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Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution
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Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution

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  1. Darwin in the City: How Civilization Drives Evolution Carl Zimmer Director’s Lecture Series The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University March 24, 2014
  2. Wikipedia Biston betularia
  3. Wikipedia Biston betularia
  4. Colliery John Wilson Carmichael - A View of Murton Colliery near Seaham, County Durham 1843
  5. H.B.D. Kettlewell
  6. “…Most creationists and most evolutionists are well aware by now of the fall of the evolutionist’s icon, the peppered moth, which for many years had adorned the pages of introductory biology textbooks as the prime example of ‘evolution in action.’ Its removal has also been accompanied by a sad exposure of the world of scientific academia as often a world of pettiness, inordinate rivalry, and tender egos, sometimes tempting to near-fraud in the ‘tweaking’ of reported results.”
  7. Naturally hidden Photo by Michael Majerus
  8. Naturally hidden Photo by Michael Majerus
  9. Cook L M et al. Biol. Lett. 2012;8:609-612
  10. Genetics: one mutation arises van t’Hof et al, Science 2011 The Dark-Moth Gene
  11. Over 100 British moth species with industrial melanic morphs Majerus, Evolution Education and Outreach 2008
  12. Cook, Quarterly Review of Biology 2003 Evolution in reverse
  13. Raven et al, Biology Fifth Edition Textbook Evolution
  14. Colliery John Wilson Carmichael - A View of Murton Colliery near Seaham, County Durham 1843
  15. Darwin saw human effects mostly in terms of dogs. George Stubbs (Yale Gallery of Art)
  16. Evolution beyond our time, deep time, or in nature From Zimmer, The Tangled Bank (2nd Ed.) Evolution Long Ago…
  17. Galapagos Islands (Daphne Minor) …And Evolution Far Away
  18. Darwin's finches
  19. Grants Peter and Rosemary Grant
  20. From Zimmer, The Tangled Bank (2nd Ed.)
  21. Gotham Galapagos? Wikipedia
  22. Peromyscus leucopus J.N. Stuart flic.kr/p/6wZdCe
  23. Actually, civilization is a global evolutionary force-- Changed the landscape
  24. Graph: nycevolution.org (Jason Munshi-South) Image Arthur Rackham via Wikipedia Signs of City Adaptation in Mice
  25. nycevolution.org (Jason Munshi-South)
  26. Munshi-South & Kharchenko. 2010. Mol. Ecol. 19:4242-54. City Parks As Mouse Islands
  27. The Origin of Species: HIV
  28. From Zimmer, TheTangled Bank (Second Edition)
  29. Where? From Zimmer, TheTangled Bank (Second Edition)
  30. Sharp & Hahn 2008, Nature.
  31. When? From Zimmer, TheTangled Bank (Second Edition)
  32. Tissues preserved in paraffin from Kinshasa hospitals, 1959
  33. Worobey et al, Nature. 2008 Oct 2;455(7213):661-4.
  34. early 1900s From Zimmer, TheTangled Bank (Second Edition)
  35. how? From Zimmer, TheTangled Bank (Second Edition)
  36. Sharp & Hahn 2008, Nature.
  37. Sharp & Hahn 2008, Nature. 1896 ca. 1955 Kinshasa (Leopoldville)
  38. Wikipedia Chemical Transformation
  39. Tau Zeta flic.kr/p/ahUMYD
  40. Corn bug Sarah Zukoff flic.kr/p/fCt4zt Corn Rootworm
  41. Gassmann et al PNAS 2014
  42. Todd Moon flic.kr/p/6o7zcD South Center Lake, Minnesota
  43. Frisch et al, Ecology Letters 2013 Resurrecting water fleas
  44. Wikipedia Predators with machines
  45. From Zimmer, The Tangled Bank (2nd Ed.)
  46. Wikipedia
  47. From Zimmer, The Tangled Bank (2nd Ed.)
  48. The Evolution of Invaders
  49. Jason Hollinger flic.kr/p/2xV7mw Knotweed! Polygonum cespitosum
  50. Sultan et al, Evolutionary Applications 2013 6:266 2005 seeds 1994 seeds
  51. Natural Human-drivenNatural Adapted from Hendry et al Molecular Ecology 2008 17:20
  52. Adapted from Hendry et al Molecular Ecology 2008 17:20 Natural Human-drivenNatural Human-dominated
  53. anthrome 1700 ecotope.org
  54. ecotope.org
  55. skepticalscience.com/graphics.php?g=10
  56. Adapted to cold…
  57. Adapted to heat?
  58. Freeze-sensitive wild thyme is becoming more common in France (Thompson et al PNAS 2013 110:2893)
  59. Sekercioglu,et al 2008. Conservation Biology 220:140
  60. Ordovician 443 million years ago 86% of all species extinct Devonian 359 million years ago 75% Permian 251 million years ago 96% Triassic 200 million years ago 80% Cretaceous 65 million years ago 76% Anthropocene? Now? ??? Barnosky et al, Nature 2011 The Sixth Mass Extinction?
  61. Cook, Quarterly Review of Biology 2003 Evolution in reverse
  62. Thank you For more information, please visit carlzimmer.com
  63. The World Is Human-Dominated, But Scientists Are Missing It Martin et al., Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2012 10: 195–201
  64. Salamanders by the roadside
  65. Birds by the roadside: behavior
  66. Humans being shaped by our own evolution
  67. FIGURE 6.24 Humans domesticated cattle in both East Africa (left) and Northern Europe (right) several thousand years ago • In both places, mutations arose that enabled humans to digest milk as adults • These mutations spread rapidly because they raised fitness
  68. Masai
  69. German cowherd
  70. linkage dis
  71. Mosquito
  72. Altitude, farming, disease
  73. Mosquito graph
  74. Penicillin
  75. Figure 1. Brown & Brown (2013). Source: Current Biology , Volume 23, Issue 6, Pages R233-R234 (DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2013.02.023) Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd Terms and Conditions (Charles Brown, Mary B. Brown / Current Biology)
  76. Beyond landscape: chemical transformation
  77. antibiotics

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