Performance Monitoring for Efficiency


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"Performance Monitoring for Efficiency" presents an ongoing commissioning process to ensure buildings stay energy efficient over time.

Tom Anderson's and Emily Cross' presentation at the 2012 Better Buildings by Design Conference uses the Burlington International Airport as a case study.

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Performance Monitoring for Efficiency

  1. 1. Performance Monitoring for Efficiency THOMAS ANDERSON, CCP EMILY CROSS, MASc, PEng, CEM Burlington, Vermont cx‐ tom@cx tom@cx‐ emily@cx‐
  2. 2. Efficiency Vermont is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credit(s)earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES forAIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and b C tifi t fC l ti f b th b dnon-AIA members are available upon request.This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professionaleducation. As such, it does not include content that may be deemedor construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of anymaterial of construction or any method or manner of handling, using,distributing, or dealing in any material or product.Questions related to specific materials methods and services will be materials, methods,addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. 2
  3. 3. Learning Objectives Understand why performance monitoring is necessary Learn how to apply real time performance monitoring economically and effectively Know which basic performance metrics to include on every project Understand the best approaches to long term performance data archiving 3
  4. 4. Course EvaluationsIn order to maintain high‐quality learning experiences, please access the  evaluation for this course by logging into CES Discovery and clicking on  the Course Evaluation link on the left side of the page. h C E l i li k h l f id f h 4
  5. 5. Performance Monitoring Performance Monitoring• Part of the ongoing commissioning process for Part of the ongoing commissioning process for  buildings and building systems 5
  6. 6. What is Commissioning? What is Commissioning?• Comprehensive QA process for buildings and Comprehensive QA process for buildings and  building systems Soup to Nuts – Design Review – Equipment and Instrumentation Validation – Functional Performance Testing – Continuous Commissioning 6
  7. 7. What is Commissioning? What is Commissioning?• Comprehensive QA process for buildings and Comprehensive QA process for buildings and  building systems Soup to Nuts – Design Review – Equipment and Instrumentation Validation – Functional Performance Testing – Continuous Commissioning 7
  8. 8. What is Commissioning? What is Commissioning?• Comprehensive QA process for buildings and Comprehensive QA process for buildings and  building systems Soup to Nuts – Design Review – Equipment and Instrumentation Validation – Functional Performance Testing – Continuous Commissioning 8
  9. 9. What is Commissioning? What is Commissioning?• Comprehensive QA process for buildings and Comprehensive QA process for buildings and  building systems Soup to Nuts – Design Review – Equipment and Instrumentation Validation – Functional Performance Testing – Performance Monitoring 9
  10. 10. Case Study: BIA Cx Case Study: BIA Cx Burlington International AirportChiller Plant Upgrade AHU/Boiler Upgrade 10
  11. 11. Case Study: BIA Cx Case Study: BIA Cx Burlington International Airport Burlington International Airport Chiller Plant Upgrade pgFrictionless (Magnetic Bearing) Centrifugal ChillerTwo Fan Induced Draft Cross flow Cooling TowerBTU Meters with Insertion Turbine Flow Meters 11
  12. 12. Case Study: BIA Cx Case Study: BIA CxBurlington International AirportBurlington International Airport HVAC Upgrade Rooftop/VAVs (2) R ft /VAV (2) Condensing Boilers (2) Existing Ductwork Existing Ductwork 12
  13. 13. Design Review Design Review Chiller Plant• The control diagram at this time lacks the  capability for facility operators monitor how  much power the pumps and the chiller  consume…we suggest that pump and chiller  t th t d hill KW values be imported into the DDC control  system and displayed on the DDC  system and displayed on the DDC graphics…display of chiller kW, tonnage, and a  kW per Ton performance metrics. kW per Ton performance metrics. 13
  14. 14. Design Review Design Review Chiller Plant• The piping diagram calls for glass “stick” type  The piping diagram calls for glass  stick type piping thermometers.  These stick type piping  thermometers are very difficult to read in the  thermometers are very difficult to read in the field.  We suggest the use of round dial type  piping thermometers.  These are far easier to  piping thermometers. These are far easier to read in the field and will benefit facility  operating staff. operating staff. 14
  15. 15. Design Review Design ReviewHVAC Systems• Cross connects Cold/Hot duct cross connection: The new VAV boxes  are shown connected to either the existing hot or cold duct mains…To  mitigate main duct pressure losses, could the separate hot and cold  duct mains be cross connected to equalize air flow? d i b d li i fl ? 15
  16. 16. Equipment Checkout: Leaks Equipment Checkout: Leaks• Air Leaks:  loss of conditioned air wasted fan energy – Existing ducts: seams joints corners not sealed Existing ducts: seams, joints, corners, not sealed 16
  17. 17. Equipment Checkout: Leaks Equipment Checkout: Leaks• Air Leaks: loss of conditioned air wasted fan energy – New equipment: damaged closure mechanisms and  gaskets, as installed 17
  18. 18. Equipment Checkout: LeaksEquipment Checkout: Leaks 18
  19. 19. Equipment Checkout: Pressure Drop  Equipment Checkout: Pressure Drop• VAV box air inlet• 4 inch round duct runout installed• 6 inch round duct runout specified 6 inch round duct runout specified• 4 to 5 times inlet static pressure drop C0 = 19 C0 = 89 specified installed 19
  20. 20. Equipment Checkout: Pressure Drop  Equipment Checkout: Pressure Drop• Piping strainer inaccessible Piping strainer inaccessible Roof Strainer Top of duct 20
  21. 21. Equipment Checkout: Retrofit Equipment Checkout: Retrofit• Known Issue 21
  22. 22. Equipment Checkout: Retrofit Equipment Checkout: Retrofit• Opportunities for Communication 22
  23. 23. Equipment Checkout: Per Drawings? Equipment Checkout: Per Drawings?• Cogged vs Standard fan V‐belts Cogged vs. Standard fan V‐belts 23
  24. 24. Equipment Checkout: Per Drawings? Equipment Checkout: Per Drawings?• Counterflow piping pp g 24
  25. 25. Equipment Checkout: Air Quality Equipment Checkout: Air Quality• Standing water not permitted per ASHRAE 62.1• CHW pipe insulation remained to be installed, no drain 25
  26. 26. Instrumentation: Gauges and SensorsInstrumentation: Gauges and Sensors 26
  27. 27. Instrumentation: Gauges and Sensors Instrumentation: Gauges and Sensors• Pete’s plugs for validation of piping sensors and gauges• Round vs Stick thermometers are easier to read Round vs. Stick thermometers are easier to read specified installed• Calibrate/compare against NIST certified test instruments• Location of thermostats and control system sensors – Avoid interference from direct sun or equipment exhaust Avoid interference from direct sun or equipment exhaust 27
  28. 28. Instrumentation: DDC Program ValidationInstrumentation: DDC Program Validation 28
  29. 29. Instrumentation: DDC Program ValidationInstrumentation: DDC Program Validation• Sensor scaling errors Sensor scaling errors – 0 to 5 V or 0 to 10 V? – Chill Chiller percent load displayed found to be one  t l d di l d f dt b third of actual per BTU meters• Ph i l h k Physical checks – Outside air dampers found in a position other  than commanded by the DDC system – Too much outside air being brought in (expensive) 29
  30. 30. Functional Performance Testing: ChillerFunctional Performance Testing: Chiller• Chilled water pump rate of flow change Chilled water pump rate of flow change  found to be too rapid• Minimum chiller flow was not  maintained 30
  31. 31. Functional Performance Testing: HVACFunctional Performance Testing: HVAC• Software programmed with an Software programmed with an  economizer mode lockout when the  outdoor air temperature drops below  td i t t d b l 40F.• Outside Air Control: configured for  damper position rather than flow. damper position rather than flow. 31
  32. 32. Functional Performance Testing: ControlsFunctional Performance Testing: ControlsChiller MER exhaust fan stays on after alarm clears MER temperature > 80F MER temperature > 80F Refrigerant leak detection 32
  33. 33. Up Next: Performance MonitoringUp Next: Performance Monitoring Thomas Anderson tom@cx‐ @ i 802.861.2715 x11 33
  34. 34. Why Performance Monitoring? Why Performance Monitoring?• How many miles per gallon is my building  getting? 34
  35. 35. Building Energy Tracking Building Energy Tracking• How does my building compare to peer How does my building compare to peer  building?• Am I using what is expected?• Has anything changed? Has anything changed?• Am I improving over time? 35
  36. 36. System Energy Tracking System Energy Tracking• Are systems behaving as they should?• How efficient are my systems?• Today’s performance vs 3 years ago? Today s performance vs. 3 years ago? 36
  37. 37. System Energy Tracking System Energy Tracking• Building energy efficiency depreciates 2%  to 3% a year 37
  38. 38. System Energy Tracking System Energy TrackingExpectations for building operators: • Manage systems efficiently • But we do not provide efficiency  ut we do not provide efficiency feedback in our designs 38
  39. 39. Energy ManagementEnergy ManagementYou cannot manage… …What you cannot measure What you cannot measure 39
  40. 40. What To MeasureWhat To Measure • Building Service Building Service ‐ Electrical ‐ Fuel • Central Plants ‐ Heating ‐ Cooling ‐ Refrigeration 40
  41. 41. Other Sub GroupsOther Sub Groups • Key Lighting Circuits Key Lighting Circuits ‐ Exterior Lighting ‐ Key Lighting Zones • Computer Rooms p • Central Air Handlers • Central Pumps 41
  42. 42. DevicesBTU MetersBTU Meters• Liquids: ‐ Heating Hot Water ‐ Chilled Water Chilled Water ‐ Domestic Hot Water 42
  43. 43. Turbine Meters• Closed Loop Fluids• Fairly Clean Water 43
  44. 44. Turbine Meters 44
  45. 45. Ultrasonic Meters • Clamp‐on • Non‐Invasive • Good for Retrofits • Clean or Unclean Liquids Clean or Unclean Liquids 45
  46. 46. Ultrasonic 46
  47. 47. Electromagnetic Meter• Critical water flow applications Critical water flow applications• Open loop• “Dirty Water” ‐ Gray Water Gray Water ‐ Sea Water ‐ Process Liquids d 47
  48. 48. Electromagnetic Meter  48
  49. 49. Power Monitoring• Key Electrical Sub‐circuits Key Electrical Sub‐circuits ‐ Exterior Lighting / Interior Lighting• Key large equipment ‐ Chillers ‐ Large Compressors, etc…•Pi Primary Electrical Service – P ibl El t i l S i Possibly  49
  50. 50. Power Monitoring • Measure True kW • Also: ‐ Voltage ‐ Power Factor 50
  51. 51. Power Monitoring 51
  52. 52. VFD Power Loss 52
  53. 53. VFD Power Loss IO 53
  54. 54. VFD Power Loss – Network Interface 54
  55. 55. Performance MetricsBuilding Annual Energy:Building Annual Energy: • kBTU/Square Foot/Year • EUI: Energy Use Index • “Miles per Gallon” for Buildings • For Electrical and Fuels • Also: kWH/Square Foot/Year Also: kWH/Square Foot/Year 55
  56. 56. Unit Conversion• Electrical: ‐ kWH/YR x 3.41 kBTU/kWH• Fossil Fuel: ‐ Fuel Units/YR x BTU Per Unit/ 1,000 Fuel Units/YR x TU Per Unit/ ,000• Units Delivered to Building (not source   Energy) Energ ) 56
  57. 57. Information Presentation 57
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. Cooling Plant 59
  60. 60. Cooling Plant 60
  61. 61. Typical Pump 59
  62. 62. Cx of Performance MonitoringCommissioning:• BTU Meters: Water• Upstream/Downstream straight piping• T&B Accuracy Verification T&B Accuracy Verification ‐ vs. Balance Valve ‐ vs. Pump Curve q p p ‐ vs. Equipment Pressure Drop 62
  63. 63. BTU Meters: Water• Temperature ‐ +/‐ 0.1°F Accuracy Goal ‐ Insertion Temperature Probe ‐ ≈ with +/‐ 0.1°F Accuracy  ‐ ≈ RTD Type: Not Thermister ‐ Must Have Insertion Test Ports! Must Have Insertion Test Ports! 63
  64. 64. Power Meters• Goal: +/‐ 0 1 kW (True kW) Goal: +/‐ 0.1 kW (True kW)• 3 Phase: Sum of 3 legs• Precision field meter required ‐ +/‐ $2 000 meter cost +/ $2,000 meter cost• Stable operation required 64
  65. 65. VFD Based Power• +/‐ 0.1 kW Accuracy Goal• Compare VFD Display with building BMS• Check for 0 0 KW when off Check for 0.0 KW when off  65
  66. 66. Data Acquisition• Capture Related Data Capture Related Data• Outside Air Temperature (All)• Cooling Plants ‐ OA Enthalpy OA Enthalpy ‐ CHWS Temperature ‐ Condenser Water Temperature d ‐ To Chiller 66
  67. 67. Correlate Related Data• Heating: BTUH vs Average Hourly OA Temp Heating: BTUH vs. Average Hourly OA Temp• Fans: kW/kCFM/HR vs. Average Hourly OA  Temp• Cooling Plant ‐ kW/Ton vs. Average Hourly Enthalpy ‐ kW/Ton vs. Average Hourly Condenser Temp 67
  68. 68. Data ManagementCentral PlantsCentral Plants• Data Frequency: Every Minute• Then 15 Minute Average• Then Hourly Average• Then Daily Average, etc... 68
  69. 69. Data Management• Too Much Data to Store Too Much Data to Store• Develop Average Data ‐ For Permanent Storage• Dump detailed data after +/‐ 90 Dump detailed data after +/ 90  days or so 69
  70. 70. Further Resources“The Building Performance Tracking The Building Performance Tracking  Handbook,” California Commissioning  Collaborative –  C ll b tiASHRAE Guideline 22‐2008 – “Instrumentation for Monitoring Central Instrumentation for Monitoring Central  Chilled‐Water Plant Efficiency” 70
  71. 71. Further ResourcesCBECS – Commercial Building Energy CBECS – Commercial Building Energy Consumption SurveyBenchmarking Building Energy Performance Benchmarking Building Energy Performance Oak Ridge National Laboratory – eber.ed.ornl  eber ed ornl 69
  72. 72. Questions? Thomas Anderson Thomas Anderson Emily Cross Emily Crosstom@cx‐ emily@cx‐ 802.861.2715 x11 802 861 2715 11 802.861.2715 x14 802 861 2715 14 Visit our blog at:‐ 110 Main Street 110 Main Street Studio 1B Burlington, VT  05401 802.861.2715 72