Somalia flour lab nick


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Somalia flour lab nick

  1. 1. Nick UnderwoodBiology 12<br />Feeding Somalia- Which type of flour is the most beneficial?<br />The problem- Somalia is experiencing a severe drought that has caused many crops to fail. The already impoverished country is experiencing a severe famine.<br />Task- To provide the greatest help to the Somalian people by sending the type of flour that with be the most useful in preventing malnutrition. Cost is also a factor as there is a limited budget.<br />Guiding questions<br />Which types of nutrient deficiencies does starvation and malnutrition result in?<br />There are two basic types of malnutrition. The first and most important is protein-energy malnutrition--the lack of enough protein (from meat and other sources) and food that provides energy (measured in calories) which all of the basic food groups provide. This is the type of malnutrition that is referred to when world hunger is discussed.  The second type of malnutrition, also very important, is micronutrient (vitamin and mineral) deficiency. This is not the type of malnutrition that is referred to when world hunger is discussed, though it is certainly very important. <br />Micronutrients<br />“Quite a few  trace elements or micronutrients--vitamins and minerals--are important for health. 1 out of 3 people in developing countries are affected by vitamin and mineral deficiencies, according to the World Health Organization. Three, perhaps the most important in terms of health consequences for poor people in developing countries, are:<br />Vitamin A Vitamin A deficiency  can cause night blindness and reduces the body's resistance to disease. In children Vitamin A deficiency can also cause growth retardation. Between 100 and 140 million children are vitamin A deficient. An estimated 250,000 to 500 000 vitamin A-deficient children become blind every year, half of them dying within 12 months of losing their sight. (World Health Organization)<br />Iron Iron deficiency is a principal cause of anemia. Two billion people—over 30 percent of the world’s population—are anemic, mainly due to iron deficiency, and, in developing countries, frequently exacerbated by malaria and worm infections. For children, health consequences include premature birth, low birth weight, infections, and elevated risk of death. Later, physical and cognitive development are impaired, resulting in lowered school performance. For pregnant women, anemia contributes to 20 percent of all maternal deaths (World Health Organization).<br />Iodine Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) jeopardize children’s mental health– often their very lives. Serious iodine deficiency during pregnancy may result in stillbirths, abortions and congenital abnormalities such as cretinism, a grave, irreversible form of mental retardation that affects people living in iodine-deficient areas of Africa and Asia. IDD also causes mental impairment that lowers intellectual prowess at home, at school, and at work. IDD affects over 740 million people, 13 percent of the world’s population. Fifty million people have some degree of mental impairment caused by IDD (World Health Organization)”<br />Taken from “2011 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics by World Hunger Education Service”<br />Conclusions drawn- The greatest type of flour to send will be high in protein and calories. Since fat has the highest density of calories, the best type of flour will be high in fat as well as protein. Ideally the flour sent also will be a source of Vitamin A, iron, and iodine to prevent the health disorders that often result form a deficiency in these nutrients.<br />Which types of flour have the highest concentrations of protein and fat in a given mass (100g)? Are any of these flours also a source of Vitamin A, iron, or iodine?<br />Quinoa-<br />Fat-6g<br />Protein-14g<br />Vitamin A- 0%<br />Iron-28%<br />Wheat-<br />Fat-1g<br />Protein-15g<br />Vitamin A-0%<br />Iron-28%<br />Rice-<br />Fat-1g<br />Protein-6g<br />Vitamin A-0%<br />Iron-2%<br />Buckwheat-<br />Fat-3g<br />Protein-13g<br />Vitamin A-0%<br />Iron-23%<br />Corn-<br />Fat-4g<br />Protein-9g<br />Vitamin A-0%<br />Iron-40%<br />Soy-<br />Fat-21g<br />Protein-35g<br />Vitamin A-2%<br />Iron-35%<br />Rye-<br />Fat-1g<br />Protein-8g<br />Vitamin A-0%<br />Iron-10%<br />Facts taken from<br />Conclusions drawn- Soy flour, quinoa flour, and buckwheat flour seem to be the best choices when balancing the amounts of fat, protein, and iron in 100 grams of each flour. Soy flour seems to be the top choice in terms of valuable nutrients. It is also the only flour with a source of Vitamin A.<br />Which types of flour are the cheapest?<br /> Quinoa-$9/22 oz<br />Wheat-$2/22 oz<br />Rice-$3/22 oz<br />Buckwheat-$3/22 oz<br />Corn-$2/22 oz<br />Soy-$4/22 oz<br />Rye-$3/22 oz<br />All prices found on<br />Conclusions drawn- Quinoa flour is easily ruled out because it is very expensive compared to the other types of flour. Soy and corn flour have similar amounts of fat and protein, and corn flour is half the price of soy flour.<br />Do the lab results from class confirm the amounts of protein in fat in the top choices?<br />In our lab results, we found that soy flour has more than twice the amount of protein and fat in a given sample. Because it is MORE than twice, and soy flour is twice as expensive, the Somalians will gain more nutritional benefit per money spent with the soy flour.<br />Final choice- SOY FLOUR<br />I chose soy flour because it contains one of the highest concentrations of essential nutrients among the flours and because although it was significantly more expensive than corn flour, it had a much higher nutritional value in terms of amount of protein and fat, enough to justify the higher price.<br />Bibliography-<br /><br />Nextag Inc<br />Pictures from<br /><br /><br /><br /> 2011 World Hunger and Poverty Facts and Statistics<br />Black RE, Morris SS, Bryce J. "Where and why are 10 million children dying every year?" Lancet. 2003 Jun 28;361(9376):2226-34.<br />Black, Robert E, Lindsay H Allen, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Laura E Caulfield, Mercedes de Onis, Majid Ezzati, Colin Mathers, Juan Rivera, for the Maternal and Child Undernutrition Study Group Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. (Article access may require registration) The Lancet  Vol. 371, Issue 9608, 19 January 2008, 243-260.<br />Jennifer Bryce, Cynthia Boschi-Pinto, Kenji Shibuya, Robert E. Black, and the WHO Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group. 2005. "WHO estimates of the causes of death in children." Lancet ; 365: 1147–52.<br />Cafiero, Carlo and Pietro Gennari. 2011. The FAO indicator of the prevalence of undernourishment FAO<br />Caulfield LE, de Onis M, Blössner M, Black RE. Undernutrition as an underlying cause of child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and measles. American Journal of  Clinical Nutrition 2004; 80: 193–98.<br />Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion.  June 2004. "How have the world’s poorest fared since the early 1980s?" World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3341 Washington: World Bank.<br />de Onis, Mercedes, Edward A. Frongillo and Monika Blossner. 2000. "Is malnutrition declining? An analysis of changes in levels of child malnutrition since 1980." Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2000, : 1222–1233.<br />Food and Agriculture Organization, International Fund for Agricultural Development, World Food Program. 2002 "Reducing Poverty and Hunger, the Critical Role of Financing for Food, Agriculture, and Rural Development."<br />Food and Agriculture Organization. 2006. State of World Food Insecurity 2006<br />Food and Agriculture Organization. 2010. The state of Food Insecurity in the World 2010<br />Headey, Derek. 2011. “Was the Global Food Crisis Really a Crisis? Simulations versus Self-Reporting”, IFPRI Discussion Paper 01087.  <br />International Food Policy Research Institute. 2010. 2010 Global Hunger Index<br />Masset, Edoardo. 2011 In Press. A review of hunger indices and methods to monitor country commitment to fighting hunger Food Policy.<br />Oxford University Press. 1971. Oxford English Dictionary. Definition for malnutrition.<br />Pelletier DL, Frongillo EA Jr, Schroeder D, Habicht JP. The effects of malnutrition on child mortality in developing countries. Bulletin of the  World Health Organization 1995; 73: 443–48.<br />United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees. 2007.  Statistical Yearbook 2006 "Main Findings"<br />UNHCR 2008 Global Report 2008 "The Year in Review"<br />World Bank.  Understanding Poverty website <br />World Health Organization Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Childhood and Maternal Undernutition<br />