Architecting a Scale Out Cloud Storage Solution


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  • The appliance model is winning in areas like network security. A single, well integrated, easy-to-manage firewall appliance can meet the workloads of most IT operations. The savings on a single, generic server are not material relative to the management ease of deploying a reliable, integrated appliance. To the extent that flexibility is needed, it can be achieved by configuring rules within the appliance. By contrast, storage pools are massive and growing, and the workloads they serve differ massively across organizations. The ideal hardware, disk to server ratio, I/O choice, etc., differs dramatically depending on whether one is providing storage for video, audio, images, virtual machines, or if one is dealing with read-intensive versus write-intensive applications.  Therefore, having flexibility in the underlying hardware is critical.Furthermore, in an environment where pools of hundreds of servers and petabytes of disk are becoming commonplace, the economics of being able to flexibly source commodity hardware from multiple vendors becomes very compelling.Finally, with the move to the cloud, it is clear that a hardware-bound model of storage will face challenges in the long term. One simply can't move a large, proprietary storage appliance to the cloud.  For that matter, one also can't easily adapt the proprietary appliance model to the kinds of SMAQ (Storage, Map Reduce and Query) workloads I discussed in my previous posts. Hence, in hybrid cloud or Big Data environments, there will be a clear imperative for the software model to win out.For all of these reasons, I think it is pretty clear that storage will follow the compute, middleware, and application server segments of the IT market in adopting the software model of the world. 
  • Architecting a Scale Out Cloud Storage Solution

    1. 1. Architectinga Scale Out Cloud Storage Solution
    2. 2. Open versus Commercial Implementation• Commercial – comes at a price• Open architecture – with support• Whatever your choice, HW must be flexible.
    3. 3. Appliance vs. SW on Commodity HW Appliance model wins when… SW on commodity HW wins when…Workloads Workloads are fairly standard across Workloads vary tremendously organizations across multiple dimensions (e.g. performance, availability, capacity, I/O requirements, etc.)Economics/Growth Savings from commodity hardware Savings from commodity hardware are limited to the savings from one stretch across multiple “boxes” and “box” and therefore small relative to are massive the overall TCO savings from easy deployment and managementFlexibility All needed flexibility can be Significant need for flexibility in accomplished by configuration hardware to optimize capacity, changes in a single box performance, availability, etc.Cloud Cloud not a factor Cloud a major factor, driving need to be able to run on multiple disparate devices across the internet Ben Golub, Computerworld , October 11, 2011 “Storage is a hard problem with a soft(ware) solution”
    4. 4. Open Software Choices • GlusterFS • Open Stack (Swift) • NexentaStor • OS Nexus • Open-E • OpenStorage Software • Openfiler • FreeNAS • ………
    5. 5. Three Leading Open Architectures• Lustre/Gluster (bought by Red Hat) – HPC – the others don’t have the throughput – If something fails, it takes days to bring it back – Gluster fixed HA and failover and now they’ve been acquired…?• Open Stack (Swift) (numerous contributors) – Compute, Storage and Networking Management – Many firms are trying to commercialize it, Rackspace one of the largest – Pure cloud storage = pure block level replication, not file level – Still at least 6-12 months from being production ready• ZFS/NexentaStor (Nexenta) – OpenSolaris developed at Sun, Nexenta added GUI and redundancy for HA – Swiss army knife = rich feature set, highly configurable platform for unified storage management (iSCSI, NAS, DAS) – GlusterFS and Swift need dedicated server head node plus storage head nodes, NexentaStor only requires one head node
    6. 6. Case Study – Korea Telecom• Storage Cloud – mobile & online storage• NexentaStor for unified storage management• Cirrascale for consolidation (space savings), cooling efficiency (power savings and reliability), and lowest TCO – Decouple server and storage – Flexibility to configure/reconfigure on the fly
    7. 7. Case Study – Korea Telecom Problem• 6 x 4u storage chassis per rack – 24 x 2TB HDDs per chassis – 288TB per rack• Due to overheating, could not install more than 6 chassis in each rack• Each rack occupied 1 x 2 floor tiles• High cost of wasted infrastructure became a problem for the data center
    8. 8. Case Study – Korea Telecom Problem Resolved• Cirrascale provided Storage Bricks in a 1:4 Head Node to Storage Blade configuration – 12 x 2TB HDDs per Storage Blade – 96TB per Storage Brick – 14 Storage Bricks per rack – 1.3PB storage capacity per rack (compared to 288TB and lots of heat)• Reduced almost 5 racks to 1• Rack still had 8U of space available for switching and other equipment• All in the same two floor tiles
    9. 9. Vertical Cooling Technology Server Blades Close up of the air gap Blades x 12 between HDDs and blade chassis Fans x 8 Storage Blades Blades x 12 Air Flow Fans x 8 Ethernet and I/O Blades x 12 cabled from the backplane to the Cooling Fans foot of the rack. Fans x 8 I/O in separate axis than air flow. Horizontal 8u Switches Patch PanelsSerial Concentrators
    10. 10. Storage Systems “Storage Brick” is the base product  1 Head Node (Control Logic/Power Supply)  1 - 4 Storage Blades (12 – 48 HDDs)  12 - 36 Storage Bricks per frame 2PB per Rack in a 1:3 Configuration Flexible Configuration  Mix and match storage media, modify head node to HDD ratios, upgrade or downgrade server types  Rack or blade level redundancy depending on cost and application requirements Flexible Management  IPMI 2.0 support for integration with leading tools  Individual HDDs hot swappable
    11. 11. SB1315 7 SB1315 4 SB1315 1 SB1058 7 SB1058 4 SB1058 1 FAN FAN FAN FAN SB1058 7 SB1058 4 SB1058 1 SB1058 7 SB1058 4 SB1058 1 SB1315 8 SB1315 5 SB1315 2 FAN FAN FAN FAN SB1058 8 SB1058 5 SB1058 2 SB1058 8 SB1058 5 SB1058 2Front SB1058 8 SB1058 5 SB1058 2 FAN FAN FAN FAN SB1315 9 SB1315 6 SB1315 3 SB1058 9 SB1058 6 SB1058 3 SB1058 9 SB1058 6 SB1058 3 FAN FAN FAN FAN SB1058 9 SB1058 6 SB1058 3 SB1315 16 SB1315 13 SB1315 10 SB1058 16 SB1058 13 SB1058 10 FAN FAN FAN SB1058 16 SB1058 13 SB1058 10 SB1058 16 SB1058 13 SB1058 10 SB1315 17 SB1315 14 SB1315 11 FAN FAN FAN SB1058 17 SB1058 14 SB1058 11 SB1058 17 SB1058 14 SB1058 11Back • FAN Servers SB1058 17 SB1058 14 SB1058 11 FAN FAN FAN 18 FAN FAN SB1315 18 SB1315 15 SB1315 12 • Up to 1.9PB SB1058 18 SB1058 15 SB1058 12 SB1058 18 SB1058 15 SB1058 12 FAN FAN • Optional SSD FAN FAN SB1058 18 SB1058 15 SB1058 12 ratio at any time • 2.5” or 3.5” HDDs • 1,2,or 3TB SATA or SAS • 54 Disk Blades (648 Drives) • Reconfigure storage and compute • User defined performance and features Modular Design • Up to 2.2PB • 1:14 HeadNode to Storage Blade Ratio • Same 2 SKUs was before, with additional • 4 Servers SAS Switch Blade using LSI 6160 • 56 Disk Blades (672Drives)
    12. 12. Why Separate Head Node from Storage? • Easily configure the server independent of storage • Optimize the compute to storage configuration • Storage blades can be SSD, SAS, or SATA or any combination
    13. 13. Storage Server Capacity/Configurability Feature Cirrascale Standard 4U High Density 4U Rackmount RackmountFloor Tiles 2 2 2Height 87.5” 84.0” 84.0”Maximum Capacity 2PB 720TB 1.38PBFloor Raised or Concrete Raised or Concrete Raised or ConcreteMaximum Storage 672 drives 240 drives 432 drives Up to 3TB HDDs Up to 3TB HDDs Up to 3TB HDDs 14 Server heads 10 Server heads 10 Server headsConfiguration Granularity Drives 12 Drives 24 Drives 45 Drives Server:Drive Ratio 1:12, 1:24, 1:36, 1:48 1:24 1:45
    14. 14. Case Study: SAN for Cloud DeploymentCirrascale HW Configuration Dell HW Configuration• Head Node: • Head Node: PowerEdge R510 2U – Dual Xeon X5606 2.13GHz quad core CPUs – Dual Xeon X5530 2.4GHz quad core CPUs – 48GB DDR3-1333MHz ECC memory – 32GB DDR3-1333MHz ECC memory – 2 x 10GbE ports – 2 x 10GbE ports – 2 x 250GB, 7200 RPM 2.5” HDD (hot swap) – 2 x 250GB, 7200 RPM 3.5” HDD• Storage Blade: • Storage JBOD: MD1220 4U – 24 x 2.5” 300GB SAS 15K RPM HDDs – 24 x 2.5” 300GB SAS 10K HDDs 7.4 TB per Blade 7.4 TB per JBOD• Head Node to Storage Blade Ratio 1:2 • Head Node to JBOD Ratio 1:2 – 1 Head Node: 48 HDDs – 1 Head Node: 48 HDDsBottom line 2.6PB, 7 Racks, $2.4M 2.6PB, 27 Racks, $4.3M
    15. 15. Summary• Every storage architecture balances trade offs among: • Availability • Manageability • Backup/Recovery • Compliance • Performance • Scalability • Capacity • Density • Power Consumption • Cost• Compelling benefits among SAN, iSCSI, NAS, and DAS are driving Cloud Service Providers and enterprises to install converged and hybrid solutions• Open Software and Hardware platforms provide the most flexible, cost effective, future proof platforms for scale