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Citations & Paraphrasing

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  • 1. In-text Citations
    Direct Quote, Summary & Paraphrasing Examples
  • 2. Citing a Direct Quote
    When you have text that you want to quote directly, follow these steps:
    • Copy the quote word-for-word, using the exact same punctuation, spelling, etc.
    • 3. Attribute the author and the page numberdirectly after the quoted text.
    • 4. *page #’ s in database articles?
    Author’s Name (MLA)
    Not my page #
  • 5. Topic:
    Direct Quote:
    “ ” ( ).
    Paraphrase:
    ( ).
    MLA Citation:
  • 6. Topic:
    American’s Paranoia
    Direct Quote:
    “It's a crazy world out there, or so it would seem. Just scan the newspapers, surf the Internet, or go to the movies--paranoia and conspiracy theories are as easy to find as theories on who killed Nicole Simpson. We in the U.S. seem to be fearful of everything, from federal agencies to pesticides in apples” (Hendricks).
    Paraphrase:
    ( ).
    MLA Citation:
  • 7. Topic:
    American Paranoia
    Direct Quote:
    “It's a crazy world out there, or so it would seem. Just scan the newspapers, surf the Internet, or go to the movies--paranoia and conspiracy theories are as easy to find as theories on who killed Nicole Simpson. We in the U.S. seem to be fearful of everything, from federal agencies to pesticides in apples” (Hendricks).
    Paraphrase:
    ( ).
    Hendricks, Melissa. "What, Me Paranoid?." Johns Hopkins Magazine. Sept. 1995: 56-61. SIRS Researcher. Web. 29 Sep 2011.
    MLA Citation:
  • 8. Direct Quote or Original Text:
    “On December 21, 1941, just two weeks almost to the hour after Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt welcomed his military brain trust into his private study on the second floor of the White House. FDR’s “Big Three” consisted of General George Marshall, the starchy army chief of staff; General Henry “Hap” Arnold, the genial chief of staff of the army of air forces; and Admiral Ernest King, the imperious chief of naval operations. These masters of land, air, and sea were prepared to request troops and equipment….” (Bradley 98).
    Summary Card
    Sometimes you will have a large amount of information that you want to summarize:
    • Read the passage carefully.
    • 9. Summarize, or condense, the information, leaving out minor details.
    • 10. Focus on the main ideas.
    • 11. Attribute the author and page numberdirectly after the summarized text.
    Roosevelt’s Plan
    In response to the attack on Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt assembled his top three advisors to begin planning the U.S. counterattack (Bradley 98).
    Topic
    Works Cited
    Bradley, James. Flyboys: A True Story
    of Courage. Little Brown and
    Company; New York, 2003.
    Summary
  • 12. Paraphrasing
    Read the quote.
    Make sure you understand it.
    Now try to put the quote in your own words.
    Switch order of ideas?
    Length about the same.
    Attribute the author and the page numberdirectly after the paraphrased text.
    • Taking someone else’s information or original thoughts and putting it in your own words.
    • 13. When you have text that you need to paraphrase, consider these tips:
  • Paraphrasing
    The Do Not’s
    Do not just choose a few words to change!
    Do not repeat key words/phrases.
    Do not look at the original quote as you try to paraphrase it!
    • Taking someone else’s information or original thoughts and putting it in your own words.
    • 14. When you have text that you need to paraphrase, consider these tips:
  • Practice Paraphrasing
    Direct Quote or Original Text:
    “It's a crazy world out there, or so it would seem. Just scan the newspapers, surf the Internet, or go to the movies--paranoia and conspiracy theories are as easy to find as theories on who killed Nicole Simpson. We in the U.S. seem to be fearful of everything, from federal agencies to pesticides in apples” (Hendricks).
    The world is nuts. The media focuses on hysterical ideas and theories. U.S. citizens are scared of pretty much everything (Hendricks).
    • Read the text to the right.
    • 15. Then read the sample paraphrase below.
    • 16. Is this is a good example of paraphrasing?
    • 17. Why or why not?
  • Practice Paraphrasing #1
    Direct Quote or Original Text
    “It's a crazy world out there, or so it would seem. Just scan the newspapers, surf the Internet, or go to the movies--paranoia and conspiracy theories are as easy to find as theories on who killed Nicole Simpson. We in the U.S. seem to be fearful of everything, from federal agencies to pesticides in apples” (Hendricks).
    • Paraphrasethe direct quote to the right.
  • Topic:
    American Paranoia
    Direct Quote:
    “It's a crazy world out there, or so it would seem. Just scan the newspapers, surf the Internet, or go to the movies--paranoia and conspiracy theories are as easy to find as theories on who killed Nicole Simpson. We in the U.S. seem to be fearful of everything, from federal agencies to pesticides in apples” (Hendricks).
    Paraphrase:
    The world is nuts. The media focuses on hysterical ideas and theories. U.S. citizens are scared of pretty much everything (Hendricks).
    Hendricks, Melissa. "What, Me Paranoid?." Johns Hopkins Magazine. Sept. 1995: 56-61. SIRS Researcher. Web. 29 Sep 2011.
    MLA Citation:
  • 18. Practice Paraphrasing #2
    Direct Quote or Original Text
    “Throughout its history, the United States has always had the odd conspiracy theory floating around, continues Ginsberg. Think about the Puritan campaign against the Salem witches. ‘It's usually just a lunatic fringe,’ he says. ‘These groups are only serious when you have economic and political collapse. Then ordinary folks search desperately for an explanation for the disaster. During the Depression, groups like that were able to attract supporters. People were desperate, terrified--what it takes for the paranoid side of politics to surface. We're not at that stage now’” (Hendricks).
    Who is this?
    • Read the text to the right.
    • 19. Then read the sample paraphrase below.
    • 20. Is this is a good example of paraphrasing?
    • 21. Why or why not?
  • Topic:
    American Paranoia
    Direct Quote:
    “Throughout its history, the United States has always had the odd conspiracy theory floating around, continues Ginsberg. Think about the Puritan campaign against the Salem witches. ‘It's usually just a lunatic fringe,’ he says. ‘These groups are only serious when you have economic and political collapse. Then ordinary folks search desperately for an explanation for the disaster. During the Depression, groups like that were able to attract supporters. People were desperate, terrified--what it takes for the paranoid side of politics to surface. We're not at that stage now’” (Hendricks).
    Paraphrase:
    ( ).
    Hendricks, Melissa. "What, Me Paranoid?." Johns Hopkins Magazine. Sept. 1995: 56-61. SIRS Researcher. Web. 29 Sep 2011.
    MLA Citation:
  • 22. Works Cited
    Bradley, James. Flyboys: A True Story of Courage. Little Brown & Company; New York, 2003.
    Hendricks, Melissa. "What, Me Paranoid?." Johns Hopkins Magazine.
    Sept. 1995: 56-61. SIRS Researcher. Web. 29 Sep 2011.
    The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2010. Web. 07 Oct 2010.