TODAY’S CLASS

Information
Architecture

1
Definition
The structural design of an information
space to facilitate task completion and
intuitive access to content.

I...
Sort into groups. Name groups

PLAY WITH
CANDY
MAKE A HOMEPAGE FOR YOUR
CANDY SITE
4 KINDS OF INFORMATION
SEEKING
You are going to Belize.
You want the lonely planet
guidebook
KNOWN ITEM
http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
What works
Search
A-Z index
Navigation

http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-...
You want to visit a tropical
island. Where should you
go?
EXPLORATORY
http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
What can help
Navigation
Related Search
Search (with autocomplete, related terms)

http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of...
Ticket Prices to Belize drop
in September and April
DON’T KNOW
WHAT YOU
NEED TO
KNOW
http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
What can help
Related information
Recommendations
Push technologies

http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-infor...
You saw a great waterproof
camera on amazon, and now
realize it’s the one you want
to buy. Where did it go?
REFINDING
http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
What can help
Favorites
Personalization
Visited link color

http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-an...
Redesign
DESIGN FOR TASKS
Find a baseball
Find a gift for a upcoming party for a seven year old
Make users aware some ball...
Classification has
Consequences
A physician who doesn’t see a new cure
A poor student who can’t find financial aid
A store...
IA has Solutions

Information Architecture
manages information to
make it findable

– Tagging with metadata
– Organizing w...
CLASSIFICATION IS
CONTEXTUAL
Benabar n’est
pas jazz?
Dewey Decimal
System
200-299 – Religion Categories
‣ 40+ categories related to Christianity
‣ 1 for Judaism
‣ 1 for Islam ...
Who Cares?
Religious Scholars
‣ Librarians
‣ Information Architects
‣ Jews and Muslims
‣
THIS IS A FISH

26
Who Cares?
Hungry Catholics inland in South America on Fridays
Context is King
Classification reflects social and cultural organization
‣ Information Architect must understand this cont...
Get to know your
audience…
Football Fan

1.

Who are they?
Get to know your
audience…
Football Fan?

1.

Who are they?
Know your audience…
1.
2.

Who are they?
What do they care about?

Are the Patriots going
to make the playoffs?

What happ...
Know your audience…
1.
2.
3.

Who are they?
What do they care about?
How do they think of the information and content?

Co...
Know your audience…
1.
2.
3.
4.

Observe others
Study Competitors and similar sites
Review your search logs
Do a card sort
Now what?
Check your labels. Do they make sense?
TODAY’S CLASS

Metadata

36
Pictures of “you”
Boards as metadata
Metadata: what
is it?
“metadata is data about data"

40
Metadata: what
is it?

41

“Metadata tags are used to describe documents, pages,
images, software, video and audio files, ...
Descriptive
Procuitto

Cheese
Honey
Olivia’s
Tapas
Intrinsic
What does the camera know?
What does the system know?
Administrative
Not all Metadata
is equal

45

What are users interested in?
What do you want users to be able to find?
What metadata make...
Exercise
BALL
Write as many descriptive words (or short phrases) on your
post-it
One word (or phrase) per post-it
Don’t sh...
48

Add pic of netflix
Controlled
vocabularies
Master of your domains
The French
Academy
Founded in 1635
Multiple dialects
Goal: purify the French language
Goal: unify the nation (ensure that ...
The French
Academy today
…but…
So what?
• So what are your goals?
• How will you ensure that your users and your
system speak the same language?
How will...
When humans and
computers interact
I’ve got
music

I want
music.
Humans are good at
figuring things out
Rap.
Rock.
Dance.

Hip Hop
Most of the time
Raggamuffin

55

?
But computers are
?
literal
Acid
reggae

No matches
found

56
And need help

57

?

Acid
Reggae?
IA

Let’s give them “Reggae” and
“Trance”
The IA can’t
always be there…

58

Thus Controlled vocabularies (CV)

Amy Warner defines a controlled vocabulary (CV)
as “...
Controlled
Vocabularies
I define them as

Documented relationships of words and
concepts to assist people finding stuff.

...
Controlled Vocabulary
Types
(Vocabularies)

Synonym
Rings

Authority
Files

Classification
Schemes

Simple

Equivalence

T...
Controlled vocabularies
A=B
Equivalence
Christmas=
Xmas

B

A
Hierarchal
Winter Holidays >
Christmas

A

B

Associative
Ch...
Synonym rings
• Simplest type
• Helps with search, indexing
• Simplifies maintenance

62
Synonym rings include
• Acronyms: BBC, British Broadcasting
Company; MPG, miles per gallon
• Variant spellings: cancelled,...
64

China cap = chinois = strainer
Why Bother?
• Sometimes on
intranets, CV’s are
skipped
• You think you can force
people to use proper
terms
• But people a...
Why Bother?
• On the internet you want to
be found
• Plus users use short
queries

•

– Average queries are 2.5
words– 30%...
Thesauri
• Cadillac of Controlled Vocabularies
• Includes associative relationships
Preferred term

Variants

Siblings

Pa...
Associations
Associations
• Amazon uses buying patterns to determine
associations
Associations
Associations
What is related
What is required?
What else is interesting?
Relevancy is king

71
Possible
Relationships
Process/agent
(camp fires/matches)
Action/product of action (baking/cakes)
Agent/counteragent (alle...
Preferred term

Variants

Siblings

Parent

Associated

Christmas

X-mas, Nöel

Hanukah,
Kwanzaa

Winter holidays

Santa C...
Implementation?

74

Implementation dependent on situation and tools.
May be slow painful data entry– know this and prepar...
Test
Test with users – did you get it right?
–Browse Testing
–Search Testing
–Monitor quantitative

–Refine, refine, refin...
Maintain
Who maintains it?
What the rules for new terms?
Document your decisions.

76
TODAY’S CLASS

facets

77
Is that all?
NO!

Life beyond enumerative classification….

78
Faceted
Classification
was developed, prior to the existence of
computers, by S. R. Ranganathan,
a Hindu mathematician
wor...
Ranganathan’s
5 Facets
•
•
•
•
•

who: personality
what: matter
how: energy
where: space
when: time

80
Ordinary stuff?

82

Epicurious uses
facets to help
users find recipes
Personals

Faceted classification is often used by Personas
Content is by the users

83
What’s the difference?
84

Electronics
Camera
Digital
Film

PDAs
Televisions

Camera facets
Pixels
Zoom

Price
Music

85

Enumerative

Faceted

Modern

Mood

– Rock
• Alternative
– Seattle
– Atlanta

Tempo
Artist
Use
• who: personality
• what: matter
• how: energy
• where: space
• when: time
Create candy facets for your store

FACETS, AN...
Is this all there is?
89
Tagging– when it works

90
People can’t be bothered

91
Pictures of “you”
93
User navigation

94
HEADER

95

This slide was left purposely blank.
HEADER

Q&A

96
Information Architecture Fundamentals
Information Architecture Fundamentals
Information Architecture Fundamentals
Information Architecture Fundamentals
Information Architecture Fundamentals
Information Architecture Fundamentals
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Information Architecture Fundamentals

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From the recent class "Fundamentals of User Experience" given 12/13/2013 in NYC

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  • Discussion.
  • I am looking for a baseball.
  • Discussion.
  • I’m looking for somewhere to take vacation
  • Discussion.
  • Discussion.
  • If you have picked a camera, how do you find it again?
  • How would you search for this photo? No face recognition could recognize this. (close up of procuitto)
  • Tagging by users on facebook is used to indicate things I should see, not really fotos of me.
  • Pinterest boards add metadata, but how does it match what the company needs?
  • Olivia’s is where I ate it.
  • Pandora is the world’s greatest work for IA (IMO) is their music genome. It’s a recommendation engine made of professionally crafted metadata. Features of this track is metadata determined by musicians
  • When netflix when to improve their algorithm, they went the same way as pandora, using meteadata. (the last screen shot is an april 1st one)
  • http://untitledname.com/2005/05/jesus-saves
  • Tagging by users on facebook is used to indicate things I should see, not really potos of me.
  • What is this site? Is this a better representation of amazon than the navigation? (Hit next) Which navigation tells the story of amazon?Can users do a better job than IA’s?
  • Information Architecture Fundamentals

    1. 1. TODAY’S CLASS Information Architecture 1
    2. 2. Definition The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content. Information Architecture for the World-Wide Web Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville
    3. 3. Sort into groups. Name groups PLAY WITH CANDY
    4. 4. MAKE A HOMEPAGE FOR YOUR CANDY SITE
    5. 5. 4 KINDS OF INFORMATION SEEKING
    6. 6. You are going to Belize. You want the lonely planet guidebook
    7. 7. KNOWN ITEM http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
    8. 8. What works Search A-Z index Navigation http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
    9. 9. You want to visit a tropical island. Where should you go?
    10. 10. EXPLORATORY http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
    11. 11. What can help Navigation Related Search Search (with autocomplete, related terms) http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
    12. 12. Ticket Prices to Belize drop in September and April
    13. 13. DON’T KNOW WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
    14. 14. What can help Related information Recommendations Push technologies http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
    15. 15. You saw a great waterproof camera on amazon, and now realize it’s the one you want to buy. Where did it go?
    16. 16. REFINDING http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
    17. 17. What can help Favorites Personalization Visited link color http://boxesandarrows.com/four-modes-of-seeking-information-and-how-to-design-for-them/
    18. 18. Redesign DESIGN FOR TASKS Find a baseball Find a gift for a upcoming party for a seven year old Make users aware some balls are on sale Find again a good choice for that party
    19. 19. Classification has Consequences A physician who doesn’t see a new cure A poor student who can’t find financial aid A store where a product isn’t found
    20. 20. IA has Solutions Information Architecture manages information to make it findable – Tagging with metadata – Organizing with CV’s – Creating navigation systems – Optimizing search
    21. 21. CLASSIFICATION IS CONTEXTUAL
    22. 22. Benabar n’est pas jazz?
    23. 23. Dewey Decimal System 200-299 – Religion Categories ‣ 40+ categories related to Christianity ‣ 1 for Judaism ‣ 1 for Islam (& related) ‣
    24. 24. Who Cares? Religious Scholars ‣ Librarians ‣ Information Architects ‣ Jews and Muslims ‣
    25. 25. THIS IS A FISH 26
    26. 26. Who Cares? Hungry Catholics inland in South America on Fridays
    27. 27. Context is King Classification reflects social and cultural organization ‣ Information Architect must understand this context ‣
    28. 28. Get to know your audience… Football Fan 1. Who are they?
    29. 29. Get to know your audience… Football Fan? 1. Who are they?
    30. 30. Know your audience… 1. 2. Who are they? What do they care about? Are the Patriots going to make the playoffs? What happened in the last game? Show me photos!
    31. 31. Know your audience… 1. 2. 3. Who are they? What do they care about? How do they think of the information and content? Conference, division… Schedules, standings…
    32. 32. Know your audience… 1. 2. 3. 4. Observe others Study Competitors and similar sites Review your search logs Do a card sort
    33. 33. Now what? Check your labels. Do they make sense?
    34. 34. TODAY’S CLASS Metadata 36
    35. 35. Pictures of “you”
    36. 36. Boards as metadata
    37. 37. Metadata: what is it? “metadata is data about data" 40
    38. 38. Metadata: what is it? 41 “Metadata tags are used to describe documents, pages, images, software, video and audio files, and other content objects for the purposes of improved navigation and retrieval” ‘Information Architecture for the World Wide Web’, 2nd ed., (2002) Rosenfeld, L. & Morville, P.
    39. 39. Descriptive Procuitto Cheese Honey Olivia’s Tapas
    40. 40. Intrinsic What does the camera know? What does the system know?
    41. 41. Administrative
    42. 42. Not all Metadata is equal 45 What are users interested in? What do you want users to be able to find? What metadata makes management easy? Tag content for findability Tag content for management
    43. 43. Exercise BALL Write as many descriptive words (or short phrases) on your post-it One word (or phrase) per post-it Don’t share– yet! Hold on! 46
    44. 44. 48 Add pic of netflix
    45. 45. Controlled vocabularies Master of your domains
    46. 46. The French Academy Founded in 1635 Multiple dialects Goal: purify the French language Goal: unify the nation (ensure that the State and all citizens speak the same language)
    47. 47. The French Academy today …but…
    48. 48. So what? • So what are your goals? • How will you ensure that your users and your system speak the same language? How will you ensure they continue to do so?
    49. 49. When humans and computers interact I’ve got music I want music.
    50. 50. Humans are good at figuring things out Rap. Rock. Dance. Hip Hop
    51. 51. Most of the time Raggamuffin 55 ?
    52. 52. But computers are ? literal Acid reggae No matches found 56
    53. 53. And need help 57 ? Acid Reggae? IA Let’s give them “Reggae” and “Trance”
    54. 54. The IA can’t always be there… 58 Thus Controlled vocabularies (CV) Amy Warner defines a controlled vocabulary (CV) as “organized lists of words and phrases, or notation systems, that are used to initially tag content, and then to find it through navigation or search.”
    55. 55. Controlled Vocabularies I define them as Documented relationships of words and concepts to assist people finding stuff. Same dif.
    56. 56. Controlled Vocabulary Types (Vocabularies) Synonym Rings Authority Files Classification Schemes Simple Equivalence Thesauri Complex Hierarchical (Relationships) Associative
    57. 57. Controlled vocabularies A=B Equivalence Christmas= Xmas B A Hierarchal Winter Holidays > Christmas A B Associative Christmas Tree | Santa Claus 61
    58. 58. Synonym rings • Simplest type • Helps with search, indexing • Simplifies maintenance 62
    59. 59. Synonym rings include • Acronyms: BBC, British Broadcasting Company; MPG, miles per gallon • Variant spellings: cancelled, canceled; honor, honour • Scientific terms versus popular use terms: acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin; lilioceris, lily beetle – From Synonym Rings and Authority Files by Karl Fast, Fred Leise and Mike Steckel
    60. 60. 64 China cap = chinois = strainer
    61. 61. Why Bother? • Sometimes on intranets, CV’s are skipped • You think you can force people to use proper terms • But people are lazy 65 I’m tired of typing “Controlled Vocabulary--- CV is shorter.
    62. 62. Why Bother? • On the internet you want to be found • Plus users use short queries • – Average queries are 2.5 words– 30% of searches are one word queries On large scale sites, there is enough data to do this programmatically, but on small sites, not. 66 I want a cannon camera.
    63. 63. Thesauri • Cadillac of Controlled Vocabularies • Includes associative relationships Preferred term Variants Siblings Parent Associated Christmas X-mas, Nöel Hanukah, Kwanzaa Winter holidays Santa Claus
    64. 64. Associations
    65. 65. Associations • Amazon uses buying patterns to determine associations
    66. 66. Associations
    67. 67. Associations What is related What is required? What else is interesting? Relevancy is king 71
    68. 68. Possible Relationships Process/agent (camp fires/matches) Action/product of action (baking/cakes) Agent/counteragent (allergies/antihistamine) Raw material/product (wool/sweater). 72
    69. 69. Preferred term Variants Siblings Parent Associated Christmas X-mas, Nöel Hanukah, Kwanzaa Winter holidays Santa Claus Make a candy thesaurus EXERCISE 73
    70. 70. Implementation? 74 Implementation dependent on situation and tools. May be slow painful data entry– know this and prepare.
    71. 71. Test Test with users – did you get it right? –Browse Testing –Search Testing –Monitor quantitative –Refine, refine, refine 75
    72. 72. Maintain Who maintains it? What the rules for new terms? Document your decisions. 76
    73. 73. TODAY’S CLASS facets 77
    74. 74. Is that all? NO! Life beyond enumerative classification…. 78
    75. 75. Faceted Classification was developed, prior to the existence of computers, by S. R. Ranganathan, a Hindu mathematician working as a librarian. 79
    76. 76. Ranganathan’s 5 Facets • • • • • who: personality what: matter how: energy where: space when: time 80
    77. 77. Ordinary stuff? 82 Epicurious uses facets to help users find recipes
    78. 78. Personals Faceted classification is often used by Personas Content is by the users 83
    79. 79. What’s the difference? 84 Electronics Camera Digital Film PDAs Televisions Camera facets Pixels Zoom Price
    80. 80. Music 85 Enumerative Faceted Modern Mood – Rock • Alternative – Seattle – Atlanta Tempo Artist Use
    81. 81. • who: personality • what: matter • how: energy • where: space • when: time Create candy facets for your store FACETS, ANYONE? 86
    82. 82. Is this all there is?
    83. 83. 89
    84. 84. Tagging– when it works 90
    85. 85. People can’t be bothered 91
    86. 86. Pictures of “you”
    87. 87. 93
    88. 88. User navigation 94
    89. 89. HEADER 95 This slide was left purposely blank.
    90. 90. HEADER Q&A 96
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