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Imperialism and WW1
 

Imperialism and WW1

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Imperialism and WW1 Imperialism and WW1 Presentation Transcript

  • Imperialism and WW1 Notes
  • Beginning of ImperialismEnd of 1800-Height ofindustrializationEthnocentric:Better than the restTake over for "their best interest"Like Manifest Destiny:SuperiorityNeed to expand in Pacific like Key Vocabulary:Europe Isolationism-Staying out of the affairs of other countries
  • ReasonsImperialism: Stronger country takesover a smaller one and controls itReasons: Need foreign trade, spreadWestern beliefs, loss of Westernfrontier, needed new place to settle1) Want to sell goods for money2) Racism: Dominion over inferior Key Vocabulary:races Expansionism-Moving out of3) Competition: Nations wereexpanding because of trade--Belief ones country for money,economy would collapse if we did not superiority, and rivalryexpand
  • Japan Opens Trading DoorsMatthew Perry, a commodore, wassent to Japan with four warshipsJapanese had never seen steamshipsPerry was ordered to leave, but firstgave letter from President FillmoreOne year later, returned with a fleetof ships, and Japanese agreed to The Japanese wereTreaty of Kanagawa, making Japan "impressed" byopen its trading doors to American strength.industrialism
  • Sewards FollyBuys Alaska from Russiafor $7 million2 cents an acreCalled Sewards FollyGot Congress approval dueto hope of gaining CanadaEnded up being rich in oiland lumber
  • US NavyImperialist Alfred Mahan, aformer navy captain, publishedpapers about navyBelieved America could onlysurvive through foreign tradeTrading ships needed to beprotected by navy vesselsteamshipsUS Navy went from 13 to 3rd mostpowerful"Great White Fleet"-Named afterwhite painted ship hulls
  • Spreading Out"White Mans Burden" : US belief we had theneed and duty to spread and expand outAnnexed Hawaii to start expandingAnnexed Samoa later
  • Queen LiliuokalaniHawaiian queen who lovedHawaii independence andresented foreigninterference in governmentAgainst foreign traderscoming and going fromHawaiiGave her throne up afterseeing threat of Americanforces
  • Open Door PolicyOpen Door Policy in Chinaagreed by other powers:America would be allowed totrade with China marketsJohn Hay: Persuadedeveryone to be friendsHaving America as an ally"makes sense"
  • Spheres of Influence
  • Boxers RebellionJohn Hay convincing people to not beangered by Chinese rebellionChinese use to be world power, but brokedown under many wars withinAmerica wanted to continue trading andmaking moneyUS did not actually care about Chinese
  • British cartoon of all the world powers flocking around the dead carcass of China, trying to stake their share
  • Conflict with SpainFight over Cuba: rich in goodsHelped Cuban rebellion in order to get it under ourcontrolLeft US military presence after Spanish-America War Rough Riders- Mixed crew of men who joined other troops and fought under the watch of Roosevelt
  • Spanish-American WarNewspaper depicting cruel Spanishtreatment of Cubans that were nottrueUS battleship "Maine" was blownupAmerican newspapers blamedSpain, leading to US outragetowards Spanish--yellow journalismNews got all nation backing the war:Confidence of the public Key Vocabulary:4 month war: Easily defeated Yellow Journalism-StoriesSpanish navy written of sensational,Battle of San Juan Hill: Lead by often untrue, eventsRoosevelt
  • Pulitzer and HearstYellow journalist who stirredAmerican anger with hisyellow journalismWrote stories of often falsetales of Spanish crueltytowards CubansBlamed Spaniards for Maineblowing up
  • Spanish-American War ResultsUS gains Puerto Rico and GuamUS takes Philippines: Major Spanish colonySpain grants independence to CubaUS troops remain in Cuba post-warUS gives itself the right to intervene in theCuban government whenever they wantLimited independence to Cuba, Puerto Rico,and Philippines
  • Platt AmendmentAmericans remaining in Cuba--Believed it wasnot ready for independenceLet them write their own constitutionAmendment allowed US the right to interveneUS got naval base at Guantanamo Bay
  • Latin AmericaRoosevelt protector of our business in LatinAmericaAmericans want to build Panama Canal to be ableto ship easily to Asia--Across Isthmus of PanamaColombia rejects plan to build canalAmerica supports rebellion in Panama againstColombiaNew Panama government grants us Canal
  • Foraker ActNew government set up in Puerto RicoLimited Puerto Rican say in affairsMade citizens of the USSchools, roads, and health care givenPuerto Ricans still wanted to be free
  • Roosevelt CorollaryDeclares theUS has theright to usemilitary force tokeep order inLatin AmericaBased off ofMonroeDoctrine
  • Big Stick PolicyRoosevelts says that America can negotiatepeacefully but has the threat of the "big stick"which is the US military
  • Post-Use of the Big StickT used dollar diplomacy aft$ Diplomacy: Build economy and trade between USand Latin AmericaWoodrow Wilson: Used moral diplomacy and sidedwith democratic nations and peaceWilson believed not siding with non-democraticnations will crush their economy and they will submitto America
  • Mexican InvasionMexican rebelled against Díaz, MexicanpresidentKillings brought General Huerta into powerWilson: "...government of butchers"Capture and murder of American citizensbrought US interventionAmerican troops sent in, but withdrawn afterUS force was demonstrated
  • World War One OverviewWorld War One started in Europe and eventuallyspread to America as well, despite efforts of neutralityThe war lasted 4 bloody years and was between manynations
  • Reasons behind the startExtreme nationalism:Pride in each countrythat increased strained Rival Countries and Whyrivalry •Germany and FranceImperialistic powers were -France had to surrender Alsace-racing to gain the most Lorraine, an iron-rich colonyland in other lands like •Austria-Hungary and Russia:Africa -Nationalism increase hostility -Russians encouraged Serbians toMilitarism: Countries were rise against their rulersexpanding their armiesand navies in preparationfor war
  • AlliancesThe network of allianceswas so that nations thatwere attacked wouldhave countriesprotecting them andfighting backPre-War: Triple Allianceof Germany, Austria-Hungary, and ItalyPre-War: Triple Ententeof France, Russia, andBritain
  • Note: Turkish Empire refers to Ottoman Empire
  • What happened?WW1 started because the heirto Austria-Hungary, FrancisFerdinand, was visiting Bosniaand was assassinatedThe Black Hand, a Serbianterrorist group, were behindthe slayingSerbia was accused and oneafter another, attacksoccurred and all the allianceswere called in, starting the war
  • Trench WarfareTrenches were dug, some shallowand some elaborate with tunnelsSome served as HQs and hospitals Stalemate- Deadlock whenSpace between them called No neither side isMans Land strong enough to overpower theAttack by bombing opponents, then otherrunning across and trampling asmany ditches before the other sidedoes it back at you
  • Gas WarfareMost feared weapon during warCaused choking, blindness, or severe sin blistersand killed manyGas masks were worn to prevent inhalation ofthe dangerous chemicals
  • Submarine WarfareGerman ports were blockaded so they usedU-boats to block British portsShot torpedoes at anyone going in or out ofBritain--including neutral shipsAngered Americans by shooting neutraltrading ships going to and from BritainAgreed to first surface before shooting shipsdown, due to American anger about Lusitania
  • German U-boat submarine
  • Lusitania, a British passenger ship, was torpedoed, killing 1,200 passengers, some of whom were American
  • American NeutralityWanted to not be brought into European conflictContinued to trade between all sidesCareful to join due to dictatorship countries on both sides--Czar ofRussia and Kaiser of GermanyTension over Lusitania sinkingPropaganda: Spreading ideas to help get aid
  • Battle of VerdunLasted for 10 months due to nature of trench warfareGermans lost 40,000 men trying to overrun FrenchtroopsFrench lost more trying to defend trenches
  • Harlem Hell FightersAfrican American infantry that fought theFrench Army
  • Extra VocabularyWarmonger: Person who tries to stir up warKaiser: German rulerCzar: Russian emperorArmistice: Agreement to stop fightingPacifist: Someone who refuses to fightEpidemic: Rapid spread of a disease
  • Home FrontMovie stars united to sell LibertyBonds: Bonds lent money to thegovernment in order to afford wartime needs and costsWomen stepped into mens jobsand received better pays than inpeacetimeIntolerance and hatred of GermanAmericans led to mob violenceMigration of African and MexicanAmericans from the South to the Charlie Chapman, an actor,North helped sell Liberty Bonds
  • War Labor BoardFederal agencystarted by WilsonUsed to maintainlabor reliabilityduring wartimeneeds
  • Early Allied SetbacksLoss of millions of soldiers; Survivors were tired and illBritish and French civilians starvingRussia withdrew from war and after revolution, peace talksstarted between Russia and GermanyGermany mobilized troops for the final push to end the warBombarded British, who endured--Turning point onceAmerica entered Treaty of Brest-Litovsk- Ended Russian participation in the war
  • Allied VictoryAmerican troops came to help French andforced the Germans to retreatKaiser told the war could not be won and anarmistice stopped the fighting
  • Key LegislationZimmerman Telegraph: Proposal from Germany toMexico, asking for them to fight against US;Intercepted by BritainSelective Service Act: Federal government couldraise a hundreds of thousands sized national armyLeague of Nations: Passed after WW1 to ensureglobal peace--NegotiatingTreaty of Versailles: Passed to end fightingbetween Germany and Allied Forces
  • End of WarWilson want peace without victoryFrance and Britain want Germany to sufferLeague of Nation failsUS doesnt want to get into foreignconflict