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  • 1. Globalization and Culture Origins of the Modern World September 9, 2013
  • 2. Marks: Origins of the Modern World Introduction, Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6
  • 3. Introduction What do we mean by Eurocentrism?
  • 4. Introduction What do we mean by Eurocentrism? ● Idea that Europe is naturally superior ● View of history that centers Europe
  • 5. Introduction What do we mean by Eurocentrism? ● Idea that Europe is naturally superior ● View of history that centers Europe How does the Marks book challenge Eurocentrism?
  • 6. Introduction Goal of the book: to show how the current world system got put in place - the historical, economic, political, social forces that produced modern globalization
  • 7. Introduction Conceptual Tools (pages 10-13) ● historical contingency ● accident ● conjuncture
  • 8. Chapter 1 What does Marks mean by biological old regime? What were the results of the agricultural revolution (and why does Marks say some authors disagree with calling it a “revolution”)?
  • 9. Chapter 1 What does it mean to describe the world pre- 1800s as polycentric? And what, according to Marks, changed the polycentric nature of the globe?
  • 10. Chapter 1 Marks discusses the bubonic plague and its impact on Europe. What do we learn about this plague, and how does it illustrate the concept of conjuncture?
  • 11. Chapter 2 What were the nature and scope of Chinese trade in the 15th century? What brought China’s sea voyages to an end?
  • 12. Chapter 2 What does dar al-Islam describe? How was the spread of Islam significant for world history at this time?
  • 13. Chapter 2 What does dar al-Islam describe? How was the spread of Islam significant for world history at this time? It helped create common culture and language, and cut Europe off from the Indian Ocean, leading in part to Europe’s “dark ages.”
  • 14. Chapter 2 What was a common source of wealth in Africa, and how did this wind up being significant? What was a common source of wealth in Europe during this time, and what was Europe’ s general mode or orientation to the world during this time?
  • 15. Chapter 2 What was the nature and significance of warfare in Europe in the period of 1000 to 1500?
  • 16. Chapter 2 What was the nature and significance of warfare in Europe in the period of 1000 to 1500? ● Wars were constant ● Warfare drove European states to a common form ○ territorial-based ○ towns and cities to generate wealth ○ population large enough to sustain armies
  • 17. Chapter 2 What did Portugal introduce to sea-trade that changed it forever?
  • 18. Chapter 3 From 1500 to 1800, empires flourished across the globe. ● What does the term sovereignty mean? ● How did empires administer their rule?
  • 19. Chapter 3 “Pre-contact” empires of the Americas ● Aztec ● Inca Spanish Empire ● What killed off most of the people conquered by Spanish empire? ● What did the Spanish empire not maitain and build its wealth?
  • 20. Chapter 3 How did the European slave trade allow the sugar economy to develop and spread?
  • 21. Chapter 3 Nation-state system ● emerges out this time period ● related to demands and effects of warfare ○ wars result in consolidation - fewer states ○ infrastructure for tax collection ○ assemblies for negotiating with wealthy landowners ○ concept of “national debt”
  • 22. Chapter 3 Nation-state system ● emerges out this time period ● related to demands and effects of warfare ○ wars result in consolidation - fewer states ○ infrastructure for tax collection ○ assemblies for negotiating with wealthy landowners ○ concept of “national debt” ● England & France emerge as power centers from these connected process of warfare and state-building
  • 23. French Revolution The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens (1789) states, "The source of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation." What does nation mean here and what is the significance of this?
  • 24. New Political Formations The French Revolution helps establish the modern notion of the nation-state, which connects three things: the state (government) the nation (citizenry) the land (territory) And they are connected in a Constitutional framework.
  • 25. Chapter 3 Mercantalism ● Economic theory/policy related to emerging state system ● Focused on collection of precious metals as wealth ● Protectionism: trade restrictions to restrict flow of metals out (to pay for foreign goods)
  • 26. Chapter 4 What do we mean by the term industrial revolution?
  • 27. Chapter 4 Why was Britain the center of industrialization? ● Naval power and war ● An industry suited to industrializing = cotton ● Economic structure that allowed for it to take advantage of that industry = colonialism
  • 28. Britain: Slavery and Cotton ● Cotton industry - there was money to be made and it was rapidly expanding, so it attracted investment ● ● Machinery was cheap, easy to construct, and promised quick returns ● ● Raw materials - extracted from colonies through slave labor, thus expanding supply; accident of coal supply and steam power