Linux Commands by Cybernazi


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This Contains the List of all the Linux\Unix Commands.

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Linux Commands by Cybernazi

  1. 1. Summary of the Linux/Unix Commands by CYBERNAZI Disclaimer 8. Usnet news 9. File transfer and remote access Summary of UNIX The author and publisher make no warranty of any 10. X window kind, expressed or implied, including the warranties of 11. Graph, Plot, Image processing tools commands merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose, 12. Information systems © 2009, Vikas Mishra, cybernazi 13. Networking programs <> 14. Programming tools 15. Text processors, typesetters, and This is a summary of UNIX commands previewers available on most UNIX systems. . 16. Wordprocessors Depending on the configuration, some of 17. Spreadsheets the commands may be unavailable on your Conventions 18. Databases site. These commands may be a commercial program, freeware or public 1. Directory and file commands bold domain program that must be installed represents program name separately, or probably just not in your bdf search path. Check your local dirname display disk space (HP-UX). See documentation or manual pages for more represents directory name as an also df. details (e.g. man programname). argument cat filename This reference card, obviously, cannot filename display the content of file filename describe all UNIX commands in details, but represents file name as an instead I picked commands that are useful argument cd [dirname] and interesting from a user’s point of view. change directory to dirname. If [dirname] dirname is omitted, change to your optional directory name (or other home directory. optional argument) as argument. If it is no given, current directory will cp source destination be used. copy file source into file destination. df [dirname] Table of Contents display free disk space. If dirname 1. 2. 3. Directory and file commands Print-related commands Miscellaneous commands is omitted, display all available disks. The output maybe in blocks or in Kbytes. Use df -k in Solaris 2.x 4. Process management dtree 5. File archive and compression (visually) display directory structure 6. Text editors 7. Mail programs du [dirname] © 2009 Vikas Mishra cybernazi <>
  2. 2. Summary of LINUX UNIX Commands by CYBERNAZI display disk usage. remove dirname recursively, hostname removing all files and subdirectories display host name less filename underneath dirname. display filename one screenful. A man topic pager similar to (better than) more . xless display on-line manual on topic. an X window pager (named after ls [dirname] less) screen list the content of directory create multiple screen with one dirname. Options: 2. Print-related commands physical screen. This program is -a display hidden files useful if you have a text-only (e.g. -l display in long format vt100) terminal. Move around with lp control-A. mkdir dirname print a file (HP-UX, Solaris 2.x) make directory dirname uname lpq [-Pprintername] print system name more filename query printer queue of the default view file filename one screenfull at a printer. If printername is given, will users time query printer printername. (BSD, display all users on-line SunOS, Linux) mv oldname newname w rename file oldname to file lpr [-Pprintername] filename check who is doing what newname. If newname is a print filename (send filename to the directory, then move oldname into default printer). If printername is which commandname directory newname. given, will send to filename to show the location of commandname printername. (BSD, SunOS, Linux) pg filename who view filename one screenfull at lprm [-Pprintername] jobnum who is on-line on this machine atime (a pager). remove printing job number jubnum from printer printername. (BSD, 4. Process management pwd SunOS, Linux) print working directory kill SIGNUM PID Send signal SIGNUM to process ID rmdir dirname lpstat PID, or kill (terminate) process with remove directory dirname (if check printer status (HP-UX, process ID number PID. For dirname is empty). Solaris 2.x) example: rm file1 [file2 ...] kill -HUP 5555 3. Miscellaneous commands remove files file1, file2, etc. nice programname rm -r dirname env run program programname with print or alter environment variables lower priority (nicer to other users). © 2009 Vikas MIshra cybernazi
  3. 3. Summary of UNIX commands by cybernazi Recommended for running To combine all files under dirname emacs background processes. into filename.tar: start emacs. A more extensive tar cvf filename.tar dirname documentation is available on-line. ps Reference card for GNU emacs is check processes. The options for uncompress filename.Z also available from FSF GNU emacs this command depends on the expand filename.Z into its original distribution. version and variation of your UNIX. size and remove the .Z extension Check your local documentation. jed unarj filename.arj jed text editor top exteract files from an ARJ archive show (continuously) what joe [filename] process(es) is running. unzip a WordStar-like editor extract files from The 5. File archive and compression reverse of zip command. nedit a Motif-based text editor zip zipname files compress filename create an archive file (and compress pico make filename smaller it) called which a simple text editor distributed as (compression). filename will be contains files. part of pine replaced by filename.Z ( a .Z extension is added). MTOOLS sqhm SoftQuad’s HoTMetaL HTML editor. gunzip filename.gz There is a set of commands to access MS- expand filename.gz into its original DOS disks on systems equipped with textedit [filename] form (size) and remove the .gz floppy disk. Most DOS file commands are OpenWindow’s text editor extension. This is GNU unzip. available (prefixed with “m”): mcopy, mdel, vi [filename] mdir, mmd, mtype,etc. vi editor gzip filename compress filename with GNU zip (gzip) and add .gz extension 6. Text editors vile [filename] a vi-clone mt asWedit vim [filename] magnetic tape control program. HTML editor a vi-clone tar axe xcoral combine files into one tar file, or a simple X window text editor a multiwindow X window text editor extract files from a tar file. A tar file ee that can be used to browse C could be a device (magnetic tape as easy edit: emacs with a help menu functions and C++ classes. /dev/rst0) or a plain file. To extract filename.tar xedit elvis tar xvf filename.tar a vi clone a simple X window text editor ©2 0 0 9 V i k a s M I s h r a C y b e r n a z i
  4. 4. Summary of UNIX commands by Cybernazi xemacs notify new mail has arrived (part of nntidy X window Emacs (formerly Lucid elm package) cleanup or tidy your .newsrc Emacs) pine rn 7. Mail Programs mail reader and composer. read news with rn. xwafemail slrn biff X window interface of mail written NNTP-based newsreader (can notify new mail has arrived in wafe+perl. display color ANSI). elm tin There are also other e-mail packages, such read and/or compose e-mail. newsreader as MH, which come with their own fastmail commands. For example, MH has the trn quick batch mail (part of Elm) following commands (and more): threaded rn newsreader from inc xrn list senders of mails in your mailbox X window-based news reader incorporate mail into inbox folder. frm [foldername] xvnews scan similar to from, but has a better Xview-based newsreader scan mailbox/folder output. If foldername is present, it will list senders in folder foldername show xwafenews instead your incoming mailbox. show current selected e-mail. X window-based newsreader written This program is distributed as part in wafe+perl of the elm package. emacs, for example has its own mail reader 9. File transfer and remote mail [userid] M-x rmail and also M-x mh, within emacs read mail. If userid is given in the access window. command line, it will be used in compose mode. After done, mail will bftp be sent to userid 8. Usenet news batch FTP mailtool ftp hostname knews Using the ftp prgram to perform FTP OpenWindows mail program interactive X window-based news to/from host hostname. mush reader mail user shell. Similar to mail, but ftptool nn X-window (xview) based FTP prgram has a better user interface. read news with nn (NoNews is good newmail news.) Can be used to read through kermit NNTP or spool. © 2009 Vikas MIshra cybernazi
  5. 5. Summary of UNIX commands By Cybernazi send or receive files with kermit X-window interface to FTP calculator protovol. kermit -s filename 10. X window xclock to send filename display clock kermit -r filename openwin xfm to receive filename start OpenWindows file manager minicom startx xlock communication package similar to start X window lock your screen Procomm Window manager xodo ncftp hostname odometer, track the distance your The following programs (window managers) a user-friendly FTP program mouse travel are usually started when you type openwin rlogin hostname [-l userid] or startx. It is usually in your .xinitrc file. xterm remote login to host hostname. If -l a terminal or shell session userid is given, will login as userid fvwm rsh hostname feeble window manager 11. Graph, Plot, and Image remote shell to host hostname mwm Processing Tools Motif window manager rz coreldraw receive (upload) files with zmodem olvwm start CorelDraw (commercial OpenLook virtual window manager drawing program) seyon X window communication package olwm corelpaint OpenLook window manager start Corel Paint program (a sz [-r] files send (download) files with zmodem twm commercial painting program) tab window manager ghostview telnet hostname [portnum] connect to hostname with telnet. If a front-end of ghostscript (gs). portnum is specified, connect to port giftrans portnum. (Usually portnum is X window programs converts GIF image to transparant required if you want to connect to GIF. various services such as IRC or filemgr MUD.) OpenWindows file manager gimp image processing tool/drawing xc oclock program with filters (plug-ins) to xcomm communication package display clock manipulate image. xftp xcalc © 2009 Vikas MIshra cybernazi
  6. 6. Summary of UNIX commands By Cybernazi gnuplot xgraph hytelnet a freeware plotting program capable a simple X window graphing access various libraries on the of plotting 2D and 3D plots. It program able to produce a bar Internet supports a wide variety of output graph. formats. lynx xloadimagefilename a text-based WWW-browser gs image previewer Ghostscript, a PostScript previewer. Mosaic It can also be used to convert xpaint [filename] NCSA X window WWW-browser PostScript into other graphic X window painting program, undrestands various image format netscape formats. a WWW browser (X window) with a including GIF pageview built in threaded newsreader preview PostScript file xv [files] image previewer and manipulation sgopher ps2epsi [file.epsi] tools for X window. It supports a simple Gopher client, supports create Adobe’s Encapsulated various formats, including GIF, dumb terminal PostScript Interchange (EPSI) BMP, TIFF, and PostScript. swais format from a postscript file. a text-based WAIS client 12. Information Systems psselect infile [outfile] tkwww select pages from a PostScript file. Tk-based WWW browser archie pstoedit search the Archie database for willow converts PostScript to tgif format for anonymous FTP sites a library, Z39.50 and WWW browser editing arena xarchie rplot X-window WWW-browser which X-window interface of archie plot 2-D data understands HTML 3.0. xgopher sxpm chimera X-window gopher client show an XPM (X Pixmap) image. X-window WWW-browser xmosaic tgif gopher X-window WWW-browser an X window drawing tool. It can a Gopher client produce various output formats, xwais hotjava X-window WAIS client including PostScript. WWW browser that understands xfig Java language 13. Networking programs an X window drawing tool capable hypermail of producing fig output converts mail into HTML finger userid@hostname © 2009 Vikas MIshra cybernazi
  7. 7. Summary of UNIX commands by Cybernazi check information of userid at host write to userid screen/session X window interface to dbx hostname zlocate userid f77 host domainname use Zypher to locate userid (where FORTRAN compiler find information about or which machine the user logs on) domainname, such as its MX record flex or IP address zwrite userid GNU implementation of lex send a personal message to userid irc through zypher. g77 Internet Relay Chat, a multi-user GNU Fortran compiler chat. Beware, addictive! 14. Programming tools and g++ lpmudr shells GNU C++ compiler an LP MUD client. Beware, gawk addictive! acc [files] GNU awk Sun’s ANSI C compiler nslookup gcc query information about a specific bash GNU C compiler host through a domain name Born again shell. A sh clone, but server. For example you can find IP better gcl address of a machine, MX record of GNU Common Lisp a domain. bison a GNU implementation of yacc gdb ping hostname GNU debugger check if host hostname is alive byacc Berkeley yacc gofer rup [hostname] a Haskell implementation show status of local machines. Of cc C compiler grep pattern file(s) hostname is given, only check that hostname search for a string, pattern, or CC regular expression in file(s) Sun’s C++ compiler talk useri@hostname talk to userid at host hostname imake cpp C preprocessor interface to the make C language preprocessor tf command. Usually it uses file Tiny Fugue, a MUD client csh Imakefile. C-shell traceroute hostname kcl tracing IP packet from this host to dbx Kyoto Common Lisp hostname a debugger program ksh write userid dbxtool Korn shell ©2 0 0 9 V i k a s M I s h r a C y b e r n a z i
  8. 8. Summary of UNIX commands By Cybernazi lex tclsh GNU troff lexical analyzer generator Tcl shell, a Tcl interpreter gxditview lint tcsh display gtroff output files under X verify a C program tcshell, a csh compatible shell window. but better m4 ispell filename macro language processor tgrind interactive spelling program reformat source code to make it make pretty for printout latex filename.tex maintain, update, compile, and process filename.tex with LaTeX and regenerate related files by a set of wish generate filename.dvi (a DVI file) rules defined in file Makefile. a simple windowing shell, a tk/tcl implementation lout nm a layout or typesetting program print name list of object file xcl ANSI C compiler for AIX mp pc format text, mail, news into a nice pascal compiler yacc PostScript output. parsing program generator. perl Generate C code from a grammar nroff filename Practical Extraction and Reporting process filename with nroff Language, a powerful programming zsh and scripting language Z shell psnup manipulate PostScript file to have n prolog 15. Text processors, typesetters, pages on one side a Prolog system and previewers pstops rcs manipulate PostScript files to resource / version control a2ps produce 2-up, 4-up, booklet, rotate converts ASCII to PostScript and many other functions. sccs source code control system grodvi spell filename convert troff to TeX DVI spell the contents of filename sed stream editor groff tex filename.tex GNU *roff TeX document processing and sh typesetting. Bourne shell grops convert troff to PostScript troff filename sml process filename with troff New Jersey Standard ML gtroff © 2 0 0 9 V i k a s M i s h r a C y b e r n a z i
  9. 9. Summary of UNIX commands By Cybernazi xdvi filename.dvi jinx preview DVI file (filename.dvi) a curses, perl-based database xtex filename.dvi sybperl preview filename.dvi access Sybase server with perl (script). 16. Wordprocessors dbflst, dbfget, dbfadd, dbfdel, dbfpack, dbfcreat, dbfscan ez DBF package to access DBF-format Andrew Toolkit wordprocessor file (usually generated by xbase (free). program), developed by Brad Eacker imaker <> start an international version of FrameMaker maker start FrameMaker tps wp start Interleaf start Word Perfect 17. Spreadsheets oleo GNU spreadsheet sc spreadsheet calculator xspread X window version of sc 18. Databases isql connect to Sybase server 2 0 0 9© V i k a s M i s h r a , t h e C y b e r n a z i