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Ch14 forceandmotionsection2

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Motion and Force
    • Chapter Twelve: Distance, Time, and Speed
    • Chapter Thirteen: Forces
    • Chapter Fourteen: Force and Motion
  • 3. Chapter Fourteen: Force and Motion
    • 14.1 Newton’s First and Third Laws
    • 14.2 Newton’s Second Law
  • 4. Investigation 14B
    • What is the relationship between force and motion?
    Newton’s Second Law
  • 5. 14.2 Newton’s Second Law
    • Acceleration is the rate at which your velocity (speed with direction) changes.
  • 6. 14.2 Acceleration
    • A car can change its velocity by speeding up, slowing down, or turning.
    • If an object’s acceleration is zero , the object could be moving at a constant speed in a straight line or could be stopped.
  • 7.
    • To calculate acceleration, you divide the change in speed by the amount of time it takes for the change to happen.
  • 8.  
  • 9. 14.2 Acceleration
    • If an object speeds up, it has a positive acceleration.
    • If it slows down, it has a negative acceleration.
    What is the acceleration of the sailboat?
  • 10. 14.2 Force, mass and acceleration
    • Force causes acceleration, and mass resists acceleration.
    • Newton’s second law relates the force on an object, the mass of the object, and its acceleration.
    • Force causes acceleration, and mass resists acceleration.
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • The stronger the force on an object, the greater its acceleration.
      • Force is directly proportional to acceleration.
      • If twice the force is applied, the acceleration is twice as great.
  • 13.
    • The greater the mass, the smaller the acceleration for a given force.
      • Mass is inversely related to force.
      • An object with twice the mass will have half the acceleration if the same force is applied.
  • 14. 14.2 Applying the second law
    • Keep the following important ideas in mind:
      • 1. The net force is what causes acceleration.
      • 2. If there is no acceleration, the net force must be zero.
      • 3. If there is acceleration, there must also be a net force.
      • 4. The force unit of newtons is based on kilograms, meters, and seconds
  • 15. 14.2 Newton’s second law and gravity
    • Gravitational force exists between all objects that have mass.
    • An object is in free fall if it is accelerating due to the force of gravity and no other forces are acting on it.
    • Objects in free fall on Earth accelerate downward at 9.8 m/s2, the acceleration due to gravity .
  • 16. 14.2 Newton’s second law and gravity
    • An object is in free fall if it is accelerating due to the force of gravity and no other forces are acting on it.
    • Objects in free fall on Earth accelerate downward at 9.8 m/s2, the acceleration due to gravity .
  • 17.  
  • 18. 14.2 Universal gravitation
    • Gravitational force exists between all objects that have mass.
    • You do not notice gravity between ordinary objects because it takes a huge amount of mass to create enough force to notice.
  • 19. 14.2 Universal gravitation
    • The force of gravity between you and Earth is strong because the planet’s mass is huge.
    • Newton’s law of universal gravitation says the strength of the force depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them.
  • 20. 14.2 Orbital motion
    • Newton’s second law can be used to explain the motion of planets, moons, and satellites in orbit.
    • The orbiting moon falls around Earth.
    Can you kick a soccer ball into orbit? Can we launch a soccer ball into orbit?
  • 21. Activity
    • Newton’s three laws can be used to explain the motion of everyday objects.
    • In this activity you will build a car and apply Newton’s laws to explain how it works and why it moves as it does.
    Making a Spool Car