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The Devil’s Tumor
June 14, 2013
Carl Zimmer
Friday, June 14, 13
Disclosures
• I	
  have	
  no	
  conflicts	
  of	
  interest	
  to	
  disclose
Friday, June 14, 13
Causes of death in the United States, 2010
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6208a8.htm?s_cid=mm6208a8_w, http://...
Rick Eh/Flicker via Creative Commons http://www.flickr.com/photos/rick-in-rio
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
George von Dassow, University of Oregon http://www.cell.com/cell_picture_show-cellcycle
Friday, June 14, 13
x
Mutations that speed up growth
Friday, June 14, 13
x
x
x
x
Mutations that speed up growth
Friday, June 14, 13
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
xx
Mutations that speed up growth
Friday, June 14, 13
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
xx
x
xx
x
xx
x
xxx
xx
x
xx
x
xx
x
xx x
xx
x
xx
x
xx
x
xx
Mutations that speed up growth
Friday, June 14, 13
Prostate
cancer
cells
Friday, June 14, 13
Cancer Evolves
Charles Darwin
Friday, June 14, 13
Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175
Natural Selection
Friday, June 14, 13
Generation 1
Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175
Natural Selection
Friday, June 14, 13
Generation 1
Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175
X
X
Non-random
survival
X
X
Natural Selection
Friday, Jun...
Generation 1
Reproduction and mutation
Generation 2
Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175
X
X
Non-random
sur...
Generation 1
Reproduction and mutation
Generation 2
Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175
X
X
Non-random
sur...
Generation 1
Reproduction and mutation
Generation 2
Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175
X
X
Non-random
sur...
Generation 1
Reproduction and mutation
Generation 2
Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175
Many generations o...
Friday, June 14, 13
Ding, Li, et al. Nature 2012 481: 506-510
Friday, June 14, 13
Therapy Relapse
resistant
sub-clone
Aktipis & Nesse, 2013
Evolution:Why Chemotherapy Fails
Friday, June 14, 13
J. Baylor Roberts/National Geographic
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humphrey_Bogart
Friday, June 14, 13
img.photobucket.com/albums/v382/Matthoggua/Dimfuture/jackalope-1.jpg
Friday, June 14, 13
kuleuven.be/rega/mvr/research.html
Friday, June 14, 13
Papillomavirus
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
HeLa cells
Landry, Jonathan JM, et al. G3: Genes| Genomes| Genetics (2013)
Friday, June 14, 13
LeighVanValen
Van Valen LM, Maiorana VC 1991.
Hela, a new microbial species.
Evol. Theory 10: 71-74.
Friday, June 14, 13
HeLa cells
Friday, June 14, 13
Helacyton gartleri?
Friday, June 14, 13
Lactobacillus bulgaricus
van de Guchte et al, PNAS 2006 103:9274-9
Friday, June 14, 13
Glassy-winged sharpshooter (with residents)
Nancy Moran PNAS 2007 (104) Suppl 1 8627-8633
Friday, June 14, 13
http://www.tassiedevil.com.au
Friday, June 14, 13
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Taz-Looney_Tunes.svg
Friday, June 14, 13
Courtesy Kathy Belov
Friday, June 14, 13
tassiedevil.com.au
Devil’s Facial Tumor Disease
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
WhatYou’d Expect From
Normal Cancer...
Host DNA Tumor DNA
Friday, June 14, 13
WhatYou’d Expect From
Normal Cancer...
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
Murchison et al. Cell 2012 148: 780-791
Friday, June 14, 13
Tony Pappenfuss
Walter & Eliza Hall Institute
of Medical Research
Melbourne,Australia
Murchison et al Science. 2010 327:84...
www.tassiedevil.com.au
Friday, June 14, 13
Image: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MHC_expression.svg
See: Siddle et al, PNAS 2013 110:5103-8
Friday, June 14, 13
flickr.com/photos/australianshepherds/3212875937/
K. Belov, Bioessays. 2012 34:285-92, Rebbeck et al, Science. 2011 331:303...
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
Maria Island
Paul Benjamin, Flickr, Creative Commons http://www.flickr.com/photos/paul_benjamin
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
Ali and Lear, Journal of Skin Cancer 2012 doi:10.1155/2012/404615
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
See Magee et al, Cancer Cell 2012 3:283, & I. O'Neill Stem Cells 2011 29:1909-1914
Friday, June 14, 13
See Magee et al, Cancer Cell 2012 3:283, & I. O'Neill Stem Cells 2011 29:1909-1914
Friday, June 14, 13
X
X
See Magee et al, Cancer Cell 2012 3:283, & I. O'Neill Stem Cells 2011 29:1909-1914
Friday, June 14, 13
X
X X
X
See Magee et al, Cancer Cell 2012 3:283, & I. O'Neill Stem Cells 2011 29:1909-1914
Friday, June 14, 13
Gilbertson and Graham, Nature 2012 488, 462–463
Curing Cancer:All Cancer Cells Are Not Equal
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
Friday, June 14, 13
Thanks to Carlo Maley, Athena Aktipis,
Rebecca Skloot, Beata Ujvari, and Kathy Belov
For more information, please visit
ca...
Friday, June 14, 13
Opportunity for Somatic Evolution in a Human Lifetime
• Mutation rate:
• Point mutations: 10-11 – 10-7 bp/cell generation
...
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Zimmer cancer 2013 talk

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Transcript of "Zimmer cancer 2013 talk"

  1. 1. The Devil’s Tumor June 14, 2013 Carl Zimmer Friday, June 14, 13
  2. 2. Disclosures • I  have  no  conflicts  of  interest  to  disclose Friday, June 14, 13
  3. 3. Causes of death in the United States, 2010 http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6208a8.htm?s_cid=mm6208a8_w, http://who.int Worldwide, 7.8 million deaths from cancer each year (A San Francisco every month) Friday, June 14, 13
  4. 4. Rick Eh/Flicker via Creative Commons http://www.flickr.com/photos/rick-in-rio Friday, June 14, 13
  5. 5. Friday, June 14, 13
  6. 6. Friday, June 14, 13
  7. 7. Friday, June 14, 13
  8. 8. George von Dassow, University of Oregon http://www.cell.com/cell_picture_show-cellcycle Friday, June 14, 13
  9. 9. x Mutations that speed up growth Friday, June 14, 13
  10. 10. x x x x Mutations that speed up growth Friday, June 14, 13
  11. 11. x x x x x x x xx Mutations that speed up growth Friday, June 14, 13
  12. 12. x x x x x x x xx x xx x xx x xxx xx x xx x xx x xx x xx x xx x xx x xx Mutations that speed up growth Friday, June 14, 13
  13. 13. Prostate cancer cells Friday, June 14, 13
  14. 14. Cancer Evolves Charles Darwin Friday, June 14, 13
  15. 15. Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175 Natural Selection Friday, June 14, 13
  16. 16. Generation 1 Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175 Natural Selection Friday, June 14, 13
  17. 17. Generation 1 Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175 X X Non-random survival X X Natural Selection Friday, June 14, 13
  18. 18. Generation 1 Reproduction and mutation Generation 2 Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175 X X Non-random survival X X Natural Selection Friday, June 14, 13
  19. 19. Generation 1 Reproduction and mutation Generation 2 Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175 X X Non-random survival X X Non-random survival XXX X Natural Selection Friday, June 14, 13
  20. 20. Generation 1 Reproduction and mutation Generation 2 Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175 X X Non-random survival X X Generation 3 Reproduction and mutation Non-random survival XXX X Natural Selection Friday, June 14, 13
  21. 21. Generation 1 Reproduction and mutation Generation 2 Based on Gregory, Evo Edu Outreach (2009) 2:156–175 Many generations of mutation and natural selection Generation X X X Non-random survival X X Generation 3 Reproduction and mutation Non-random survival XXX X Natural Selection Friday, June 14, 13
  22. 22. Friday, June 14, 13
  23. 23. Ding, Li, et al. Nature 2012 481: 506-510 Friday, June 14, 13
  24. 24. Therapy Relapse resistant sub-clone Aktipis & Nesse, 2013 Evolution:Why Chemotherapy Fails Friday, June 14, 13
  25. 25. J. Baylor Roberts/National Geographic Friday, June 14, 13
  26. 26. Friday, June 14, 13
  27. 27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humphrey_Bogart Friday, June 14, 13
  28. 28. img.photobucket.com/albums/v382/Matthoggua/Dimfuture/jackalope-1.jpg Friday, June 14, 13
  29. 29. kuleuven.be/rega/mvr/research.html Friday, June 14, 13
  30. 30. Papillomavirus Friday, June 14, 13
  31. 31. Friday, June 14, 13
  32. 32. HeLa cells Landry, Jonathan JM, et al. G3: Genes| Genomes| Genetics (2013) Friday, June 14, 13
  33. 33. LeighVanValen Van Valen LM, Maiorana VC 1991. Hela, a new microbial species. Evol. Theory 10: 71-74. Friday, June 14, 13
  34. 34. HeLa cells Friday, June 14, 13
  35. 35. Helacyton gartleri? Friday, June 14, 13
  36. 36. Lactobacillus bulgaricus van de Guchte et al, PNAS 2006 103:9274-9 Friday, June 14, 13
  37. 37. Glassy-winged sharpshooter (with residents) Nancy Moran PNAS 2007 (104) Suppl 1 8627-8633 Friday, June 14, 13
  38. 38. http://www.tassiedevil.com.au Friday, June 14, 13
  39. 39. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Taz-Looney_Tunes.svg Friday, June 14, 13
  40. 40. Courtesy Kathy Belov Friday, June 14, 13
  41. 41. tassiedevil.com.au Devil’s Facial Tumor Disease Friday, June 14, 13
  42. 42. Friday, June 14, 13
  43. 43. Friday, June 14, 13
  44. 44. WhatYou’d Expect From Normal Cancer... Host DNA Tumor DNA Friday, June 14, 13
  45. 45. WhatYou’d Expect From Normal Cancer... Friday, June 14, 13
  46. 46. Friday, June 14, 13
  47. 47. Friday, June 14, 13
  48. 48. Friday, June 14, 13
  49. 49. Murchison et al. Cell 2012 148: 780-791 Friday, June 14, 13
  50. 50. Tony Pappenfuss Walter & Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research Melbourne,Australia Murchison et al Science. 2010 327:84-7 Friday, June 14, 13
  51. 51. www.tassiedevil.com.au Friday, June 14, 13
  52. 52. Image: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:MHC_expression.svg See: Siddle et al, PNAS 2013 110:5103-8 Friday, June 14, 13
  53. 53. flickr.com/photos/australianshepherds/3212875937/ K. Belov, Bioessays. 2012 34:285-92, Rebbeck et al, Science. 2011 331:303 Canine TransmissibleVenereal Tumor Friday, June 14, 13
  54. 54. Friday, June 14, 13
  55. 55. Friday, June 14, 13
  56. 56. Maria Island Paul Benjamin, Flickr, Creative Commons http://www.flickr.com/photos/paul_benjamin Friday, June 14, 13
  57. 57. Friday, June 14, 13
  58. 58. Ali and Lear, Journal of Skin Cancer 2012 doi:10.1155/2012/404615 Friday, June 14, 13
  59. 59. Friday, June 14, 13
  60. 60. Friday, June 14, 13
  61. 61. Friday, June 14, 13
  62. 62. See Magee et al, Cancer Cell 2012 3:283, & I. O'Neill Stem Cells 2011 29:1909-1914 Friday, June 14, 13
  63. 63. See Magee et al, Cancer Cell 2012 3:283, & I. O'Neill Stem Cells 2011 29:1909-1914 Friday, June 14, 13
  64. 64. X X See Magee et al, Cancer Cell 2012 3:283, & I. O'Neill Stem Cells 2011 29:1909-1914 Friday, June 14, 13
  65. 65. X X X X See Magee et al, Cancer Cell 2012 3:283, & I. O'Neill Stem Cells 2011 29:1909-1914 Friday, June 14, 13
  66. 66. Gilbertson and Graham, Nature 2012 488, 462–463 Curing Cancer:All Cancer Cells Are Not Equal Friday, June 14, 13
  67. 67. Friday, June 14, 13
  68. 68. Friday, June 14, 13
  69. 69. Thanks to Carlo Maley, Athena Aktipis, Rebecca Skloot, Beata Ujvari, and Kathy Belov For more information, please visit carlzimmer.com Friday, June 14, 13
  70. 70. Friday, June 14, 13
  71. 71. Opportunity for Somatic Evolution in a Human Lifetime • Mutation rate: • Point mutations: 10-11 – 10-7 bp/cell generation • Chromosomal abnormalities: 10-6 per cell generation • Methylation changes: ~10-3 per CpG/cell generation • Number of mutations detected: 101 – 105 • Generation time: 1 – 3 days • Time from initiation to malignancy: decades (3 – 60 years) • Number of generations: 102 – 104 • Population size: 109 – 1012 cells • Rate of clonal expansions: unknown More potential for evolution than the history of H. sapiens Note: uncertainty about all these parameters Friday, June 14, 13
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