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Ultra Efficient HPC Data
          Center
          Natural Low Energy Cooling Conceptual Design




10/8/10              ...
Project Funding

    Canada's Advanced Research and Innovation
     Network (CANARIE)
    Canada California Strategic In...
Site Selection

    Three candidate locations in Quebec
     •    McDonald Campus of McGill University in St. Anne de Bel...
The System Approach: An Overview

    Goals: Most Efficient Class One Data Center
    Climate Evaluation
    Define Loa...
Goals


    Provide ASHRAE TC9.9 Class 1 Datacenter
    No compressor based cooling
    Lower construction cost
    Lo...
Proposed Annual Electrical Costs
Comparison


  $10,000,000

   $9,000,000

   $8,000,000

   $7,000,000
                 ...
Aerial Perspective – “Farm” at
McDonald Campus
         Cooling Towers and
     Mechanical Infrastructure                 ...
Climate: Free Cooling Analysis with 65F CHWS


                                            0.030
                         ...
Climate: Free Cooling Analysis With 75F CHWS


                                            0.030
                         ...
Load Strategies
    Climate analysis shows higher temperature chilled
     water offers many more hours of free cooling
...
Load Heat Collection Strategies

    Higher temperature Chilled Water Supply (CHWS)
     offers many more hours of free c...
Primary Cooling Strategies: Medium
Temp. Cooling Water and Free Cooling
Primary Cooling Strategies: Medium
 Temp. Cooling Water and Free Cooling
    Design to cool with 65F/18C and 75F/24C wate...
Supplemental Cooling: Seasonal Ice
     Storage Slush Pond System
     Fill in winter with plowed snow collection
     M...
Slush Pond

     Paved collection basin, 75,000 ft3 (2,100 m3)
            Drive-in slope on one side for plow loading
 ...
Sundsvall, Sweden, Snow Storage - Empty
Sundsvall, Sweden, Snow Storage - Full
Snow dump overruns in Montreal, 2008-09
Slush Pond System – Pumping and
     Filtration
     Mature waste water handling technology
            Remove gravel, w...
Key approaches

    Keep storage pond simple
           Leverage local snow removal program if possible
           Coll...
Office Approaches
    Much lower load
    Design for comfort and optimal use of medium
     temperature water
Backup – Do Not Invest in Chillers 'Just
in Case'!

Pay for it only
when (if) you
ever need it


Design for
portable
air-c...
Results

    McGill-USCD HPC Data Center PUE Itemization
                                                     Fans; 1.5%

...
Results

Supply Temperatures                              Annual Energy Use    Mechanical Cooling Needed Water Usage
     ...
Ultra-Efficient HPC Data Centre - Gary Bernstein, McGill University
Ultra-Efficient HPC Data Centre - Gary Bernstein, McGill University
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Ultra-Efficient HPC Data Centre - Gary Bernstein, McGill University

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Gary Bernstein, Director of Network and Communications Services (NCS) at McGill University, presented these slides as part of the Cybera Summit 2010 session "Ultra-Efficient Data Centres: Design and Applications". For more information, visit http://www.cybera.ca/ultra-efficient-data-centres-design-and-applications

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Transcript of "Ultra-Efficient HPC Data Centre - Gary Bernstein, McGill University"

  1. 1. Ultra Efficient HPC Data Center Natural Low Energy Cooling Conceptual Design 10/8/10 1
  2. 2. Project Funding   Canada's Advanced Research and Innovation Network (CANARIE)   Canada California Strategic Innovation Partnership (CCSIP) •  ISTP Canada •  University of California •  McGill University
  3. 3. Site Selection   Three candidate locations in Quebec •  McDonald Campus of McGill University in St. Anne de Bellevue •  Campus of the Institut de recherche d’Hydro-Quebec (IREQ) in Varennes •  IREQ campus in Shawinigan   McDonald Campus of McGill University selected as site for project   All enjoy   Cold climate   Renewable energy resource (hydroelectric)   Inexpensive electricity
  4. 4. The System Approach: An Overview   Goals: Most Efficient Class One Data Center   Climate Evaluation   Define Loads and How to Best Serve Them •  Water cooled equipment •  Medium temperature chilled water (65F, 75F)   Optimize Heat Rejection for Climate and Loads •  Evaporative free cooling – Primary cooling •  Seasonal ice storage – Top up cooling   Backup Approach   Results
  5. 5. Goals   Provide ASHRAE TC9.9 Class 1 Datacenter   No compressor based cooling   Lower construction cost   Lower operating cost   Best efficiency   Environmentally friendly   Construction materials   Recycle heat, water
  6. 6. Proposed Annual Electrical Costs Comparison $10,000,000 $9,000,000 $8,000,000 $7,000,000 $5 Million/yr Annual $6,000,000 Savings Target $5,000,000 $4,000,000 $3,000,000 $2,000,000 $1,000,000 $0 San Diego (1.35 PUE) Montreal (1.06 PUE) at $0.09/kWh at $0.05/kWh
  7. 7. Aerial Perspective – “Farm” at McDonald Campus Cooling Towers and Mechanical Infrastructure 20,000 SF Phase 1 8 MW IT Load VA Hospital Fuel Tanks Cooling Ice Pond Stormwater Detension Office, Shipping/ Receiving Electrical Infrastructure
  8. 8. Climate: Free Cooling Analysis with 65F CHWS 0.030 Data Source: Government of Canada - National Climate Data & Information Archive 0.028 Data Set: WMO #71627, Montreal/Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport, Typical Year 0.026 Elevation: 118 feet Humidity Ratio (lbs H2O per lbs dry air) 0.024 Air Pressure: 14.633224 psia 0.022 0.020 Auxillary Cooling 80 hrs/yr 0.018 0.016 Partial Free Cooling 1234 hrs/yr 0.014 0.012 0.010 0.008 Full Free Cooling 0.006 7446 hrs/yr 0.004 0.002 0.000 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Dry Bulb Temperature (F)
  9. 9. Climate: Free Cooling Analysis With 75F CHWS 0.030 Data Source: Government of Canada - National Climate Data & Information Archive 0.028 Data Set: Montreal/Pierre Elliott Trudeau Intl Airport, Typical Year 0.026 Elevation: 118 feet Auxillary Cooling Air Pressure: 14.633224 psia 0 hrs/yr Humidity Ratio (lbs H2O per lbs dry air) 0.024 0.022 0.020 Partial Free Cooling 0.018 114 hrs/yr 0.016 0.014 0.012 0.010 0.008 Full Free Cooling 0.006 8646 hrs/yr 0.004 0.002 0.000 -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Dry Bulb Temperature (F)
  10. 10. Load Strategies   Climate analysis shows higher temperature chilled water offers many more hours of free cooling   Highly concentrated heat loads •  A single high density rack can put off as much waste heat as a VW Beetle (40kW) •  Air exiting racks typically exceeds 90F
  11. 11. Load Heat Collection Strategies   Higher temperature Chilled Water Supply (CHWS) offers many more hours of free cooling: Design to use 75F and 65F CHWS •  Direct water based cooling most efficient •  Hot aisle / cold aisle for minority of load
  12. 12. Primary Cooling Strategies: Medium Temp. Cooling Water and Free Cooling
  13. 13. Primary Cooling Strategies: Medium Temp. Cooling Water and Free Cooling   Design to cool with 65F/18C and 75F/24C water •  90% of 65F load served with cooling tower provided free cooling; 99.3% of 75F load •  590,000 ton-hrs (2,100 MWh) Top up Cooling Required
  14. 14. Supplemental Cooling: Seasonal Ice Storage Slush Pond System   Fill in winter with plowed snow collection   Melt water cools data center
  15. 15. Slush Pond   Paved collection basin, 75,000 ft3 (2,100 m3)   Drive-in slope on one side for plow loading   Lightweight, waterproof insulating cover or roof to protect from warm rains   Extensive drain system to collect meltwater   Berms for sides, or dig into ground
  16. 16. Sundsvall, Sweden, Snow Storage - Empty
  17. 17. Sundsvall, Sweden, Snow Storage - Full
  18. 18. Snow dump overruns in Montreal, 2008-09
  19. 19. Slush Pond System – Pumping and Filtration   Mature waste water handling technology   Remove gravel, wood, grit from melt water   Remove oils and road chemicals prior to release as required   Filter   Select heat exchangers for highly corrosive fluid   Maintain complete separation between pond water and building loop water   Integrate settling tank to also serve as emergency storage
  20. 20. Key approaches   Keep storage pond simple   Leverage local snow removal program if possible   Collect snow dumpage fees?   Provide appropriate maintenance   Provide for pile grooming, drain clearing, filter cleaning, etc   Use in lieu of chillers to save cost   Consider emergency chiller rental for backup   Design properly   Simple concept but careful design required
  21. 21. Office Approaches   Much lower load   Design for comfort and optimal use of medium temperature water
  22. 22. Backup – Do Not Invest in Chillers 'Just in Case'! Pay for it only when (if) you ever need it Design for portable air-cooled chillers to connect in an emergency
  23. 23. Results McGill-USCD HPC Data Center PUE Itemization Fans; 1.5% CRAH Fans; 0.0% Humidifier; 0.0% CHW Plant; 2.1% Transformer Loss; 0.5% UPS Loss; 0.6% Racks; 94.0% PDU Loss; 1.0% Data Center Lights; 0.2% Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) = Total Energy / Rack Energy = 1.06
  24. 24. Results Supply Temperatures Annual Energy Use Mechanical Cooling Needed Water Usage Hours of Free Cooling / year PUE Additional Load at Air Water Cost Evaporation + Cooled Cooled Energy ( $0.058/kWh) Hours Extreme Weather Carry Over per Year (wetbulb = 68.7°F) °C °F °C °F hrs/yr % of yr MWh/yr $ tons gallons 23.9 75.0 23.9 75.0 8,532 97% 1.06 74,567 $4,325,000 228 0 30,100,000
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