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  • Hi gys,
    I am student of ece from itm, mahrajganj. i am looking a project for device control using sms.
    pl help us.
    d sahani
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    A micro-controller (also MCU or µC) is a functional computer system-on-a-
    chip. It contains a processor core, memory and programmable input/output
    Micro suggests that the device is small and controller tells you that the device
    might be used to control objects, processes or events.
    Another term to describe a microcontroller is embedded controller because
    the microcontroller and its support circuits are often built into or embedded
    in the devices they control.
  • 3. WHERE WE USE THEM…???
  • 4. Basic block diagram of a microcontroller
  • 5. CPU :
    CPU does all the arithmetic and logic operations.
    It controls the flow of execution of instructions.
  • 6. RAM ( Random Access Memory) :
    RAM holds the set of instructions (program), i.e. being executed by the CPU.
    It holds important data required by the program.
    It holds some important data structures like ‘stack’.
    It is volatile in nature.
  • 7. ROM ( Read Only Memory) :
    ROM holds very important data and initialization about the microcontroller.
    It holds the monitor program.
    It is written by the manufacturer.
  • 8. Flash Memory :
    Flash memory is basically EEPROM.
    It holds the program written by the user.
    The program can be erased or written here many times. ( Specified by the manufacturer)
  • 9. I/0 Ports :
    Every microcontroller has I/O ports.
    Each port is made up of n-pins ( mostly 8 pins).
    Each pin can be configured as either input pin or output pin.
    If a pin is input pin, it accepts data from the device it is connected to.
    If a pin is output pin, it sends the data to the device it is connected to.
    Thus these pins form the input/output medium for the microcontrollers.
  • 10. ADC :
    Most of the real world signals are analog in nature.
    But a microcontroller is a digital device, thus it cannot process analog signals.
    Thus all microcontrollers have built in A-D converters.
    ADC digitizes an analog signal and gives it to the microcontroller for further processing.
  • 11. TIMERS :
    In many applications, time keeping is a must. Eg. If you heating a meal in an oven.
    Thus microcontrollers have timers to measure time.
    Intel - 8051
    Atmel – Atmega 16
  • 13. Question: How a microcontroller works ???
    Answer: Microcontroller consists of a Microprocessor (CPU i.e. Central processing Unit) which is interfaced to RAM (Random Access Memory) and Flash Memory (EEPROM). You feed your program in the Flash Memory on the microcontroller. Now when you turn on the microcontroller, CPU accesses the instructions from RAM which access your code from Flash. It sets the configuration of the pins and then start performing according to your program.
  • 14. Question: How to make the code ?
    Answer: You basically write the program on your computer in any of the high level languages like C, C++, JAVA etc. Then you compile the code to generate the machine file.
    All the machines understand only one language, 0 & 1 that is on and off. Now this 0 & 1 both corresponds to 2 different voltage levels for example 0 volt for 0 logic and +5 volt for 1 logic. Actually the code has to be written in this 0, 1 language and then saved in the memory of the microcontroller. But this will be very difficult task. So we write the code in the language we understand (eg. C) and then compile and make the machine file “.hex”. After we make this machine file we feed this to the memory of the microcontroller.
  • 15. Question: How to feed the code in the flash of Microcontroller ?
    Answer: Assuming you have the machine file (.hex) ready and now you want to feed that to the flash of the microcontroller. Basically you want to make communication between your computer and microcontroller. Now computer has many communication ports such as Serial Port, Parallel Port and USB (Universal Serial Bus).
    Let’s take Serial Port, it has its own definition that is voltage level to define 0 & 1. Serial Port's protocol is called as UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver & Transmitter). Its voltage levels are : +12 volt for 0 logic and -12 volt for 1 logic.
    Now the voltage levels of our microcontroller are based on CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) technology which has 0 volt for 0 logic and +5 volt for 1 logic. Two different machines with 2 different ways to define 0 & 1 and we want to exchange information between them. Consider microcontroller as a French and Computer's Serial Port as an Indian person. If they want to exchange information they basically need a mediator who knows both the language. He will listen one person and then translate to other person. Similarly we need a circuit which converts CMOS (microcontroller) to UART (serial port) and vice versa. This circuit is called as programmer. Using this circuit we can connect computer to the microcontroller and feed the machine file to the flash.
    Manufacturer : ATMEL CORPORATION, USA.
    Advanced RISC Architecture
    131 Powerful Instructions – Most Single-clock Cycle Execution
    32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers
    Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz
    16K Bytes of In-System Self-Programmable Flash
    512 Bytes EEPROM
    1K Byte Internal SRAM
    32 Programmable I/O Lines
    In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program
    8-channel, 10-bit ADC
    Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescalers and Compare Modes
    One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler, Compare Mode, and Capture
    Four PWM Channels
    Programmable Serial USART
    Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
    Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface
    Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator
    External and Internal Interrupt Sources
  • 19.
  • 20. Registers
    All the configurations in a microcontroller is set through 8 bit (1 byte) locations in RAM (RAM is a bank of memory bytes) of the microcontroller called as Registers.
    All the functions are mapped to its locations in RAM and the value we set at that location that is at that Register configures the functioning of microcontroller.
    There are total 32 x 8bit registers in Atmega-16. As Register size of this microcontroller is 8 bit, it called as 8 bit microcontroller.
  • 21. For example :
  • 22. Digital Input Output Port
    So let’s start with understanding the functioning of AVR. We will first discuss about I/O Ports.
    Atmega 16 has 32 I/O (Input/Output) pins grouped as A, B, C & D with 8 pins in each group. This group is called as PORT.
    PA0 - PA7 (PORTA)
    PB0 - PB7 (PORTB)
    PC0 - PC7 (PORTC)
    PD0 - PD7 (PORTD)
  • 23. Data Direction Register, DDRn
    Determines the direction of individual pins of ports.
    If the bit of the DDR is set (1) the corresponding pin of the port is configured as output pin
    If the bit of the DDR is cleared (0) the
    corresponding pin of the port is configured as
    input pin.
    DDRA = 0xF0;
    4 MSB pins of PORTA are output pins
    4 LSB pins of PORTA are input pins
  • 24. Port Pin Register, PINn
    Reading the input pins of port is done by reading PIN register
    Temp = PINA;
    Read the PORTA input and store in temp variable
  • 25. Port Drive Register, PORTn
    If the pin is configured as output (DDRn [x] = 1) PORTn register drives the corresponding value on the output pins
    DDRA = 0xFF;
    PORTA = 0xF0;
    Output logic high on 4 MSB pins and logic low on 4 LSB pins
  • 26. Port Drive Register, PORTn
    For pins configured as input (DDRn[x] = 0) microcontroller connects a internal pull up resistor if the corresponding bit of PORTn is set
    If the PORTn bit is cleared, pin is Tristated
    DDRA = 0x00;
    PORTA = 0xF0;
  • 27. Buzzer On / OFF
    Buzzer is connected to pin 7 of PORT B.
    Pin is configured as output
    DDRB= 0x80;
    To turn on the buzzer output high
    PORTB = 0x80;
    To turn off the buzzer output low
    PORTB = 0x00;
  • 28. Buzzer Function
    void Buzzer_ON(void)
    PORTB = 0x80;
    void Buzzer_OFF(void)
    PORTB = PORTB & 0x7F;
  • 29. Bump Switch
    PORTC (0)
    Input port
    DDRC= 0x00;
    Internal pull up
    PORTC = 0x01;
    To read inputs
    portc_copy = PINC
  • 30. void main(void)
    //insert your functional code here...
    while(1) //open continuous loop (while)
    portc_copy = PINC; //read contents of port C into the portc_copy variable
    if(portc_copy == 0x01) //check if any switch is pressed by comparing bitwise with //0x01 ('==' comparison)
    PORTB = 0x00; //if condition is true turn OFF buzzer by giving PORTB = 0x00
    else //if condition is false turn ON buzzer to
    { //indicate bump switch is pressed by giving PORTB = 0x80
    PORTB = 0x80;
  • 32. This is PORTB
    Pin 0 is connected to LED0.
    Pin 1 is connected to LED1.
    Pin 2 is connected to LED2.
    Pin 3 is connected to LED3.
    Pin 4 is connected to LED4.
  • 33. ADC
    Analog To Digital Converter
  • 34. Analog To Digital Converter
    10 bit resolution
    8 channels
    PORTA(0 – 7) – (ADC1-ADC7)
    Disable internal pull up
    ADCH & ADCL – Data Register
    ADMUX- Channel Select Register
    ADCSR – Control & Status Register
  • 35. Theory of operation
    What we have seen till now that the input given to uC was digital, i.e., either +5 V (logic 1) or 0V (logic 0). But what if we have an analog input. Then we require a tool that converts this analog voltage to discrete values. Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) is such a tool.