: 2003 Description of Victims: Sexual Assault Females 92% Males 8% Ages <30 = 37% 30-44 = 46% 45-64 = 16% > 6...
Virginia Data: 2003 Description of Victims: Stalking A Report from Virginia’s Sexual Assault Crisis Centers & Domestic Vio...
Social Impact of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>The varied experiences of women from different ethnic groups may be rel...
Social Impact of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>Many women remain in abusive relationships and about 40-60% report that...
Social Impact of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>The dilemma of the decision-making process (shall I leave or stay) is p...
Social Impact of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>Factors that can affect women’s decisions in remaining or terminating t...
Social Impact of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>Economic constraints can consist of: </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </l...
Social Impact of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>Other social factors affecting women’s decisions are: </li></ul><ul><li...
Social Impact of IPV <ul><li>Family and peers could act as a deterrence for the abused woman by suggesting that she withst...
Theoretical Perspectives of IPV <ul><li>Strain Theory can explain why some men commit crime, it does not explain why men c...
Theoretical Perspectives of IPV: cont’d <ul><li>Social Learning Theory is defined as: </li></ul><ul><li>That all behavior ...
Theories of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>There are six theories that attempts to explain women’s abuse experiences: <...
Psychological Entrapment Theory <ul><li>Psychological Entrapment Theory reveals that women who have time and emotional inv...
Traumatic Bonding Theory <ul><li>Traumatic Bonding Theory (Dutton & Painter, 1981) encompasses two emotional attachment fa...
Traumatic Bonding Theory: cont’d <ul><li>A spiral design of affectionate acts (rewards) compounded with infrequent abusive...
The Stockholm Syndrome <ul><li>The Stockholm Syndrome (Graham & Rawlings, 1991) is parallel to a person who has been kidna...
The Stockholm Syndrome: cont’d <ul><li>The trepidation of abuse and separation may exist in abused women with Stockholm Sy...
The Battered Woman Syndrome <ul><li>The Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS) expresses the extreme fear and posttraumatic stress ...
Theory of Learned Helplessness <ul><li>The Theory of Learned Helplessness (Seligman, 1975) proposes that nothing the woman...
The Cycle Theory of Violence <ul><li>The Cycle Theory of Violence provides an in-depth examination into the patterns of in...
Cycle Theory of Violence: cont’d <ul><li>Three components define The Cycle Theory of Violence (Walker, 1984; 1979):  </li>...
Cycle Theory of Violence: cont’d <ul><li>During the latter stage women are under the perception that the violence has ceas...
Evolutionary Perspective on IPV <ul><li>Evolutionary psychologists predict that men are inclined to prevent their romantic...
Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Men may be more likely than women to direct aggressive behaviors towards their partners as...
Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Mate retention tactics can be best demonstrated by the behaviors of calling a mate numerou...
Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Buss and Shackelford (1997) found that men’s, but not women’s, mate-retention efforts appe...
Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Women, who are young and attractive (thus higher in reproductive value) are especially vul...
Contexts Affecting Women’s Decisions <ul><li>Some contexts affecting women’s decisions to remain or not in their abusive r...
Presence of Children <ul><li>The presence of children is likely to affect women’s decision to remain or terminate their ab...
Presence of Children <ul><li>Women fear consequences of their children based on their decision to remain in or terminate t...
Presence of Children <ul><li>Previous research has stated children five years of age and under were likely to reside in re...
Presence of Children <ul><li>Fantuzzo and Mohr (1999) reports that children living in intimate partner violence households...
Presence of Children <ul><li>Externalization acts are seen in children at school as not getting along with other children ...
Presence of Children <ul><li>Men occasionally exploit children as tactics in determining information on abused women. </li...
Presence of Children <ul><li>Beeble, Bybee, & Sullivan (2007) performed a study on 156 abused women to determine the magni...
Presence of Kin <ul><li>The presence of kin also plays a role in influencing women’s decision in remaining or not remainin...
Endurance of Abuse <ul><li>Previous literature has offered Splitting and Dyadic Splitting as defense mechanisms that abuse...
Splitting  <ul><li>Splitting linked to intimate partner violence may be expressed in the traumatized woman exhibiting self...
Dyadic Splitting <ul><li>Dyadic Splitting is the defense mechanism operating in couples. Forero (2005) explains, “Dyadic S...
Dyadic Splitting: cont’d <ul><li>Three dynamics explain Dyadic Splitting in couples: </li></ul><ul><li>How couples are hap...
Dyadic Splitting: cont’d <ul><li>An appreciation of the concept of Dyadic Splitting can provide insight into why women cho...
Dyadic Splitting: cont’d <ul><li>These episodes lend itself to the analogy of a switch being turned on and off. </li></ul>...
Dyadic Splitting: cont’d <ul><li>When abusive women experience bliss in the “all good schema” their cognitive thinking is ...
Practicum <ul><li>Evidenced-based programs should create a sense of empowerment for abused women. </li></ul><ul><li>Eviden...
Practicum <ul><li>Evidenced-based programs should be built upon programs that have been previously successful.  </li></ul>...
Practicum <ul><li>More intensive counseling should be afforded to abused women for at least six months or until the abused...
Practicum <ul><li>These programs should be directed at making the abused woman capable of succeeding on her own (Smithey &...
Practicum  <ul><li>Evicting abused women because of IPV hinders women from being self-sufficient. The housing authority sh...
Practicum  <ul><li>Programs should also be offered to men who are abusive. This is a unique program set forth by the City ...
Practicum <ul><li>The recidivism rate for the program was over 60%. In addition to this program, probation officers offere...
Implications for Policy and Practice <ul><li>The criminal justice system should take a more proactive approach in IPV. </l...
Implications for Policy and Practice <ul><li>Police can become involved by providing security assessments of low socioecon...
Implications for Policy and Practice <ul><li>Stricter and more pro-active legislation should be introduced to protect wome...
Implications for Policy and Practice <ul><li>I propose that tougher penalty laws be upheld for repeated or habitual offend...
Conclusion <ul><li>The purpose of this presentation was to examine empirical studies that influenced women’s decisions to ...
Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>Abused women often face many perils in contemplating whether to remain or stay in abusive relat...
Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>Women are often faced with no economical means of support, childcare provisions, or residence i...
Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>An interesting finding of the examination was same-sex relationships. In contrast to heterosexu...
Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>Turell (2000) study appears to be with limitations to the population size. There appears to be ...
Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>Women also remain in abusive relationships because of distorted cognitive thinking.  </li></ul>...
Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>I would expect to find distorted cognitive thinking in women’s decision to remain or terminate ...
Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>Theoretical and criminology perspectives have tried to explain the behavior of intimate partner...
Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>Intimate partner violence could be benefitted most by examining it through the lens of an evolu...
Conclusion <ul><li>Evolutionary psychology explores IPV from an unique angle than most theoretical perspectives.  </li></u...
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  1. 1. Intimate partner violence An Examination of Women’s Decisions to Continue or Terminate Their Relationships by Mildred C. Huffman
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Intimate relationships can be rewarding and, for some, very troubling. One factor associated with some troubled relationships is intimate partner violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Intimate partner violence is defined as physical, sexual, or emotional abuse inflicted by an intimate partner. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction: cont’d <ul><li>Previous research has documented higher rates of violence among individuals who have recently separated from their partner relative to individuals who are currently in a relationship (Huffman, 2008; Johnson, 1996; Rennison & Welchans, 2000). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Purpose <ul><li>The purpose of this presentation is to examine empirical research on intimate partner violence (IPV). </li></ul><ul><li>Several dimensions of IPV including the prevalence and incidence of IPV, the social impact of IPV, theoretical perspectives of IPV, and an evolutionary perspective on intimate partner violence will be examined. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Prevalence and Incidence of IPV <ul><li>Tjaden and Thoennes (2000) reported that 4.8 million women suffer physical and sexual assaults in relationships early. </li></ul><ul><li>2.9 million assaults by women were perpetrated against men in their current relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Women, therefore, are victimized by their partners at a much higher rate than men are victimized by their partners. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Prevalence and Incidence: cont’d <ul><li>Researchers have documented that younger women, relative to older women, are more likely to be the victims of IPV. </li></ul><ul><li>Place of residence is also a factor in the prevalence of IPV, in that women residing in homes are victimized at a lesser rate than women living in rental units. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Prevalence and Incidence: cont’d <ul><li>The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) reported that women between the ages of 20 years and 24 years of age are the highest risk of IPV. </li></ul><ul><li>Previous research has documented that minorities are more likely to be affected by IPV and that rates of IPV vary among women of diverse racial backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>( Huffman, 2008; Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Prevalence and Incidence: cont’d <ul><li>Tjaden and Thoennes, (2000) also analyzed same-sex couples and found that women living with female partners experience less intimate partner violence relative to men living with male partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Same-sex IPV is relatively new to empirical research. However, some research studies have examined the prevalence and incidence of IPV in same-sex relations. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Prevalence and Incidence: cont’d <ul><li>Turell, (2000) examined that higher educated Caucasian women is associated with higher incidence of IPV. </li></ul><ul><li>Turell, (2000) conducted research on 499 individuals that consisted on 46% males, 53% females, and 1% transgendered. The ethnicities of the surveyed group were 75% Caucasian, 9% Blacks, 8% Latinos, 4% Multi or bi-ethnic, 3% Native Americans, and 1% Asians. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Prevalence and Incidence: cont’d <ul><li>Turell (2000) found that same-sex abuse was a significant issue for same-sex partners. Same –sex communities experienced abuse at the same rates as their counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>The most impressive finding was that higher economic status was prevalent in the elevated occurrence of sexual and physical assaults, threats, pursuit, and income abuse (Huffman, 2008; Turell, 2000). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Virginia Data: 2003 Description of Perpetrators: Family Violence MALES 94% FEMALES 6% AGES 18 < 1% 18-29= 24% 30-44 = 52% 45-64= 22% > 64= 2% ETHNICITY A. Am= 31% Caucasian = 56% Latinos = 8% Othr = 5%
  12. 12. Virginia Data: 2003 Description of Perpetrators: Sexual Assault MALES 96% FEMALES 4% AGE 18 < 1% 18-29 = 24% 30-44 = 52% 45-64 = 22% > 64 = 2% ETHNICITY A. AM = 25% Caucasian = 65% Latinos = 8% Othr = 2%
  13. 13. Virginia Data: 2003 Description of Perpetrators: Stalking Of all the victims whose perpetrators were spouses or partners, 54% were former than current. Two percent were from the same gender. MALES 96% FEMALES 4% AGES <18 <1% 18-29= 21% 30-44 = 52% 45- 64 = 26% > 64= 1% ETHNICITY A.AM = 31% Caucasian = 53% Latinos = 14% Othr = 2%
  14. 14. Virginia Data: 2003 Description of Victims: Family Violence Females 96% Males 4% Ages < 30= 35% 30-44 = 48% 45-64 = 16% > 64 = 1% Ethnicity A.AM. = 26% Indian = < 1% Asian = 2% Caucasian= 62% Continued Latino = 8% Other = 2%
  15. 15. Virginia Data: 2003 Description of Victims: Sexual Assault Females 92% Males 8% Ages <30 = 37% 30-44 = 46% 45-64 = 16% > 64 = 1% Ethnicity A.AM. = 17% Indian = < 1% Asian = 1% Caucasian= 73% Continued Biracial = 1% Latino = 6% Other = 1%
  16. 16. Virginia Data: 2003 Description of Victims: Stalking A Report from Virginia’s Sexual Assault Crisis Centers & Domestic Violence Programs (2003). Retrieved from website: http://www.vadv.org/secProjects/vadata2003.pdf on January 23, 2009 Females 98% Males 2% Ages < 30 = 34% 30-44 = 51% 45-64 = 14% > 64 = 1% Ethnicity A.AM. = 25% Indian = 1% Asian = 1% Biracial = 1% Continued Caucasian= 62% Latino = 10% Other = 1%
  17. 17. Social Impact of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>The varied experiences of women from different ethnic groups may be related to rates of underreporting IPV. </li></ul><ul><li>One influential factor that possibly may be contributed to underreporting is the decision to remain or terminate an abusive relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite this abuse, some women have no inclinations of leaving their abusive partners (Huffman, 2008; Lutenbacher, Cohen, & Mitzel, 2002). </li></ul>
  18. 18. Social Impact of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>Many women remain in abusive relationships and about 40-60% report that they have left their abusive partners only to return later (Huffman, 2008; Byrne & Arias, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Abused women are often faced with the decision of whether they should stay with their mates or whether they should leave their mates (DeKeseredy & Schwartz, 1996). </li></ul>
  19. 19. Social Impact of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>The dilemma of the decision-making process (shall I leave or stay) is possibly seen as an uphill battle for the abused woman. </li></ul><ul><li>The constant leaving and returning entraps battered women into repetitive cycles of abuse (Huffman, 2008; Forero, 2005). </li></ul>
  20. 20. Social Impact of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>Factors that can affect women’s decisions in remaining or terminating their abusive relationships are social economic constraints, education, physical or psychological abuse (Byrne & Arias, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Economic constraints can be detrimental for women leaving an abusive relationship. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Social Impact of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>Economic constraints can consist of: </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of residence </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting criteria for assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Termination by employers </li></ul>
  22. 22. Social Impact of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>Other social factors affecting women’s decisions are: </li></ul><ul><li>Forgiving the abuser </li></ul><ul><li>Prior victimization influencing women’s cognitive thinking causing her to make irrational conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Social structure for abused women can be traumatizing and perceived as revictimization of abuse. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be perceived as the community abused women resides in, culture, family, friends, and socioeconomic status. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Social Impact of IPV <ul><li>Family and peers could act as a deterrence for the abused woman by suggesting that she withstand the abuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Some women have experience less than positive overtones of support from their circle of kin and peers, such as derogatory remarks or shunning of the abused woman (Barnett, Perrin, & Miller-Perrin, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural norms are also an impact on abused women such as how families perceive patriarchal norms and the acceptance of violence against women that is exaggerated in different ethnic groups (Vandello & Cohen, 2003). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Theoretical Perspectives of IPV <ul><li>Strain Theory can explain why some men commit crime, it does not explain why men commit IPV (Smithey & Straus, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at IPV through a criminology perspective could come close to explaining intimate partner violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory comes in the proximity of explaining some facets of IPV. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Theoretical Perspectives of IPV: cont’d <ul><li>Social Learning Theory is defined as: </li></ul><ul><li>That all behavior is learned in much </li></ul><ul><li>the same way and that crime, like </li></ul><ul><li>other forms of behavior is also </li></ul><ul><li>learned….(Schmalleger, 2006 p. 248). </li></ul>
  26. 26. Theories of Intimate Partner Violence <ul><li>There are six theories that attempts to explain women’s abuse experiences: </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Entrapment Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic Bonding Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Stockholm Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>The Battered Woman Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>The Theory of Learned Helplessness </li></ul><ul><li>The Cycle Theory of Violence </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., http://www.texcpe.com ) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Psychological Entrapment Theory <ul><li>Psychological Entrapment Theory reveals that women who have time and emotional investment are unable to leave their abusive relationship. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Traumatic Bonding Theory <ul><li>Traumatic Bonding Theory (Dutton & Painter, 1981) encompasses two emotional attachment factors, power imbalance and intermittent good-bad treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>In IPV, the dominant partner serves to create and maintain power imbalance through physical and emotional abuse. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Traumatic Bonding Theory: cont’d <ul><li>A spiral design of affectionate acts (rewards) compounded with infrequent abusive (assaults) might elevate the woman’s reliance on the batterer (Barnett, Perrin, & Miller-Perrin, 2004). </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Stockholm Syndrome <ul><li>The Stockholm Syndrome (Graham & Rawlings, 1991) is parallel to a person who has been kidnapped, bonding with the kidnapper. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are compelled to stay in an abusive relationship because of their partner having total control of the intimate relationship. </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Stockholm Syndrome: cont’d <ul><li>The trepidation of abuse and separation may exist in abused women with Stockholm Syndrome. Women are more likely to renounce the presence of abuse and hold themselves responsible (Barnett, Perrin, & Miller-Perrin, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>The typology of Stockholm Syndrome also dictates that the abused woman perceives the world from the abuser’s perception and proceeding departure from the male intimate partner, the woman become furious and may develop signs of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Seeley & Plunkett, 2002). </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Battered Woman Syndrome <ul><li>The Battered Woman Syndrome (BWS) expresses the extreme fear and posttraumatic stress disorder women endure (Walker, 1979). Fear overrides rational thinking, and women remain in the abusive relationship. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Theory of Learned Helplessness <ul><li>The Theory of Learned Helplessness (Seligman, 1975) proposes that nothing the woman does (e.g., threatening to leave, notifying the police, or protection orders) will make a difference in women’s success in leaving their relationships </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g., http://www.texcpe.com ). </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Cycle Theory of Violence <ul><li>The Cycle Theory of Violence provides an in-depth examination into the patterns of intimate partner abuse (Walker, 1984; 1979). Abusive women project their relationships and their abusive partners as being ideal. </li></ul><ul><li>Such cognition often influences women into believing that the abuse is over and that the abuse will not recur (Forero, 2005). </li></ul>
  35. 35. Cycle Theory of Violence: cont’d <ul><li>Three components define The Cycle Theory of Violence (Walker, 1984; 1979): </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal abuse (tension-building stage) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical abuse (impact stage) </li></ul><ul><li>Making up (kindness and contrition stage) </li></ul>
  36. 36. Cycle Theory of Violence: cont’d <ul><li>During the latter stage women are under the perception that the violence has ceased, however, the batterer becomes irate again and the cycle spirals once again into violence (Forero, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>During the kindness and contrition phase, most women decide to return to their abuser agreeing to forgive and forget their previous abuse. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Evolutionary Perspective on IPV <ul><li>Evolutionary psychologists predict that men are inclined to prevent their romantic partners from being poached by potential male partners (Schmitt & Buss, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, some men under certain conditions utilize violence against their partners as a means of retaining their partner in the relationships. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Men may be more likely than women to direct aggressive behaviors towards their partners as a mate retention tactic. </li></ul><ul><li>Mate retention tactics are behaviors designed to prevent a partner’s infidelity by guarding against individuals who may poach one’s mate and to maintain the interests of one’s mate. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Mate retention tactics can be best demonstrated by the behaviors of calling a mate numerous times during the day, giving women beepers to know her whereabouts, or driving by her house to see if she is at home (Buss, 1988; Goetz, & Shackelford, 2005). </li></ul>
  40. 40. Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Buss and Shackelford (1997) found that men’s, but not women’s, mate-retention efforts appear to be sensitive to the perceived likelihood of infidelity. </li></ul><ul><li>They also found that women devote more effort to mate retention when their husbands have higher income and when their husbands channel a lot of effort toward getting ahead in the status and work hierarchies. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Women, who are young and attractive (thus higher in reproductive value) are especially vulnerable to violent victimization by their partners. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Contexts Affecting Women’s Decisions <ul><li>Some contexts affecting women’s decisions to remain or not in their abusive relationships are: </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of consequences to their children </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of kin </li></ul><ul><li>Endurance of abuse </li></ul>
  43. 43. Presence of Children <ul><li>The presence of children is likely to affect women’s decision to remain or terminate their abusive relationships </li></ul>
  44. 44. Presence of Children <ul><li>Women fear consequences of their children based on their decision to remain in or terminate their relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>One problem women faces is finding immediate shelter during crisis and can provide a hindrance for mothers. </li></ul><ul><li>Intimate partner violence has detrimental effects on children. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Presence of Children <ul><li>Previous research has stated children five years of age and under were likely to reside in residences with IPV. In addition, they were likely to witness abuse of drugs by parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Children were also affected by the same demographics as abused women faced, low socioeconomic status, and female single parent with less education. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Presence of Children <ul><li>Fantuzzo and Mohr (1999) reports that children living in intimate partner violence households exhibit more “externalizing” and “internalizing behaviors.” </li></ul><ul><li>Externalizing acts are aggressive behavior and conduct problems, while depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem are akin to internalizing. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Presence of Children <ul><li>Externalization acts are seen in children at school as not getting along with other children or fighting and often affects academic progress. </li></ul><ul><li>Internalizing is more psychological in which children exhibit phobias, fear, and bedwetting. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Presence of Children <ul><li>Men occasionally exploit children as tactics in determining information on abused women. </li></ul><ul><li>Men may use children for extended custody cases as means to account for their mothers. </li></ul><ul><li>Men’s exploitation of children in custody cases has influenced many court and community service organizations to provide managed visitations with abusive males without the presence of the mother (Beeble, Bybee, & Sullivan, 2007). </li></ul>
  49. 49. Presence of Children <ul><li>Beeble, Bybee, & Sullivan (2007) performed a study on 156 abused women to determine the magnitude and diverse ways men manipulated children or threaten their intimate partner. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 85% of the women indicated that their abusive partners had used their children to dominate them in many ways. Over 65% of the women reported that their abusive partner had kept account of the children, over 55% had provoked them, 75% had coerced them, and less than half of the women reported the abusive male had attempted to make children turn against their mothers. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Presence of Kin <ul><li>The presence of kin also plays a role in influencing women’s decision in remaining or not remaining. </li></ul><ul><li>Figueredo et al. (2001) surveyed 128 women and 106 men, from Mexico, Spain, Costa Rica, and Arizona, who were not in relationships with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>The researchers found that higher density of genetic kin both inside and outside of Madrid was associated with lower rates of domestic violence against women. The closer the residential proximity of the kin to the abused female, the more likely the female will leave her abusive mate. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Endurance of Abuse <ul><li>Previous literature has offered Splitting and Dyadic Splitting as defense mechanisms that abused women use to navigate through their experiences with IPV (Forero, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive thinking becomes obsessed with remembering only the good times by deemphasizing the bad times (Siegel, 2006). </li></ul>
  52. 52. Splitting <ul><li>Splitting linked to intimate partner violence may be expressed in the traumatized woman exhibiting self-doubt, self-blaming, and other clues from an internalized “bad self.” </li></ul><ul><li>The desensitization of IPV acts as a predictor of being in denial that abuse had or is occurring (Siegel, 2006). </li></ul>
  53. 53. Dyadic Splitting <ul><li>Dyadic Splitting is the defense mechanism operating in couples. Forero (2005) explains, “Dyadic Splitting refers to the interpersonal dynamics of couples that use the defense of splitting as a predominant mode of interaction.” </li></ul>
  54. 54. Dyadic Splitting: cont’d <ul><li>Three dynamics explain Dyadic Splitting in couples: </li></ul><ul><li>How couples are happy one moment, turmoil the next, values the partner and later degrades, </li></ul><ul><li>How couples separately view their worlds with lack of expressing their feelings, and </li></ul><ul><li>Holding on to peace in the presence of conflict (Forero, 2005). </li></ul>
  55. 55. Dyadic Splitting: cont’d <ul><li>An appreciation of the concept of Dyadic Splitting can provide insight into why women choose to remain in abusive relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Forero (2005) states, “Dyadic Splitting is the splitting of both partners diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and Neuroticism.” </li></ul><ul><li>Not knowing when a blissful event will turn into a despair moment is most concerning with dyadic couples. Episodes of intimacy are reversed to bouts of contempt, pessimism, or distancing in the relationship (Siegel, 2006). </li></ul>
  56. 56. Dyadic Splitting: cont’d <ul><li>These episodes lend itself to the analogy of a switch being turned on and off. </li></ul><ul><li>Dyadic Splitting also represents abused women being valued at times and devalued at other times. </li></ul><ul><li>Abused women treasure the valued times as being precious and decline any action that causes the batterer to become enraged. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Dyadic Splitting: cont’d <ul><li>When abusive women experience bliss in the “all good schema” their cognitive thinking is irrational in that they forget the pain and suffering they had previously experienced in the “all bad schema.” </li></ul><ul><li>The outcome is detrimental to concerns, in which conflict deepens and concerns are never resolved (Siegel & Spellman, 2002). </li></ul>
  58. 58. Practicum <ul><li>Evidenced-based programs should create a sense of empowerment for abused women. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidenced-based programs should be directed at the early signs and the prevention of abuse. It should also include in its core practices details that demonstrates how to handle conflicts; and how to handle stressful situations. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Practicum <ul><li>Evidenced-based programs should be built upon programs that have been previously successful. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidenced-based programs need to be measured on outcomes evaluation research to determine if it is doing what it says its doing. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Practicum <ul><li>More intensive counseling should be afforded to abused women for at least six months or until the abused woman is fully capable of supporting herself and/or child. </li></ul><ul><li>Local Department of Social Services can offer programs of self-sufficiency that includes promotion of productive skills such as job readiness, job placement, parenting classes, education attainment, place of residence, and childcare provisions. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Practicum <ul><li>These programs should be directed at making the abused woman capable of succeeding on her own (Smithey & Strauss, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Local businesses, churches, and place of employment can be a wealth of support for abused women. </li></ul><ul><li>Local housing authorities should also be sensitive to the abused woman and set forth guidelines that would be of interest to both the housing authority and abused women. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Practicum <ul><li>Evicting abused women because of IPV hinders women from being self-sufficient. The housing authority should remove the abusive male if he continues to be a nuisance for other residents temporarily until the conflict is resolved (Landis, 2007). </li></ul>
  63. 63. Practicum <ul><li>Programs should also be offered to men who are abusive. This is a unique program set forth by the City of Chicago and is operated through the Department of Social Services. </li></ul><ul><li>The Department of Social Services provides abuser treatment services which includes a cognitive-behavioral intervention program for 30 hours over 15 weeks. The abusive male is also required to complete homework assignments. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Practicum <ul><li>The recidivism rate for the program was over 60%. In addition to this program, probation officers offered similar classes for abusive males who received a minimum of one-year probation (Landis, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>The programs above exhibited a positive outlook in addressing the needs of both the abused woman and the abusive male. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Implications for Policy and Practice <ul><li>The criminal justice system should take a more proactive approach in IPV. </li></ul><ul><li>Abused women are often awarded protection orders against their abusive partners. </li></ul><ul><li>However, if a former partner is stalking the woman, sometimes protection orders are not enough. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Implications for Policy and Practice <ul><li>Police can become involved by providing security assessments of low socioeconomically communities to diminish the risk of violence to women. </li></ul><ul><li>Police can ensure that proper lighting is appropriate and to cut away shrubs from windows that blocks the vision. These few steps can perhaps save a life. </li></ul><ul><li>Not only should the police become involved, but also neighborhood watch groups. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Implications for Policy and Practice <ul><li>Stricter and more pro-active legislation should be introduced to protect women from obsessional estranged lovers, and from abusive partners. </li></ul><ul><li>The need for amending and creating new laws for IPV is imperative for decreasing the prevalence and incidence of IPV. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Implications for Policy and Practice <ul><li>I propose that tougher penalty laws be upheld for repeated or habitual offenders, and should be used on sentencing guidelines. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Conclusion <ul><li>The purpose of this presentation was to examine empirical studies that influenced women’s decisions to remain or terminate their relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>The examination discovered several findings of intimate partner violence that solicit further research and provide aspect of why some women choose to remain or terminate their abusive relationships. </li></ul>
  70. 70. Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>Abused women often face many perils in contemplating whether to remain or stay in abusive relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are often dependent on their intimate partner for support and causes some women to remain in abusive relationships (Byrne & Arias, 2004; Thio, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of children and the proximity of kin also play a role in women’s decision to remain or terminate their relationships. I would predict men are more likely to discourage women from living near male siblings or male children in IPV relationships. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>Women are often faced with no economical means of support, childcare provisions, or residence in attempting to leave an abusive partner (Lutenbacher, Cohen, & Mitzel, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Men’s manipulation of children also presented another reason for abused women to worry (Beeble, Bybee, & Sullivan, 2007). </li></ul>
  72. 72. Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>An interesting finding of the examination was same-sex relationships. In contrast to heterosexual abusive relationships documenting socioeconomic status as linked with increased intimate partner violence, Turell (2000) reported higher socioeconomic status was associated with increased sexual and physical violence, coercion, pursuit, and financial abuse. </li></ul>
  73. 73. Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>Turell (2000) study appears to be with limitations to the population size. There appears to be an overrepresentation of Caucasian women (375 total and over 200 were Caucasian women) compared to other ethnic groups, 45 African-American and less other ethnic groups. </li></ul><ul><li>I would predict that the outcome would be different if the population was less overrepresented; and further research is needed for cross-reference: since research in this area is relatively new. </li></ul>
  74. 74. Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>Women also remain in abusive relationships because of distorted cognitive thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Siegel (2006) reports women in abusive relationships often remember on the “good times” relative to “bad times.” </li></ul><ul><li>Often women dismiss the abuse they had previously endured, which defines Splitting. </li></ul>
  75. 75. Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>I would expect to find distorted cognitive thinking in women’s decision to remain or terminate their relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Another conceptualization of Siegel was Dyadic Splitting in couples with borderline personality disorder and Narcissism. </li></ul><ul><li>Couples with Dyadic Splitting often find themselves in love one moment and confronted with resentment the next moment. Future research is needed to build upon the heuristic guide offered by Siegel. </li></ul>
  76. 76. Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>Theoretical and criminology perspectives have tried to explain the behavior of intimate partner violence and its affect on abused women. </li></ul><ul><li>It is well-documented that physical, emotional, and sexual violence all play vital roles in the victimization of women. </li></ul>
  77. 77. Conclusion: cont’d <ul><li>Intimate partner violence could be benefitted most by examining it through the lens of an evolutionary psychology perspective; as a means of an evolutionary history of intrasexual competition for sexual access to females and as result of extreme efforts to preserve paternity through mate retention behaviors. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Conclusion <ul><li>Evolutionary psychology explores IPV from an unique angle than most theoretical perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it would be beneficial if future research from an evolutionary perspective focuses on women’s decisions concerning women who remain mated to men who are abusive to them. </li></ul>

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