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  1. 1. One culture for all Christy Marscheider
  2. 2. What is culture? Urban Dictionary Definition: An outcome of evolutionary beneficial group thinking, and thus a racist generalization. Merriam Webster Definition: The customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group. Dr. Bing’s Definition: Guidelines for living for a group that are based on history and are constantly changing. Geert Hofstede: “Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." -Geert Hofstede
  3. 3. Geert Hofstede Rated countries on Individualism, Masculinity, Long Term Orientation, Power Distance, and Uncertainty Avoidance To summarize, citizens of the United States value individualism, meeting obligations, believe in equality between social levels, and have a great tolerance for new ideas, while respecting traditions of the past. “This indicates the country experiences a higher degree of gender differentiation of roles. The male dominates a significant portion of the society and power structure. This situation generates a female population that becomes more assertive and competitive, with women shifting toward the male role model and away from their female role.”
  4. 4. We absorb the nuances of culture as we do the language of the culture -Dr. Bing The values of the culture are evident in the language used by members of the culture. While men and women have different styles of communicating, the language that they are using is the same.
  5. 5. Deborah Tannen Two Cultures Approach
  6. 6. How do men talk to each other? Judi Beinstein Miller
  7. 7. Only one ticket left? Who gets it? Miller found that men consistently used one-up moves, and women used one-down or side- movements. Men and women both liked conversational partners who exhibited one-up moves.
  8. 8. Troubles Talk- Basow and Rubenfeld Looked at gender-typing of individuals, not just sex Found those with stereotypically female traits are prone to giving and receiving sympathy and those with stereotypically male traits do not appreciate these behaviors and attempt to avoid these situations.
  9. 9. Bem Sex Role Inventory This is the scale that was used by Basow and Rubenfeld and by Edwards and Hamilton to determine gender type, evidenced by answers that lean toward femininity or masculinity. This allows for two additional groupings: androgynous and undifferentiated individuals.
  10. 10. What about the similarities between the two sexes? MacGeorge et al., dismiss the two cultures theory saying that the similarities in past tests outweigh the differences. These similarities disprove the two cultures hypothesis. They proved this by using tests that allowed for open-ended responses. Can’t we all just get along?
  11. 11. Season 17, Episode 5 The Amazing Race
  12. 12. Lang. Behavior Men Women Expletives 2 1 Silence 2 0 Topic Choice 14 16 One-Up Move 43 19 One-Down Move 0 12 Side-Move 4 11 Questions 6 6 Encouragement 4 19 Flirtations 0 3
  13. 13. The Jersey Shore Sleeping with the enemy
  14. 14. Lang. Behavior Men Women Expletives 15 20 Silence 0 0 Topic Choice 17 20 One-Up Move 33 21 One-Down Move 0 9 Side-Move 17 18 Questions 6 11 Encouragement 0 0 Flirtations 5 5
  15. 15. Which cultural influence dominates? If you follow the two cultures hypothesis, which cultural influence is the reasoning behind the more assertive behaviors of these women? How do explain two different conversational styles of two women raised in the same environment?
  16. 16. PROJECT DATE CLIENT The Kiwi Tree (.com)
  17. 17. Bem Sex Role Inventory Christy’s Results: Overwhelmingly Feminine traits: 81.666 Masculine ratings: 60.833 Androgynous ratings: 66.667 My Sister’s Results Feminine Ratings: 65 Masculine Ratings: 73.333 Androgynous Ratings: 58.333
  18. 18. In conclusion... The similarities in conversational styles need to be taken into account, not just the differences. The similarities are evidence of the existence of one culture, not two. Differences in same sex conversational styles should also be examined when discussing the two cultures theory. If you have two cultures, you are opening yourself up to the “one is better” way of thought. This would then take the ultimate goal of equality back a step.
  19. 19. Works Cited Basow, S. A., & Rubenfeld, K. (2003). "Troubles talk": effects of gender and gender-typing. Sex Roles, 48(3/4), 183-187. Crawford, M. (1995). Talking difference: on gender and language. London: Sage publications. Episode 5 [Television series episode]. (n.d.). In The amazing race 17. CBS. Retrieved October 29, 2010, from http://www.cbs.com/primetime/amazing_race/video/?pid=CFm_uXijFam7h1yq0ylUrbF4Rf7ZIdGK&play=true&vs=homepage Edwards, R., & Hamilton, M. A. (2004). You need to understand my gender role: an empirical test of Tannen's model of gender and communication. Sex Roles, 50(7/8), 491-504. MacGeorge, E. L., Graves, A. R., Feng, B., Gillihan, S. J., & Burleson, B. R. (2004). The myth of gender cultures: similarities outweigh differences in men's and women's provision of and responses to supportive communication. Sex Roles, 50(3.4), 143- 175. Miller, J. B. (1985). Patterns of control in same-sex conversations: differences between women and men. Women's Studies in Communication, 8, 62-69. Sleeping with the enemy [Television series episode]. (2010, September 10). In The Jersey Shore, Season 2. MTV. Retrieved November 2, 2010, from http://www.mtv.com/shows/ jersey_shore/season_2/episodes.jhtml
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