Taxonomic and nomenclatural      challenges…….
Solanaceae – much more thanjust potatoes and tomatoes•    91 genera•    ca. 3000-4000 species•    Solanum                 ...
IDENTIFICATIONPHYLOGENY   DESCRIPTION
Schwenkia clade                                Schizanthus                                Duckeodendron                   ...
N. exigua                                 Alatae N. sylvestris                                      N. cavicola           ...
N. exigua                                 Alatae N. sylvestris                                      N. cavicola           ...
Spooner et al. (2007) PNAS 104: 19398.
100% support
Solanum melongena, Solanumaethiopicum, Solanum quitoense,Solanum sessiflorum, SolanumlasiocarpumSolanum betaceumSolanum sc...
•  If you do  not know the  names of  things, the  knowledge  of them is  lost too.Carl LinnaeusPhilosophia Botanica (1751)
A species is ahypothesisabout thedistribution ofvariation innature
Solanum peruvianum s.l.•    Solanum peruvianum s.s. - coastal•    Solanum corneliomulleri - mountains•    Solanum huaylase...
Solanum incanum               Solanum melongena= ancestral ecotypes Africa   = cultivated ecotypes Asia                   ...
AD 1069 (North Song Dynasty)   AD 1590 (Ming Dynasty)
Solanum incanum               Solanum melongena= ancestral ecotypes Africa   = cultivated ecotypes Asia                   ...
The problem…….•    Ploidy levels•    Morphological variability•    Names as classification•    Botanical names for indigen...
© D.L. Nickrent
Vavilov s law of homologous series•  Linnaean species as “a definite,   discrete dynamic system   differentiated into geog...
Solanum andigenum                    Subspecies – defined                    geographically or type                    Var...
Names as classification•  Solanum andigenum Juz. & Bukasov   subsp. ayapapa Bukasov & Lechn. var.   bolivianum Bukasov & L...
Botanical names for cultivars •  Solanum phureja Juz. & Bukasov var.    janckophureja Ochoa •  Solanum stenotomum Juz. & B...
Names for cultivated potatoes•  602 basionyms•  Slightly more than half of these not validly   published•  Many homonyms• ...
The cultivated potatoes•  Solanum ajanhuiri Juz. & Bukasov  –  2x hybrid between S. tuberosum 2x and S. boliviense•  Solan...
Schwenkia clade                                Schizanthus                                Duckeodendron                   ...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding...
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Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato

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The expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato was a workshop organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust in collaboration with CIP and took place from the 22nd – 24th of February 2012.

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Sandra Knapp's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato

  1. 1. Taxonomic and nomenclatural challenges…….
  2. 2. Solanaceae – much more thanjust potatoes and tomatoes•  91 genera•  ca. 3000-4000 species•  Solanum ca. 1500 spp.•  Cestrum, Lycianthes ca. 200 spp.•  Nolana, Jaltomata ca. 80 spp.•  Physalis, Lycium ca. 75 spp.•  Nicotiana ca. 70 spp.•  Brunfelsia ca. 45 spp.
  3. 3. IDENTIFICATIONPHYLOGENY DESCRIPTION
  4. 4. Schwenkia clade Schizanthus Duckeodendron Goetzea clade Petunia clade Salpiglossis clade Browallia clade Cestrum clade Anthocercis clade Nicotiana Hyoscyamus clade Jaborosa Lycium clade Nolana Nicandra clade Datura clade Solanum clade Solandra clade Mandragora Capsicum clade Salpichroa clade Withania cladePhylogeny of the Solanaceae Iochroma clade– after Olmstead et al., 2008 Physalis clade
  5. 5. N. exigua Alatae N. sylvestris N. cavicola N. tabacum 100 Repandae N. benthamiana N. stocktonii N. amplexicaulis N. repanda 69 Suaveolentes N. rotundifolia Nudicaules N. nudicaulis 99 53 N. debneyi N. linearis Acuminatae N. simulans N. attenuata 63 82 65 N. megalosiphon N. miersii N. umbratica N. bonariensis N. fragrans N. langsdorffii 82 N. longiflora N. alata Alatae Alatae 100 N. plumbaginifolia N. longifloraITS 80 71 N. bonariensis N. alata N. plumbaginifolia N. forgetiana 62 N. langsdorffii N. exigua N. forgetiana N. amplexicaulis 86 matK Repandae N. stocktonii N. megalosiphon 100 N. repanda N. cavicola Suaveolentes N. nudicaulis Nudicaules N. umbratica 61 N. sylvestris Alatae N. rotundifolia Acuminatae N. quadrivalvis N. simulans 70 N. miersii N. benthamiana 81 90 N. attenuata N. debneyi N. acaulis N. fragrans Noctiflorae N. glauca N. acaulis 78 Noctiflorae 72 N. noctiflora N. petunioides 56 100 N. petunioides N. noctiflora 69 N. linearis 64 71 N. glauca N. glutinosa Tomentosae Tomentosae N. glutinosa 80 N. undulata Undulatae Undulatae N. undulata 81 N. benavidesii N. benavidesii 53 Paniculatae N. knightiana N. knightiana Paniculatae 75 76 62 N. rustica N. paniculata 60 64 62 N. paniculata 100 N. rustica 56 92 N. solanifolia N. solanifolia N. obtusifolia Trigonophyllae N. quadrivalis N .tabacum Trigonophyllae N. obtusifolia Tomentosae 100 Tomentosae N. otophora N. otophora 95 N. tomentosa N. tomentosa 61
  6. 6. N. exigua Alatae N. sylvestris N. cavicola N. tabacum 100 Repandae N. benthamiana N. stocktonii N. amplexicaulis N. repanda 69 Suaveolentes N. rotundifolia Nudicaules N. nudicaulis 99 53 N. debneyi N. linearis Acuminatae N. simulans N. attenuata 63 82 65 N. megalosiphon N. miersii N. umbratica N. bonariensis N. fragrans N. langsdorffii 82 N. longiflora N. alata Alatae Alatae 100 N. plumbaginifolia N. longifloraITS 80 71 N. bonariensis N. alata N. plumbaginifolia N. forgetiana 62 N. langsdorffii N. exigua N. forgetiana N. amplexicaulis 86 matK Repandae N. stocktonii N. megalosiphon 100 N. repanda N. cavicola Suaveolentes N. nudicaulis Nudicaules N. umbratica 61 N. sylvestris Alatae N. rotundifolia Acuminatae N. quadrivalvis N. simulans 70 N. miersii N. benthamiana 81 90 N. attenuata N. debneyi N. acaulis N. fragrans Noctiflorae N. glauca N. acaulis 78 Noctiflorae 72 N. noctiflora N. petunioides 56 100 N. petunioides N. noctiflora 69 N. linearis 64 71 N. glauca N. glutinosa Tomentosae Tomentosae N. glutinosa 80 N. undulata Undulatae Undulatae N. undulata 81 N. benavidesii N. benavidesii 53 Paniculatae N. knightiana N. knightiana Paniculatae 75 76 62 N. rustica N. paniculata 60 64 62 N. paniculata 100 N. rustica 56 92 N. solanifolia N. solanifolia N. obtusifolia Trigonophyllae N. quadrivalis N .tabacum Trigonophyllae N. obtusifolia Tomentosae 100 Tomentosae N. otophora N. otophora 95 N. tomentosa N. tomentosa 61
  7. 7. Spooner et al. (2007) PNAS 104: 19398.
  8. 8. 100% support
  9. 9. Solanum melongena, Solanumaethiopicum, Solanum quitoense,Solanum sessiflorum, SolanumlasiocarpumSolanum betaceumSolanum scabrumSolanum lycopersicum, Solanumtuberosum, Solanum muricatumSolanum aviculare
  10. 10. •  If you do not know the names of things, the knowledge of them is lost too.Carl LinnaeusPhilosophia Botanica (1751)
  11. 11. A species is ahypothesisabout thedistribution ofvariation innature
  12. 12. Solanum peruvianum s.l.•  Solanum peruvianum s.s. - coastal•  Solanum corneliomulleri - mountains•  Solanum huaylasense - Santa valley•  Solanum arcanum - Marañon valley ?
  13. 13. Solanum incanum Solanum melongena= ancestral ecotypes Africa = cultivated ecotypes Asia Daunay, Lester & Ano 2001
  14. 14. AD 1069 (North Song Dynasty) AD 1590 (Ming Dynasty)
  15. 15. Solanum incanum Solanum melongena= ancestral ecotypes Africa = cultivated ecotypes Asia Daunay, Lester & Ano 2001
  16. 16. The problem…….•  Ploidy levels•  Morphological variability•  Names as classification•  Botanical names for indigenous cultivars
  17. 17. © D.L. Nickrent
  18. 18. Vavilov s law of homologous series•  Linnaean species as “a definite, discrete dynamic system differentiated into geographical and ecological types and comprising sometimes an enormous number of varieties”
  19. 19. Solanum andigenum Subspecies – defined geographically or type Varieties/convarieties –geographically or type ( cultivar ) Forms – morphological or type ( cultivar
  20. 20. Names as classification•  Solanum andigenum Juz. & Bukasov subsp. ayapapa Bukasov & Lechn. var. bolivianum Bukasov & Lechn. forma magnicorollatum Bukasov & Lechn.•  Solanum andigenum Juz. & Bukasov subsp. colombianum (Bukasov) Lechn. var. caiceda (Bukasov) Lechn. forma viridulum Lechn.
  21. 21. Botanical names for cultivars •  Solanum phureja Juz. & Bukasov var. janckophureja Ochoa •  Solanum stenotomum Juz. & Bukasov forma chiarckati Ochoa •  Solanum stenotomum Juz. & Bukasov forma azureockati Ochoa •  Solanum tuberosum L. forma janckochockella Ochoa
  22. 22. Names for cultivated potatoes•  602 basionyms•  Slightly more than half of these not validly published•  Many homonyms•  Many lack type specimens
  23. 23. The cultivated potatoes•  Solanum ajanhuiri Juz. & Bukasov –  2x hybrid between S. tuberosum 2x and S. boliviense•  Solanum curtilobum Juz. & Bukasov –  5x hybrid between S. juzepzcukii and S. tuberosum 4x•  Solanum juzepzcukii Bukasov –  3x hybrid between S. acaule and S. tuberosum 2x•  Solanum tuberosum L. –  Many ploidy levels – 2x, 3x, 4x –  Andigenum Group – Andean cultivars –  Tuberosum Group – Chilean cultivars
  24. 24. Schwenkia clade Schizanthus Duckeodendron Goetzea clade Petunia clade Salpiglossis clade Browallia clade Cestrum clade Anthocercis clade Nicotiana Hyoscyamus clade Jaborosa Lycium clade Nolana Nicandra clade Datura clade Solanum clade Solandra clade Mandragora Capsicum clade Salpichroa clade Withania cladePhylogeny of the Solanaceae Iochroma clade– after Olmstead et al., 2008 Physalis clade

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