Differentiated instruction

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Differentiated instruction

  1. 1. Differentiated Instruction <ul><li>Michelle Baird </li></ul><ul><li>Catherine Flynn </li></ul><ul><li>Treva King </li></ul><ul><li>October 9, 2009 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Lessons The assignment was to draw the moon. Filled with kindergarten wonder she climbed as high as the rusting swing could offer, balanced in the phosphorescent rays of the evening’s business and saw beyond to the airy regions where bands of chalky cirrus crossed trails of jets forming tic-tac-toe battle plains played by earth and sky. Too, she noted how in all the stars that flecked the ether not a one was yellow or five-pointed but were sparkles of pixie-dust ripe for scooping and sprinkling at show-and-tell. That night she looked with the wonder of Copernicus, was kissed by flames that swallowed van Gogh and wanted to share it all with all who cared to know what she now knew to be a night sky. Using every shade of color of her blunted crayons, she drew: from eyes to mind to heart to hands she drew. Who knew her greatest lesson would be in discovering the dispirited frown of an exacting teacher who across curled lips breathed, The assignment was to draw the moon. by S. D. Collins
  3. 3. ? Essential Questions ? <ul><li>What is differentiated instruction? </li></ul><ul><li>How does differentiated instruction lead to greater student achievement? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Myths of Differentiation <ul><li>Differentiated Instruction consists of students doing exercises in self-correcting workbooks. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated Instruction means that the teacher does not present information (e.g. doesn’t use whole group instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated Instruction does not work in classes where students have to master a body of information for high-stakes testing. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Myths of Differentiation <ul><li>Differentiated Instruction is mainly for students with learning deficits. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated Instruction means dividing the class into “bluebirds” and “redbirds”. </li></ul><ul><li>In a heterogeneous class, brighter students will be “used” to teach others. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated Instruction can be accomplished with a “send and fix” (e.g. send to resource room) or “send and advance” (e.g. gifted & talented goes to higher grade classroom) model. </li></ul>
  6. 6. A Definition for Curriculum Differentiation <ul><li>“ In the context of education, we define differentiation as a teacher’s reacting responsively to a learner’s needs...The goal of a differentiated classroom is maximum student growth and individual success.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tomlinson & Allan, 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Rick Wormeli’s Definition of DI Differentiating instruction is doing what’s fair for students. It’s a collection of best practices strategically employed to maximize students’ learning at every turn, including giving them the tools to handle anything that is undifferentiated. It requires us to do differentiated things for different students some, or a lot, of the time. It’s whatever works to advance the student if the regular classroom approach doesn’t meet students’ needs. It’s highly effective teaching.
  8. 8. A Technical Definition of Curriculum Differentiation <ul><li>Curriculum differentiation is a process teachers use </li></ul><ul><li>to enhance student learning by matching various </li></ul><ul><li>curriculum components to characteristics shared by </li></ul><ul><li>subgroups of learners in the classroom (e.g. learning </li></ul><ul><li>style preferences, interests, prior knowledge, learning </li></ul><ul><li>rate). </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purcell & Burns, 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Teachers can differentiate Content Process Product According to student’s Readiness Interests Learning profiles Through a range of instructional and management strategies Carol Ann Tomlinson, The Differentiated Classroom, 1999 multiple intelligences jigsaw taped materials anchor activities varying organizers varied supplementary materials literature circles tiered lessons tiered centers tiered products learning contracts small-group instruction group investigation independent study varied questioning strategies interest centers interest groups varied homework compacting varied journal prompts complex instruction
  10. 10. Teachers can differentiate at least four classroom elements: <ul><li>Content-- what the student needs to learn or how he/she will access the information </li></ul><ul><li>Process-- activities in which the student engages to make sense of the information and master it </li></ul><ul><li>Products-- culminating projects in which the student rehearses, applies or extends what he or she has learned </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Environment -- the way the classroom looks and feels </li></ul>Excerpted from Tomlinson, C.A. (August 2000) Differentiation of Instruction in the Elementary Grades, ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education
  11. 11. Content <ul><li>The differentiation of content is what the teacher plans for students to learn and how the student gains access to the desired knowledge, understanding and skills. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Differentiating Content <ul><li>Using reading materials at different reading levels </li></ul><ul><li>Putting text on tape </li></ul><ul><li>Using spelling or vocabulary lists at readiness level of students </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting information through visual and auditory means </li></ul><ul><li>Using reading buddies </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting with small groups to re-teach ideas or skills for struggling learners or extend the thinking or skills of advanced learners </li></ul>Excerpted from Tomlinson, C.A. (August 2000) Differentiation of Instruction in the Elementary Grades, ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education
  13. 13. Process <ul><li>The differentiation of process or activity involves using an essential skill for understanding an idea and is clearly focused on a learning goal. Further, process gives students options of activities in order to achieve individual success. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Differentiating Process <ul><li>Using tiered activities--all learners working with same understandings and skills, but with different levels of support or challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Creating interest centers that encourage students to explore parts of the class topic of particular interest to them </li></ul><ul><li>Providing agendas--task lists containing whole class work and work addressing individual needs of students </li></ul><ul><li>Providing manipulatives or hands-on materials </li></ul><ul><li>Varying length of time to complete tasks </li></ul>Excerpted from Tomlinson, C.A. (August 2000) Differentiation of Instruction in the Elementary Grades, ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education
  15. 15. Products <ul><li>The differentiation of products refers to items used to demonstrate knowledge, understanding, and/or ability to apply or extend skills. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Differentiating Products <ul><li>Giving options on how to express required learning (make a mural, write a letter, create a puppet show, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Using different rubrics to match and extend students’ skills levels </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing students to work alone or in groups to complete product </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging students to create own product as long as it contains the required elements </li></ul>Excerpted from Tomlinson, C.A. (August 2000) Differentiation of Instruction in the Elementary Grades, ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education
  17. 17. Learning Environment <ul><li>Learning Environments must be emotionally safe for learning to take place. </li></ul><ul><li>To learn, students must experience appropriate levels of challenge. </li></ul><ul><li>Each brain must make its own meaning of ideas and skills. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Differentiated Learning Environment <ul><li>Allowing for places to work quietly without distraction, as well as places for students to work collaboratively </li></ul><ul><li>Setting clear guidelines for independent work </li></ul><ul><li>Developing routines for students to get help when teacher is busy working with other students </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing for those students who need to move around when learning, while others need to sit quietly </li></ul>Excerpted from Tomlinson, C.A. (August 2000) Differentiation of Instruction in the Elementary Grades, ERIC Digest, ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education
  19. 19. No more random acts of differentiation!

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