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Euro Va2011talk2
 

Euro Va2011talk2

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Keynote talk at EuroVA 2011

Keynote talk at EuroVA 2011

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    Euro Va2011talk2 Euro Va2011talk2 Presentation Transcript

    • Visual Analytics as a Cognitive Science
      Brian Fisher
      Interactive Arts and Technology & Program in Cognitive Science
      Simon Fraser University
    • Cognitive &
      Perceptual
      Sciences
      Visual
      Information
      Systems
      Mathematical
      & Statistical
      Methods
      Graphic & Interaction Design
      Effective
      Situated
      R&D
    • Visual Analytics
      “The science of analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces”
      “This science must be built on integrated perceptual and cognitive theories that embrace the dynamic interaction between cognition, perception, and action. It must provide insight on fundamental cognitive concepts such as attention and memory. It must build basic knowledge about the psychological foundations of concepts such as ‘meaning,’‘flow,’‘confidence,’ and ‘abstraction.’“
      “Illuminating the Path” (IEEE Press)
    • Need for a Scientific Approach
      Technical, functional & operational drivers
      Availability of massive data & processing
      Perceptually rich interactive displays
      Cognitive performance is key
      Diverse users: Novices, experts, multidiscipline, working in collaboration
      Complex design space with weak metrics
      Design stalls for lack of knowledge sufficient to steer through complex design space


    • Diversity of users ranging from novice ⇒ expert collaborating on tasks that require analysis, judgment, and coordination
      Bill Buxton/Dave Kasik
    • Implications of Cognitive Architecture
      Some cognitive processes are hard-wired-
      Sensory processes, e.g. 3 primary colours
      Performance bottlenecks e.g. STM of 7 +- 2
      Other aspects can change over time, based on experience and knowledge
      Intuitions about architectural processing are usually inaccurate = “metacognitive gap”
    • Cognitive Science
      The study of thought, learning, and mental organization, which draws on aspects of psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and computer modelling. (Oxford)
      Cognitive Science Society founded in 1979
    • Cognitive Science Society
    • Society Founders
      Daniel Bobrow - AI
      Eugene Charniak - AI
      Allan Collins - Psychology
      Edward Feigenbaum - AI
      Charles Fillmore - Linguistics
      Jerry Fodor - Philosophy
      Walter Kintsch - Psychology
      Donald Norman - Psychology
      Zenon Pylyshyn - Psychology
      Raj Reddy - AI
      Eleanor Rosch - Psychology
      Roger Schank - AI
    • Key figures not at Dallas
    • What Happens in the Maze?
      A division of labour?
      Simon’s“nearly decomposable problems”
      Conceptual & methodological “trading zone”?
      Galison: Image and Logic: a Material Culture of Microphysics
      Thagard: Trading Zones in Cognitive Science
    • Visual Analytics Science & Technology
      “If politics is the art of the possible, research is surely the art of the soluble. Both are immensely practical-minded affairs”.
      Sir Peter Medawar
    • Pasteur’s Quadrant (Stokes)
      Yes
      (1822–95)
      Quest for Fundamental Understanding?
      No
      No
      Yes
      Consideration of Use ?
      "Il n'existe pas une catégorie de sciences auxquelles on puisse donner le nom de sciences appliquées. Il y a la science et les applications de la science, liées entre elles comme le fruit à l'arbre qui l'a porté"
      Louis Pasteur
    • Mangle of Practice (Pickering)
      Mangle 2 |ˈmøŋgəl| |ˈmaŋg(ə)l| noun
      A large machine for ironing sheets or other fabrics, usually when they are damp, using heated rollers.
      chiefly Brit. a machine having two or more cylinders turned by a handle, between which wet laundry is squeezed (to remove excess moisture) and pressed
    • Mangle of Visual Analytics?
      Cognition
      in the wild
      Cognition
      Perceptual
      Science
      Methods
      Social
      Science
      Methods
      Computation and Visualization
      Methods
      Graphic & Interaction Design
      Methods
    • Visual Analytics Mangle
      Focused on specific situations:
      Understand processes of cognition as supported by interactive visualization
      Understand communication and distribution of cognition via technical means in organizations and communities
      Incorporate these in design and evaluation of technologies for augmenting cognitive processes
    • Cognitive Amplification (Card)
      External representations can support
      Increasing the memory and processing resources available to users
      Reducing the search for information by using visual representations to enhance the detection of patterns
      Engaging perceptual inference operations
      Using perceptual attention mechanisms for monitoring
      Supporting manipulation of information
    • Cognitive Psychology
      Design guidelines & evaluation methods
      Perceptual cognition
      Reasoning & problem solving
      Social cognition
      Cognitive linguistics
      Cognitive neuroscience
    • Understand cognition supported by interactive visualization
      Visual expertise - how do we assess, model, teach, and build for it
      Individual differences, quantitative predictions
      Visuomotor expertise - how do we assess, model, teach, and build for it
      Multimodality
      Cognitive,
      Perceptual
      Sciences
      Methods
    • Unified Theories of Cognition (Newell)
      Models = theories
      Models should explain a range of behaviours
      “You can’t play 20 questions with nature and expect to win”
      Fodor “Modularity of Mind”
      Egon Brunswick “Conceptual Framework of Psychology”
      Cognitive Architecture
    • New Methods
      Pull key unanswered research questions from field work and conduct lab research to answer them.
      The innovation here is in the integration of HCI variables with measures from cognitive/perceptual psychology, hence greater predictive validity for cognitive tasks.
    • Cognition & Interactivity
      Cognitive processes emerge as a result of a “close coupling” of mental representations & processes with external representations & processes
      All information is equal-- there is “no privileged access” for internal representation to cognitive processes (Gray)
    • Cognitive augmentation
      Engelbart
      Focus on human-information discourse
      Perceptual & motor learning and expertise
      Tight-loop perception/action coordination
      Cognitive processes as supervisory control
      Temporal coordination “Rhythms” of events & flow of cognitive processing (individual and group)
      Customization for individual’s “personal equation”
      Tracking & training development of interactive expertise
    • Enactive Cog VA Projects
      Perception of depth in VR displays (Fechner)Ability to track targets in moving spaces (Pylyshyn - FINST)Perception of touch on the outer legDiscourse in “pair analytics” (JAT)
      VR Design Environment (GMR)
      Fishtank VR air traffic control (Hughes/Raytheon)
      Car interfaces (Nissan)
      Aircraft safety (Boeing)
    • Understand technological distribution of cognition
      Build on social science (GT, JAT) approaches to understand organizations and cognitive work practices.
      The innovation here is in the extension of social science to bridge to the perceptual and cognitive science theories that apply to the use of visualization in analytical tasks.
      Social
      Sciences
    • Distributed Cognition
      Activity theory (Vygotsky via Engeström)
      Multiple human actors and technology
      The activity is the unit of analysis
      Technology is typically passive, e.g. diagrams
      Psycholinguistics Joint Activity theory (Clark)
      Unit of analysis is the structure of joint actions that make up a joint activity
      Avoids metarepresentational infinite recursion
    • Distributed Cognition
      “Pair analytics” sessions
      Student visual analyst & trained domain expert collaborate on analytic task
      Student “drives”, expert “navigates”
      Video session & capture screen
      Analysis of session based on knowledge of human cognition & communication
      Analysis bridges socsci & cognitive science (Joint Activity Theory & Grounded Theory)
      Dr. Richard Arias-Hernández (Postdoc)
      Daniel Ha (Doctoral Student)
      Aaron Smith (Doctoral Student)
      Andrew, Wade (Masters Student)
    • Engineering Humans & Organizations
      Focus on technologies, but true visual analytics should have impacts on:
      Selection and training of people for perceptual, cognitive, and motor abilities needed to support human-technological cognitive systems
      Structures of organizations & communities that support technological distributions of cognition
    • “How Business Schools Lost Their Way”
      We certainly do not advocate that business schools, in revising MBA curricula, abandon science. Rather, they should encourage and reward research that illuminates the mysteries and ambiguities of today's business practices. Oddly, despite B schools’ scientific emphasis, they do little in the areas of contemporary science that probably hold the greatest promise for business education: cognitive science and neuroscience.
      Bennis & O’Toole, HBR, May 2005
    • Graphic & Interaction Design
      Computation & Visualization
      Cognitive/Social Oriented Informatics
      Case studies of technologies designed for specific people, situations and cognitive tasks
      Selected theories and methods from cognitive and social sciences that have proven useful
      Aggregate case studies to infer methods that are successful over a class of applications
    • Cognitive Systems
      Radical DCog would argue equivalence of actors as well as information
      Distribution of agency across human and non-human actors.
      Emergent cognition >> summed cognition of actors
      Clark’s Joint Activity theory may provide a framework for extending DCog theory to complex heterogenous actor networks.
      Scientific approach might address nearly decomposable sub-systems, not individual actors
    • Cognitive Systems
      System blends human & computational cognitive processes
      Bound together through high-bandwidth interface of vision/visualization for human-information discourse
      Stream processor, many modular subprocessors working in parallel, a learning system with large variation among individuals in methods, capabilities, and time course of processing
      Scalable visual analysis systems, automatic data analysis and interactive visualization for custom-designed processes for the exploration and analysis of complex information spaces.
    • Conferences & workshops
      Interdisciplinary events
      VAST and EuroVA, workshops
      HICSS - Business/tech
      Cogsci - Psyc, Neuro, AI, Anthro, Ling, Ed...
      Smart Graphics -interdisc. science/art/tech
      Disciplinary
      VSS - Vision Science
      APS - Psychological Science
      Need for a society, journal?
    • Visual Analysis of Massive Data for Decision Support and Operational Management
      Submissions due June 15, 2011
      http://www.hicss.hawaii.edu/hicss_45/apahome45.htm
    • Proceedings in IEEE digital library, top 2% of IEEE Conferences in IEEE access
      Participants usually from over 40 countries (approximately 50% non-US).
      2nd in citation ranking among 18 Information Systems conferences
      The Australian Government's Excellence in Research project (ERA) has given HICSS an "A" rating, one of 32 Information Systems conferences so honored out of 241