What is culture?
Urban Dictionary Definition: An outcome of evolutionary beneficial group
thinking, and thus a racist generalization.
Merriam Webster Definition: The customary beliefs, social forms, and
material traits of a racial, religious, or social group.
Dr. Bing’s Definition: Guidelines for living for a group that are based on
history and are constantly changing.
Geert Hofstede: “Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy.
Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." -Geert
Rated countries on Individualism, Masculinity, Long Term Orientation,
Power Distance, and Uncertainty Avoidance
To summarize, citizens of the United States value individualism, meeting
obligations, believe in equality between social levels, and have a great
tolerance for new ideas, while respecting traditions of the past.
“This indicates the country experiences a higher degree of gender
differentiation of roles. The male dominates a significant portion of the
society and power structure. This situation generates a female population
that becomes more assertive and competitive, with women shifting toward
the male role model and away from their female role.”
We absorb the nuances of culture as we do the language
of the culture -Dr. Bing
The values of the culture are evident in the language used
by members of the culture.
While men and women have different styles of
communicating, the language that they are using is the
How do men talk to each other?
Judi Beinstein Miller
Only one ticket left? Who
Miller found that men
consistently used one-up
moves, and women used
one-down or side-
Men and women both liked
who exhibited one-up
Looked at gender-typing of
individuals, not just sex
Found those with
stereotypically female traits
are prone to giving and
receiving sympathy and
those with stereotypically
male traits do not
appreciate these behaviors
and attempt to avoid these
Bem Sex Role
This is the scale that was used by
Basow and Rubenfeld and by Edwards
and Hamilton to determine gender
type, evidenced by answers that lean
toward femininity or masculinity. This
allows for two additional groupings:
androgynous and undifferentiated
What about the similarities between the two sexes?
MacGeorge et al., dismiss the two cultures theory saying that the
similarities in past tests outweigh the differences. These similarities
disprove the two cultures hypothesis. They proved this by using tests
that allowed for open-ended responses.
Can’t we all just get along?
Which cultural influence
If you follow the two cultures hypothesis, which cultural influence is
the reasoning behind the more assertive behaviors of these women?
How do explain two different conversational styles of two women
raised in the same environment?
Bem Sex Role Inventory
Overwhelmingly Feminine traits: 81.666 Masculine ratings: 60.833
Androgynous ratings: 66.667
My Sister’s Results
Feminine Ratings: 65 Masculine Ratings: 73.333 Androgynous
The similarities in conversational styles need to be taken into account,
not just the differences. The similarities are evidence of the existence
of one culture, not two.
Differences in same sex conversational styles should also be
examined when discussing the two cultures theory.
If you have two cultures, you are opening yourself up to the “one is
better” way of thought. This would then take the ultimate goal of
equality back a step.
Basow, S. A., & Rubenfeld, K. (2003). "Troubles talk": effects of gender and gender-typing. Sex Roles, 48(3/4), 183-187.
Crawford, M. (1995). Talking difference: on gender and language. London: Sage publications.
Episode 5 [Television series episode]. (n.d.). In The amazing race 17. CBS. Retrieved October 29, 2010, from
Edwards, R., & Hamilton, M. A. (2004). You need to understand my gender role: an empirical test of Tannen's model of gender
and communication. Sex Roles, 50(7/8), 491-504.
MacGeorge, E. L., Graves, A. R., Feng, B., Gillihan, S. J., & Burleson, B. R. (2004). The myth of gender cultures: similarities
outweigh differences in men's and women's provision of and responses to supportive communication. Sex Roles, 50(3.4), 143-
Miller, J. B. (1985). Patterns of control in same-sex conversations: differences between women and men. Women's
Studies in Communication, 8, 62-69.
Sleeping with the enemy [Television series episode]. (2010, September 10). In The Jersey Shore, Season 2. MTV. Retrieved
November 2, 2010, from http://www.mtv.com/shows/ jersey_shore/season_2/episodes.jhtml