TAXONOMY AND SPECIES DIVERSITY OF POTATO CROP WILD RELATIVES                               Expert consultation workshop   ...
GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF       THE POTATOWILDCULTIVATED   DISTRIBUCION GEOGRAFICA DE LA PAPA
Geographic distribution of Solanum sectionPetota, wild.                                                      Most of the 1...
SPECIES NUMBER OF WILD POTATO BY    COUNTRIES AND ENDEMISM                                                                ...
Solanum Sección Petota: Series, Species and Ploidy acl                       crc             blb cmm                      ...
SERIES: ACAULIA Juzepczuk. (ACA) I. SERIES: ACAULIA Juzepczuk.     (ACA) i) Tetraploid (2n=4x=48) 1. S. acaule Bitter 1913...
SERIES: ACAULIA Juzepczuk. (ACA)
SERIES: CONICIBACCATA Bitter. (CON)
SERIES: CONICIBACCATA Bitter. (CON)
SERIES: PIURANA Hawkes. (PIU)
XIV. SERIES: PIURANA Hawkes.2011
SERIES: MEGISTACROLOBA Cárdenas y Hawkes. (MEG)2011
SERIES: MEGISTACROLOBA Cárdenas y Hawkes. (MEG)
SERIES: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB)
SERIES: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB)
SERIES: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB)
SERIES: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB)
SERIES: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB)
SPECIES PHYLOGENY                                                         Elaborated by Alberto Salas (2007)              ...
DISTRIBUTION OF THE DIVERSITY OF        NATIVE POTATOES                                   Geographically, the total croppi...
SERIE: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB)
SERIE: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB)   N.n.:         E. Papa; Q. Papa, Acchu; A. Chocce       The potato is produced at p...
SERIE: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB) Diversity of native cultivatated potatoes
C3 S. phureja Juz. et. Buk.                                                        Geographic                             ...
C3 S. phureja Juz. et. Buk.   C3 S. phureja           a.  var. phureja               •  f. viuda           b.  var. caerul...
C4 S. stenotomum Juz. et. Buk.                                                        Geographic                          ...
C4 S. stenotomum Juz. et. Buk.    C4 S. stenotomum         a.      var. stenotomum               •  f. alkka-phinu        ...
C5 S. xchaucha Juz. et. Buk.                                                                                 Geographic   ...
C5 S. xchaucha Juz. et. Buk.    C5 S. chaucha            a.  var. ccati            b.  var. ccoe sullu            c.  var....
C6 S. xjuzepczukii Buk.                                                      Geographic                                   ...
C6 S. xjuzepczukii Buk. C6 S. juzepczukii     a.    var. ckaisalla             •  f. ck’oyu-ckaisalla             •  f. ja...
C7 S. tuberosum L.                                                                   Geographic                           ...
C7a S. tuberosum ssp. andigenaC7a S. tuberosum ssp. Andigena (Juz et. Buk.) Hawkes    a.    var. chiar imilla           • ...
C7a S. tuberosum ssp. andigenaC7a S. tuberosum ssp. Andigena (Juz et. Buk.) Hawkes    d.     var. aymaranum          •    ...
C7a S. tuberosum ssp. andigena  C7a S. tuberosum ssp. Andigena (Juz et. Buk.) Hawkes       g.    var. sicha       h.    va...
EVALUATION OF GERMPLASM
PVY
PLRV
RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL WILT
RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL WILT
RESISTANCE TO LATE BLIGTH “RANCHA”  S. cajamarquense                                                                      ...
RESISTANCE TO LATE BLIGTH “RANCHA”
Potato moth
Andean weevil
Abiotic factors : Drought (sequía)
Frost Solanum acaule Bitter   acl
Resistance to factors: abiotic and biotic
¡GRACIAS!Asistentes     F. Vargas     O. Chávez     O. Gaspar     W. Rodríguez     E. Velasquez     C. García     V. Quisp...
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Alberto Salas' presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato

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The expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato was a workshop organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust in collaboration with CIP and took place from the 22nd – 24th of February 2012.

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Transcript of "Alberto Salas' presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato"

  1. 1. TAXONOMY AND SPECIES DIVERSITY OF POTATO CROP WILD RELATIVES Expert consultation workshop on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato February, 2012 A. Salas, V. Quispe, O. Chavez y J. van Beem Centro Internacional de la Papa (CIP) Av. La Molina 1895 Apartado Postal 1558 Lima 12
  2. 2. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF THE POTATOWILDCULTIVATED DISTRIBUCION GEOGRAFICA DE LA PAPA
  3. 3. Geographic distribution of Solanum sectionPetota, wild. Most of the 187 wild potato species are rare and endemic species. They occur between 38 ° N and 41 ° S, with more species in the Southern Hemisphere. The highest species richness occurs in northern Argentina, central Bolivia, central Ecuador, central Mexico and Peru. Wild potatoes grow from sea level to 4400 m, but more often at altitudes of 2000 and 4000 m. La mayoría de las 187 especies de papas silvestres son raras y endémicas. Habitan entre 38 °N y 41 °S, con más especies en el hemisferio meridional. La mayor riqueza de especies ocurre al norte de Argentina, centro de Bolivia, centro del Ecuador, centro de México y Perú. Las papas silvestres crecen desde el nivel del mar hasta 4400 msnm, pero con mayor frecuencia entre altitudes de 2000 y 4000 msnm. Juarez H. CIP (2007)
  4. 4. SPECIES NUMBER OF WILD POTATO BY COUNTRIES AND ENDEMISM Pais NE EE Peru Per 91 83 Mexico Mex 36 29 Bolivia Bol 33 16 100 Argentina Arg 24 11 Ecuador Ecu 16 9 Colombia Col 13 9 90 Chile Chi 3 2 Brasil Bra 3 1 80 Guatemala Gua 4 0 Venezuela Ven 3 1 70 Panama Pan 2 1 USA USA 3 0 No de especies 60 Costa Rica Ctr 1 1 Honduras Hon 2 0 50 Paraguay Par 2 0 Ury Uruguay Ury 2 0 Par Hon Ctr 40 USA Pan Ven 30 Gua Bra Chi 20 Col Ecu 10 Arg Bol 0 Mex Per NE EE
  5. 5. Solanum Sección Petota: Series, Species and Ploidy acl crc blb cmm lgl chm iop mga pur olm yun A. Salas 2010
  6. 6. SERIES: ACAULIA Juzepczuk. (ACA) I. SERIES: ACAULIA Juzepczuk. (ACA) i) Tetraploid (2n=4x=48) 1. S. acaule Bitter 1913 1.1 S. acaule f. incuyo Ochoa 1994 ii) Hexaploid (2n=6x=72) 2. S. albicans Ochoa 1983 3. S. demissum Lindley 18482011
  7. 7. SERIES: ACAULIA Juzepczuk. (ACA)
  8. 8. SERIES: CONICIBACCATA Bitter. (CON)
  9. 9. SERIES: CONICIBACCATA Bitter. (CON)
  10. 10. SERIES: PIURANA Hawkes. (PIU)
  11. 11. XIV. SERIES: PIURANA Hawkes.2011
  12. 12. SERIES: MEGISTACROLOBA Cárdenas y Hawkes. (MEG)2011
  13. 13. SERIES: MEGISTACROLOBA Cárdenas y Hawkes. (MEG)
  14. 14. SERIES: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB)
  15. 15. SERIES: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB)
  16. 16. SERIES: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB)
  17. 17. SERIES: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB)
  18. 18. SERIES: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB)
  19. 19. SPECIES PHYLOGENY Elaborated by Alberto Salas (2007) S. bukasovii S. goniocalyx S. phureja2x S. sparsipilum S. Stenotomum S. megistacrolobum 2x S. chacoense S. tarijense S. leptophyes Gametos no S. ajanhuiri reducidos3x S. chaucha S. juzepczukii 3x Introgresión y adaptación S. tuberosum ssp. andigena S. acaule4x 4x S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum5x S. curtilobum 5x
  20. 20. DISTRIBUTION OF THE DIVERSITY OF NATIVE POTATOES Geographically, the total cropping area of native cultivated potatoes is very large, stretching from Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina to Chile. Within this large area local farmers grow the crop that has different chromosome numbers (2x, 3x, 4x y 5x). However, the highest concentration of these polyploids and morphological forms occur in the Lake Titicaca area (Meseta del Collao) in northern Bolivia and southern Peru. This area contains the highest concentration of landraces and is considered the primary center of origin. Geográficamente, el área total de siembra de las papas cultivadas nativas es muy grande, se extiende Especies de desde Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, Papas nativas Argentina y Chile. Dentro de esta gran área crecen poblaciones locales de este cultivo que tienen diferentes número cromosómicos (2x, 3x, 4x y 5x) . Sin embargo, la mayor concentración de estos citomorfismos y formas morfológicas se da en los terrenos lacustres del Lago Titicaca (Meseta del Collao) norte de Bolivia y sur del Perú. Aquí se encuentran más variedades de papa que en otras partes del mundo. Considerándose el centro de origen primario.
  21. 21. SERIE: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB)
  22. 22. SERIE: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB) N.n.: E. Papa; Q. Papa, Acchu; A. Chocce The potato is produced at present in 143 countries, and is a staple food for hundreds of millions of people. According to FAO, potato is the worlds fourth major food crops after wheat, maize and rice. La papa se produce en la actualidad en 143 países, y alimenta diariamente a cientos de millones de personas. De acuerdo a la (FAO), de los cultivos alimenticios principales del mundo la papa es el cuarto después del trigo, maíz y el arroz.
  23. 23. SERIE: TUBEROSA (Rybd.) Hawkes. (TUB) Diversity of native cultivatated potatoes
  24. 24. C3 S. phureja Juz. et. Buk. Geographic Distribution Genetic origin : S. stenotomum The greatest variability is found in the valleys and flanks of the Cordillera Oriental of the Andes, between 2700 and 3600 m altitude (Ochoa, 1958) from the central part of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and southern Venezuela.. TYPE: Department La Paz Prov. Larecaja, Sorata [2700 msnm], Juzepczuk 1654, 1655, 1685, 1801, 1810, 1813, 1815 (WIR)
  25. 25. C3 S. phureja Juz. et. Buk. C3 S. phureja a.  var. phureja •  f. viuda b.  var. caeruleus c.  var. sanguineus •  f. puina d.  var. erlansonii e.  var. flavum •  f. sayhuanimayo f.  var. jancko- phureja •  f. timusi g.  var. macmillanii h.  var. quearanum i.  var. ruber-rosea •  f. orbiculata
  26. 26. C4 S. stenotomum Juz. et. Buk. Geographic Distribution Genetic origin : S. stenotomum The greatest variability is found in the valleys and flanks of the Cordillera Oriental of the Andes, between 2700 and 3600 m altitude (Ochoa, 1958) from the central part of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and southern Venezuela.. TYPE: Department La Paz Prov. Larecaja, Sorata [2700 msnm], Juzepczuk 1654, 1655, 1685, 1801, 1810, 1813, 1815 (WIR)
  27. 27. C4 S. stenotomum Juz. et. Buk. C4 S. stenotomum a.  var. stenotomum •  f. alkka-phinu •  f. anahuaya-culi •  f. chiar-phinu •  f. patajes •  f. pulo-wayk’u b.  var. ari-chuwa c.  var. ccami d.  var. chaquina e.  var. chojllu •  f. janck o-chojllu •  f. wila-chojluu f.  var. luru g.  var. pitiquina •  f. alkka-pitiquina •  f. azul-ccati •  f. ch’asca •  f. laram •  f. phiti-kalla •  f. quime h.  var. zapallo •  f. churipuya •  f. kkarachipampa
  28. 28. C5 S. xchaucha Juz. et. Buk. Geographic Distribution Genetic origin: S. stenotomum x S. tuberosum subs. andigena This species is cultivated in the Andean region, from the paramos of Colombia and Ecuador to Andean valleys with Jalca formations from the north of Peru and the Puna y Prepuna to south of Peru and Bolivia (2500 y 3800 msnm). The genetic viability found S. xchaucha is more than in S. xajanhuiri, S.juzepczukii y S.xcurtilobum. Morphotypes: Piña, Lomo , Ccoesullu, Wayru TYPE: BOLIVIA. [Department la Paz, Prov. Murillo], La Paz; .juzepczuk 1658 (WIR no visto). PERU. [Department and Province of Cusco], San Jerónimo, [cerca] Cusco, n.v. Chaucha; Juzepczuk 110 (WIR).
  29. 29. C5 S. xchaucha Juz. et. Buk. C5 S. chaucha a.  var. ccati b.  var. ccoe sullu c.  var. kkoyllu d.  var. pina •  f. chulluco e.  var. puca-situ •  f. solimana f.  var. surimana •  f. ccoyo •  f. tamatta •  f. chiar-surimana
  30. 30. C6 S. xjuzepczukii Buk. Geographic Distribution Is cultivated from the Ancash department of Peru to Jujuy in northern Argentina. However, the Peruvian- Bolivian altiplano and the entire basin of Lake Titicaca is where the highest concentration of this species is found (3400 - 4100 m). Main raw material for the production of potato starch. TYPE: PERU. Department Cusco, Province Acomayo, Pomacanchi, n.v. Orcco-Malcco; Juzepczuk 1166(WIR). BOLIVIA. Depart. La Paz, Province Ingavi,Tiahuanaco, n.v. Luqui; Juzepczuk 1641 (WIR).
  31. 31. C6 S. xjuzepczukii Buk. C6 S. juzepczukii a.  var. ckaisalla •  f. ck’oyu-ckaisalla •  f. jancko-ckaisalla •  f. wila-ckaisalla b.  var. lucki •  f. lucki-pechuma •  f. lucki-pinkula •  S. juzepczukii var. parco c.  var. rosea d.  var. sisu •  f. janck’o-sisu
  32. 32. C7 S. tuberosum L. Geographic DistributionHas the widest geographical distributioncompared to other species of cultivatedpotato, occurs between 2500 – 4000 m ofthe Andean region, from northwesternArgentina, Puna and Prepuna of Bolivia, TYPE:center and south of Peru, Jalcas and the PERU. Department Pasco,Paramos and Subparamos of Ecuador, Province Daniel A. CarriónColombia and Venezuela. [Prov. Pasco], up toHuariaca, 3600 msnm., C. Ochoa 36 (JGH, OCH)
  33. 33. C7a S. tuberosum ssp. andigenaC7a S. tuberosum ssp. Andigena (Juz et. Buk.) Hawkes a.  var. chiar imilla •  f. nigrum •  f. sani-imilla •  f. isla-imilla •  f. ccompis •  f. jancko-imilla •  f. jancko-chockella •  f. alkka-imilla •  f. wila-imilla •  f. wila-monda b.  var. bolivianum •  f. chiar-pala •  f. janck o-pala •  f. wila-pala c.  var. longibaccatum f. cevallosii f. pallidum f. chojo-sajampa
  34. 34. C7a S. tuberosum ssp. andigenaC7a S. tuberosum ssp. Andigena (Juz et. Buk.) Hawkes d.  var. aymaranum •  f. huaca-lajra •  f. amajaya •  f. huaca-zapato •  f. kunurana •  f. overita •  f. surico •  f. tinguipaya •  f. wila-huaycku •  f. janck o-kkoyllu •  f. milagro •  f. huichinkka e.  var. lelekkoya •  f. laram-lelekkoya •  f. chiar-lelekkoya f.  var. runa •  f. azul-runa •  f. abajena
  35. 35. C7a S. tuberosum ssp. andigena C7a S. tuberosum ssp. Andigena (Juz et. Buk.) Hawkes g.  var. sicha h.  var. sipancachi i.  var. stenophylum •  f. wila-k oyo •  f. pulo j.  var. muru-kewillu k.  var. taraco •  f. yurac-taraco •  f. alakka-silla l.  var. qhuchi-aca •  f. qhuchi-chupa m.  Natural-Ocurring Forms
  36. 36. EVALUATION OF GERMPLASM
  37. 37. PVY
  38. 38. PLRV
  39. 39. RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL WILT
  40. 40. RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL WILT
  41. 41. RESISTANCE TO LATE BLIGTH “RANCHA” S. cajamarquense San Juan, Cajamarca-Perú Contumaza, Cajamarca - Perú • Latitude: 07º 16’ (S) • Longitude: 78º 29’ (O) • Height: 3 130 m HISTOGRAMA DE PRECIPITACION PARA LA ESTACION CHOTEN 160 140 PRECIPITACION (mm) 120 100 80 Precipitación 60 40 20 0 Noviembre Junio Julio Enero Febrero Marzo Mayo Octubre Agosto Setiembre Diciembre Abril MESES
  42. 42. RESISTANCE TO LATE BLIGTH “RANCHA”
  43. 43. Potato moth
  44. 44. Andean weevil
  45. 45. Abiotic factors : Drought (sequía)
  46. 46. Frost Solanum acaule Bitter acl
  47. 47. Resistance to factors: abiotic and biotic
  48. 48. ¡GRACIAS!Asistentes F. Vargas O. Chávez O. Gaspar W. Rodríguez E. Velasquez C. García V. Quispe G. HuamánColaboradores: C. Chuquillanqui H. Juárez F. Plasencia G. Muller J. Alcazar V. Cañedo

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