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Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato
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Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska's presentation in the framework of the expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato

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The expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato was a workshop organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust in collaboration with CIP and took place from the 22nd …

The expert consultation on the use of crop wild relatives for pre-breeding in potato was a workshop organized by the Global Crop Diversity Trust in collaboration with CIP and took place from the 22nd – 24th of February 2012.

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  • 1. Prebreeding for potato cultivars improvement Ewa Zimnoch-Guzowska IHAR-PIB, Młochów Research Center,Department of Potato Genetics & Parental Lines, Poland
  • 2. Department of Potato Genetics & Parental lines Research Center Młochów,IHAR • Staff: ∑ 54 Laboratories of: •Genetics •Breeding Methodology •Biotechnology •Virology •Phytopathology• Greenhouses 1600 m2•11 climatic chambers• in vitro utilities• Potato storages
  • 3. 4 experimental fields - 8 ha in total
  • 4. Average yields of potato in Poland (t/ha) in 1996-2010 Late blight drought 25 20tons/ha 15 10 5 0 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
  • 5. Size of potato fields in Poland and their input in potato acreage (%) >5 ha 9% <1 ha 1-5 ha 50% 41%
  • 6. Traits important in potato breeding Table potato chips French fries Starch potato Agronomic traits: yield, tuber morphology, starch content, starch yield, earliness, tuber defects, secondary growth,.. Tuber quality traits: culinary value (taste, texture, smell), skin & flesh color, discoloration of fresh and cooked flesh, chipping quality (RS content), TGA, tuber greening, darkening after mechanical damageResistance to pathogens and pests: Tolerance to stresses:Viruses, bacteria, fungi (drought, temperature,Nematodes, CPB, salinity)
  • 7. Selection scheme60 000 individuals 1 year Highly repeatable traits: morphology, I phase monogenic resistances 1-3 year (90%) Discoloration of tuber flesh Lower repeatable traits: II phase Yield & its structure, culinary values, multiyear trials- storage diseases, 4-9 year partial resistances; III phase Specific traits: TGA, offical trials chipping, French fries 10-12 year mechanical harvest, washing, packing11 – 12 year1 cultivar registered
  • 8. Bottle necks for progress in breeding• Narrow range of variation for the trait• More traits evaluated in selection process – more difficult to get progress in chosen traits• Negative correlations among important traits: A.low reducing sugars (chipping) and yielding ability, B. resistance to late blight and short vegetation period C. starch content and tendency to flesh darkening after mechanical damage
  • 9. Atributes of contemporary breeding• Search for new sources of desired traits and their characterization• Parental line (PL) breeding for parents with complex of resistances to biotic stresses and quality traits at 2x and 4x level• Improvement of selection methods by MAS in pre-breeding and cultivar breeding• Use of resources non-crossable to tbr - protoplast fusion - cloning genes and cisgenic approach
  • 10. Parental Line (PL) breedingPL are parental form of new cultivars,combining several desired traits. PL arehelpfull to reach progress in culinary value,processing ability, starch content andresistances to pathogens in bred cultivarsAt IHAR prebreeding done on 2x and 4xlevel is focused on complex resistance toviruses, late blight and nematodes in:• table potatoes• chipping potatoes• starch potatoes
  • 11. Scheme of 4x PL breeding today Resistance to LB Cooking quality EXTREME RESISTANCE TO PVY Resistance Moderate to Processing quality resistance Parental lines soft rot to PLRV Resistance Resistance Starch content to to & starch yield PCN PLRV EarlinessNew sources of traits
  • 12. Scheme of PL breeding acc.Swieżynski 1969
  • 13. Combinations of resistance to viruses(PVY, PLRV, PVM, PVS, PVX) in 250 4x PL 4 viruses 5 viruses (n=28) (n=15) 1 virus (n=16) 2 viruses 3 viruses (n=133) (n=62)
  • 14. Samples of PL resistant to Late Blight in foliage and tubers
  • 15. Outputs from 4x Parental Line program• 277 tetraploid PL offered to breeders 9 from PL since 1968 8 Polish 7 Foreign• 62 cultivars realized in 6 Poland from direct 5 crosses with PL 4• Significant progress in 3 PVY and late blight 2 resistance due to PL 1 program 0 PVY PLRV Late blight Cvs registered in 2009
  • 16. Utilization of diploid level in potato breeding• Diploid wild and primitive cultivated Solanum species are sources of new genetic variability• Disomic inheritance• Haploidisation of cvs and 4x breeding lines – production of funcional dH tbr for crosses at 2x level.• Utilization of 2n gametes (FDR,SDR) for 4x-2x→4x crosses = way of transfer of 2x genetic potential on the 4x level• Progress in selected traits in 4x progenies from 4x-2x crosses
  • 17. Directions of diploid breeding at IHAR Młochów Culinary value Chipping High starch content tbr, phu tbr, phu, gon chc, yun, ver Supporting programsResistance to viruses Resistance to Resistance toadg, sto, chc, grl, mga, P. infestans Erwinia spp.tbr ver, mcd, stn, phu, chc, yun, phu
  • 18. Solanum species utilized in breeding as sources of resistance• PVY adg, chc, sto• PVX adg, acl, chc• PLRV adg, dms, acl, chc• PVS adg• PVA chc, sto• PVM grl, meg• Late blight dms, chc, phu, ver, mcd, mch,rzc,ngr• soft rot chc, phu, yun• dry rot chc• Nematodes grl
  • 19. Solanum species as source of quality traits• Lack of darkening of tuber flesh - phu,ver• High dry mater content (starch) - chc, yun, vrn, ver• Low accumulation of reducing sugars after cold storage - phu, gon, chc• High culinary value –phu, gon
  • 20. Interspecific hybrid DG 91-121 selected in diploid breeding program Hybrid DG 91-121 (tbr, chc, grl, ver, mcd, phu) resistant to P. infestans, PVY, PVX, PVM, PLRV, Ro1, wart, mixed rots, producing 2n male gametes
  • 21. Sexual transfer of diploid potential on the tetraploid level• meiotic polyploidization due to 2n DG 81-68, 2n FDR gametes phenomenon operating in diploids (FDR or SDR) mainly via 4x-2x or 2x-4x crosses.Selected diploids are tested for 2n gametes production by:• Frequency of big pollen grains (indicator of 2n male gamets)• Test crosses 4x-2x – evaluation of seed set per berry
  • 22. Selection efficiency in 4x-2x and 4x-4x crossesCriteria of selection 14%• Tuber size- 6.5 (in scale 14 1-9) 12• Tuber weight- 6.5 10• Tuber yield- 1000 g/plant• Tuber shape regularity- >7 8• Darkening after cooking- 8 6 3,3%• Chip colour- 6,5 4• Eye deep- 6,5 2• Lack of secondary growth 0 4x-2x ( N=630)• Lack of internal tuber 4x-4x ( N=970) defects
  • 23. Present utilization of diploids in breedingOver 70 % of IHAR’s 4x parental lines originates from diploidsTransfer of characters from 2x onto 4x level:• Resistance to PVM from meg and grl• Resistance to PLRV from tbr (DW 84 -1457)• Resistance to soft rot from chc, yun, phu• Resistance to P. infestans from ver, mcd, phu• Nondarkening of tuber flesh and good culinary value• Cold chipping
  • 24. Development of molecular markers for marker assisted selection (MAS)• Mapping the resistance genes to various pathogens in potato (PVS, PLRV, PVM, PVY, Erwinia spp., P. infestans)• Development of PCR- based markers for marker assisted selection in potato (viral resistances and P.infestans resistance, nematodes) PR PS resistant susceptible - progeny
  • 25. Hot spots of resistance to P. infestans on potato genetic mapI II III IV V VI ver, mcd Rpi-blb2 ver, mcd R2, R2-like, R1 Rpi-blb3, Rpi-abpt, Rpi-bst1, Rpi-mcd1VII VIII IX X XI XII R3a, R3b, ver, mcd Cloned R5, R6, R7, Rber, R8, R9, Rpi-vnt1.1, Rpi-ber1, R10, R11 Used in Rpi-vnt1.2, Rpi-ber2 cisgenics Rpi-blb1 Rpi-vnt1.3, Rpi-rzc1 /RB, Rpi-nrs1, Identified by Rpi-sto1, Rpi-phu1 Rpi1 IHAR-PIB Rpi-pta1, Rpi-mch1 Młochów Rpi-plt1, Rpi-mcq1 Rpi-ver1-8
  • 26. Selection of 4x resistant forms possesing the Rpi-phu1 gene using markers GP94 or phu6 IX 2.7 GP39 GP94 (6.4 cM) ( Śliwka et al., 2007) B712.3 PR PS resistant susceptible - progeny Rpi-phu1 6.4 3.4 GP94 GP1294.9 CP135 PCR marker phu6 based on know21.7 gene sequence (Świątek et al., 2011) + + + + + + + + - - - - C S1D11 506 396 phu6 344 298
  • 27. Genes for resistance to viruses, map location, markers for MAS at IHAR Gene Chromosome Marker Author PVYRysto =Ry-fsto XII GP122564 Flis 1,2cM et al., 2005 Ny-1 IX SC895 Szajko 0,5cM et al.,2008 PVM Rm XI GP250510 0,8cM Marczewski Gm IX SC 878885 2,0cM et al., 2006 PLRV PLRV.1 XI Nl271164 Marczewski et.al., 2001 PLRV.4 XI UBC864816 6,0cM Marczewski et. al., 2004 PVS Nsadg VIII SC 811454 0,8cM Marczewski et. al., 2002
  • 28. Presence of the GP122564 marker forRysto gene of extreme resistance to PVY in 4x clones L S 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 bp 564 bp500300100L-DNA Ladder, S: cv Bryza (-), 2: cv Ursus (+); 3-15 – tested 4x clones
  • 29. Scheme of screening 4x Parental Lines formultiple resistance to pathogens -introduction of MASYear/# Name Phenotypic Phenotypic + MAS I 1st year 5000 seedlings PVM, PVYNWi, PVX PVX II 1st tuber PVYN-Wi, I late blight, late blight 700 progeny III 2nd tuber PVYN-Wi, PLRV, PVM, Ry-fsto, Rpi-phu1, 100 progeny II late blight, I wart, H1, Rm, Ns I Ro1, I wart IV 3rd tuber PVS, PVM, PLRV, late II wart 30 progeny blight field, I tuber PLRV blight, II wart, IIRo1 V 4th tuber PVYNTN PLRV, soft rot 10 progeny PLRV, soft rot
  • 30. Asexual sources of genetic variation1. Somatic hybridization2. Cisgenesis
  • 31. Somatic hybridiationProtoplast fusion is a potentialy supportingtechnique in modern potato breeding:• to combine non-crossabledihaploids tbr with diploidSolanum species or hybrids,•to combine various Solanumswith different EBN level• to obtain autofused formswith enhanced ploidy level(2x → 4x)• to obtain intergenerichybrids
  • 32. Somatic hybrids between S. michoacanum (1 EBN) resistant to LB, useful forcold chipping (4oC) and S.tuberosum hybrid DG 81-68 mch mch DG 81-68 mch (+) DG 81-68
  • 33. Transfer of P.infestans resistance from S. michoacanum (1 EBN) into S.tuberosum Protoplast fusion 2x mch populationautofusion of 2x mch(+)2x tbr 2x mch BCs mapping cloning Rpi-mch1 Rpi-mch1 MAS Potato cultivar cisgenesis
  • 34. Somatic hybrids S. nigrum (+) Zel 1136
  • 35. Gene technology in potato: Cisgenesis• Unlike in transgenesis, genes are only transferred between closely related organisms• Because cisgenesis could be achieved through conventional breeding it should not face as much criticism as GM through transgenesis.• Cisgenesis has the advantage over conventional breeding that it can produce new cultivars more quickly
  • 36. Resume- future directions for potato breeding for poor and rich• Tolerance to drought, high temperature• High adaptability• Resistance to bacterial diseases• Low input cultivars – resistant to pathogens and pests,• Quality in table potatoes- strategic food• Organic (eco-) potato• Potato as biofactory (GM)• Nisha markets (baby potato)
  • 37. Thank you,

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